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in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 


of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 

Volume 76 

William R. Eberly, Editor 

Manchester College 
North Manchester, Indiana 

Spring Meeting 

April 22-24 
Wabash College 

Fall Meeting 

October 21-22 

Indiana Institute of Technology 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 

1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 
140 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Authors appear at the end of this volume, P. 441. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and corre- 
spondence concerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 
c/o Indiana State Library 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $5.00 
per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. 
They cannot be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the 

6. The Constitution and By-Lavi^s reprinted from v. 74 are available to 
members upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the 
various volumes can be supplied relatives and friends of deceased members 
by the Secretary. 

7. Officers vv^hose names and addresses are not known to correspondents 
may be addressed care of the State Library. Papers published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Science are abstracted or indexed in appropriate 
services listed here: 

Annotated Bibliograpliy of Economic Geology 

Bibliography of Agriculture 

Bibliography of Nortii American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemical Abstracts 

Chemisciies Zentralblntt 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metallurgical Abstracts > 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Psychological Abstracts 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torrey Bulletin 

Zoological Record 



Officers and Committees for 1966 7 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting 12 

Program of Special Symposium on Natural Features of Indiana .... 15 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 18 

Biological Survey Committee Report 21 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 24 

Annual Financial Report 26 

New Members for the Year 1966 28 

Annual Report, Junior Academy of Science 35 

Necrology 42 

Presidential Address 54 

"Whither the Indiana Academy of Science?", Carrolle A. Markle 

Special Sesquicentennial Symposium 63 


L. S. McClung — The History of Bacteriology in Indiana 65 

P. Weatherwax — Indiana Botany in Retrospect 71 

M. G. Mellon — Chemistry in Indiana at the State's Sesquicentennial 81 

S. S. ViSHER — A Brief History of Geography in Indiana 95 

W. N. Melhorn — A Century and a Half of Geology in Indiana 103 

W. E. Edington — Mathematics in Indiana, 1816 to 1966, from the 

Rule of Three to the Electronic Computer 116 

H. F. Henry — Physics: Its Development in Indiana 129 

M. S. Markle — The History of Plant Taxonomy and Ecology in 

Indiana 142 

T. M. BusHNELL— A History of Soil Science in Indiana 1816-1966. . . 151 

M. R. Garner — History of Zoology in Indiana 164 

B. Malin — A Note on the Academy's John Shepard Wright Memorial 

Library 171 


B. R. Huelsman — Brief Sketch of the Racial History of Selected 

Ethnic Groups of Siberia 173 

D. D. Despommier, M. Kajima, and B. S. Wostmann — Visualization 
of Antibody-binding Sites on the Larva of Trichinella spiralis 
using the Ferritin-conjugated Antibody Technique* 179 

C. L. Baldwin — A Proposed Universal Biohazards Warning Symbol* 179 
P. L. Knight, Jr., and B. S. Wostmann — Oxygen Consumption in 

the Adult Male Rat* 180 

T. J. Starr — A Cinemicrographic Record on the Effect of an Anti- 
mitotic Substance Derived from Marine Algae on Animal Tissue- 
Cultured Cells* 180 

B. S. Reddy and J. R. Pleasants — Effect of Whole-Body Irradiation 
on Intestinal Disaccharidases of Germ-free and Conventional 
Rats* 180 

R. G. Considine and T. J. Starr — Interferon Production in Gnoto- 

biotic and Conventional Mice* 181 

J. C. Pisane and R. J. Dov^^ney— The Possible Role of an Alpha-1- 

glycoprotein in Phagocytosis* 181 

*Abstract only 


4 Indiana Academy of Science 

D. R. Makulu and M. Wagner — Lysozyme Activity in the Serum, 

Saliva and Tears of Germfree and Conventional Rats and Mice 183 
T. F. Kellogg and B. S. Wostmann — Factors Affecting Steroid 

Excretion in the Rat 191 

B. S. Wostmann — Histidine Decarboxylase in the Adult Rat 193 


P. J. Conrad — Metabolism of Arbutin by Selected Fungi^'^ 199 

J. F. SCHAFER and H. L. Shands — Inheritance of Resistance of Barley 

to Covered Smut* 199 

J. F. ScHAFER, M. A. Ehrlich and H. G. Ehrlich — Ultrastructural 
Studies of Piiccinia granmiis Infection of Wheat Possessing Sr 
11 Resistance* 199 

S. N. PosTLETHWAiT — A Developmental Study of the Maize Mutant 

Silkless (sk)'' 200 

S. N. POSTLETHWAIT and R. Mills — The Photographing of Serial 

Microscope Sections on 16 mm Movie Film* 200 

J. S. CoARTNEY, W. R. Eisinger and D. J. Morre — An Analysis of 

Calcium-induced Inhibition of Cell Expansion* 200 

D. J. Morre, S. Kampmeyer and D. Hall — Preliminary Evidence for 
Secretion of Cell Dispersing Enzymes during Bean Petiole 
Abscission* 201 

D. Trumbull, S. Grove, D. J. Morre and S. Kampmeyer — Ultra- 
structural Changes during Secretion of a Polygalacturonase by 
the Fungus Fusarium moniliforme''' 202 

W. L. BiEHN — Physiology of Resistance of Glycine and Phaseolus 

Species to Fungi* 203 

C. M. Palmer — Nutrient Assimilation by Algae in Waste Stabiliza- 

tion Ponds 204 

S. N. Grove, D, J. Morre and C. E. Bracker — Dictyosomes in Vege- 
tative Hyphae of Pythium ultimum 210 

W. W. Bloom and K. E. Nichols — Some Responses by Members of 

the Marsileaceae Grown Under Field Conditions 215 

H. M. Leon-Gallegos — The Differential Effect of Mercuric Chloride 

on Growth of Certain Fungi Associated with Corn Seed 217 


A. G. Cook and C. R. Schulz — Reduction of Enamines with Sec- 
ondary Amines * 221 

A. G. Cook and W. M. Kosman — Homoconjugate Addition of Mor- 

pholine to Bicyclic Ketones* 221 

R. B. Callen — Ionization Potentials of Three Hydrides of Phos- 
phorus* 221 

R. K. Bretthaur and R. K. Haroz — The Association of Ribonuclease 

with Yeast Ribosomes* 222 

M. Martinez-Carrion and D. Tiemeier — Structural Differences 
between Heart Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial Glutamate Aspar- 
tate Transaminases* 222 

D. Meyers and F. Schmidt-Bleek — Injectionless Gas Chromatog- 

raphy* 222 

L. Darlage — An Inexpensive Low Voltage Paper Strip Electro- 
phoresis Apparatus 223 

R. E. Davis — Success in Freshman Chemistry. A Predictive Analysis 
of Chemistry 115 at Purdue with a Single Class of 1100 Students 
in 1962 227 

^Abstract only 

Table of Contents 5 

R. E. Davis and R. E. Kenson — Boron Hydrides. XII. The Syn- 
thesis and Infrared Spectra of NaBH.D and NaBD.H 236 


R. E. Henzlick — Studies on the Movement of Certain Radionuclides 

in Estuarine and Benthic Environments* 241 

C. K. Mayrose and M. K. Wright — Preliminary Studies of Vege- 

tation and Microclimates on 30-Year Old Abandoned Stripmines 

Lands- 241 

M. T. Jackson and P. R. Allen — Use of Large Scale Forest Maps 

for Teaching Forest Sampling Methodology 243 

T. W. Beers — Rapid Estimation of Forest Parameters Using Mona- 

real and Polyareal Combination Sampling 251 


G. E. Gould — The Garden Symphylan, Scutigerclla immacnlata 

(Newport) , a new Problem of Field Corn* 259 

B. E. Montgomery — Notes and Records of Indiana Odonata, 1955- 

1966* 259 

D. L. Matthev^, Jr. — Wheat Curl Mite Aceria tulipae (Keifer), a 

New State Record* 259 

R. T. Everly — Review of Factors Affecting the Abundance of the 

Corn Leaf Aphid 260 

R. E. Dolphin, M. L. Cleveland and T. E. Mouzin — Field Tests 

with Bacillus thurvngiensis Berliner in an Apple Orchard 265 

D. L. Schuder — Three Pine Weevils New to Indiana 270 

F. N. Young — Studies on the Color Patterns in Crosses of Tropis- 

ternus from Western Mexico with Other Color Forms of the 
Tropistenius collaris Complex (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) .... 272 

B. M. Dancis — Experimental Hybridization of an Insular Form of 
Tropistenius collaris (Fabricus) with Mainland Subspecies 
(Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) 279 

J. E. Wappes — An Indiana Record of Amhlyomma americanum (L.) 284 

M. E. Montgomery and G. L. Ward — Aquatic Beetles of a Northern 

Indiana Lake 286 

R. T. Huber and J. V. Osmun — Insects and Other Arthropods of 

Economic Importance in Indiana During 1966 291 

N. M. DowNiE and C. E. WniTE^Records of Indiana Coleoptera, III 308 

Geology and Geography 

R. R. French — Geology and Mining of Gypsum in Southwestern 

Indiana 318 

R. Miles — Perennial and Ephemeral Streams and Lakes Map of 

Indiana 323 

A. F. Schneider and G. H. Johnson — Late Wisconsin Glacial History 

of the Area Around Lake Maxinkuckee 328 

H. E. Kane3 — Some General Aspects of the Physical Geography of 
the Southeastern Portion of the Canon City Embayment, Colo- 
rado 335 

T. F. Barton — Notes on a New Pattern and Process of Physical City 

Development: The Web Theory 339 

G. W. Webb — Factors Affecting the Location of Steam-Electric Gen- 

erating Plants of the American Electric Power System 347 

D. R. Crowe and J. R. Norwine— An Example of Consumer Control 

of Location: Service Stations 353 

*Abstract only 

6 Indiana Academy of Science 


0. L. Kern and K. Miyakawa — Teaching the Feed-Back Theory, II* 357 
K. Miyakawa — Suggestive Approach to Unified Theory* 357 

D. E. Tiano and J. F. Houlihan — Comparison of Two Techniques 

for Determining Linear Absorption Coefficients 358 

Plant Taxonomy 

T. R. Mertens and A. D. Savage^ — A Preliminary Investigation of 
Polygonmn, sect. Folygonuni (Avicularia), in Wisconsin and 
Indiana* 367 

G. C. Marks — Some Taxonomic Problems with Viburnum dentatiim 

and Observations of Dlephilia ciiiata 368 

Soil Science 

J. M. Smith — Soils Portion of Geology Course* 371 

P. A. Miller and J. E. Newman — Conductive Heat Exchanges at 

Terrestrial Surfaces as Influenced by Changing Air Density. 372 

E. J. MoNKE and D. M. Edwards — Electrokinetic Measurements of 

Colloidal-Laden Flow Through a Sand Column 377 

R. M. HOFFER, C. J. JoHANNSEN and M. F. Baumgardner — Agri- 
cultural Applications of Remote Multispectral Sensing 386 


R. E. MuMFORD — New Distribution Records for Sorex longirostris 

and Citellus tridece'inlineatiis in Indiana* 397 

E. H. Row, P. V. Malven, D. L. Hill and J. L. Albright — Intra- 
mammary Pressures in Response to Graded Levels of Intra- 
venous Oxytocin* 397 

P. F. Oliver — Some Aspects of Mating and Egg Development in 

Betta splendevs, the Siamese Fighting Fish* 397 

W. J. Eversole and D. J. Thompson — Inhibition of Fertility with an 

Anticonvulsant (Elipten) in Female Rats* 398 

D. J. Thompson and W. J. Eversole — Effects of Amino-glutethimide 

on the Ovulatory Process in the Albino Rat* 398 

M. E. Jacobs — Beta-alanine Utilization in Ebony and Non-ebony 

Drosophila melajwgaster'''' 399 

G. H. Pfaltzgraff — A Preliminary Study of the Gastrotricha of 

Northern Indiana 400 

T. A. Cole and J. B. Snodgrass — Alcohol Dehydrogenases in the 

Pupae of Drosophila mclanogaster 405 

A. E. Reynolds — ^A Comparative Study of Plethodon glutinosus and 

Plethodon jordani (melaventris) with Respect to External Form 408 

B. C. Troyer and J. H. Hamon — Preliminary Studies of the Succes- 

sion of Bacterial Genera Involved in the Maceration of Some 

Birds 421 

W. C. Gunther — Effects of Embryonic Temperature Stress on 

Handedness and Variability in Chicks 426 

J. O. Whitaker, Jr. and K. W. Corthum, Jr. — Fleas of Vigo County, 

Indiana 431 

Instructions for Contributors 441 

Index 443 

* Abstract only 

Officers and Committees 


President Carrolle A. Markle, Earlham College 

Honorary President Richard A. Laubengayer, Wabash College 

President Elect Alton A. Lindsey, Purdue University 

Secretary Clarence F. Dineen, Saint Mary's College 

Treasurer Frank Guthrie, Rose Polytechnic Institute 

Editor William R. Eberly, Manchester College 

Director of Public Relations . . James Clark, State Entomology Department 


Anthropology Emily J. Blasingham, Loyola University 

Bacteriology Morris Wagner, University of Notre Dame 

Botany. . Jonathan N. Roth, Goshen College 

Chemistry Robert E. Davis, Purdue University 

Ecology Donald E. Miller, Ball State University 

Entomology Ray T. Everly, Purdue University 

Geology and Geography Lee Guernsey, Indiana State University 

History of Science . Law^rence H. Baldinger, University of Notre Dame 

Physics Robert Wise, Purdue University (Fort Wayne) 

Plant Taxonomy Thomas R. Mertens, Ball State University 

Soil Science James M. Smith, Anderson College 

Zoology Russell E. Mumford, Purdue University 


(Past Presidents, 

*Baldinger, L. H. 

Bishop, C. F. 

Blasingham, E. J. 

Breneman, W. R. 
* Christy, 0. B. 

Clark, James 
*Cleland, R. F. 

Coats, Nellie 

Cook, D. J. 

Daily, F. K. 
*Daily, W. A. 

Davis, R. E. 
*Day, H. G. 
*Degering, E. F. 

Dineen, C. F. 

Eberly, W. R. 
*Edington, W. E. 
*Edwards, P. D. 

Everly, R. T. 

,* Current Officers, Divi 

Committee Chairmen) 
-Girton, R. E. 
*Guard, A. T. 

Guernsey, Lee 

Guthrie, Frank 
*Haenisch, E. L. 

Heniser, Virgil 

Hoffman, W. E. 

Humbles, Jack 
^Johnson, W. H. 

Kaufman, Karl L. 

Kessel, W. G. 
*Lilly, Eli 

Lindsey, A. A. 

List, J. C. 

Markle, C. A. 
*Markle, M. S. 
*Mellon, M. G. 
*Meyer, A. H. 
*Michaud, H. H. 

sional Chairmen, 

Miller, D. R. 

* Morgan, W. P. 
Mumford, R. E. 

* Porter, C. L. 
*Powell, H. M. 

Smith, J. M. 

Stockton, Sister M, 

*Visher, S. S. 

Wagner, Morris 
^Wallace, F. N. 
^Weathei'wax, P. 

Webster, J. D. 
*Welch, W. H. 
*Welcher, F. J. 

Winslow, D. R. 

Wise, Robert 

Youse, H. R. 

8 Indiana Academy of Science 


President: Markle, C. A.; President Elect: Lindsey, A. A.; Secre- 
tary: Dineen, C. F.; Treasurer: Guthrie, Frank; Editor: Eberly, W. R.; 
Director of Public Relations: Clark, James; Retiring- President: Welcher, 
F. J.; Director of Junior Academy: Winslow, D, R.; Library Committee: 
Coats, Nellie; Program Committee: Hoffman, W. E.; Chairman, Youth 
Activities: Heniser, Virgil; Relation of Academy to State: Daily, W. A. 


Academy Foundation Trustees: Morgan, W. P. (Chairman), Indiana 
Central College (1966); Daily, W. A., Lilly Co., Indianapolis (1967). 

Bonding Trustees: Cook, D. J. (Chairman), DePauw University; Brooker, 
R. M., Indiana Central College. 

Research Grants: Weatherwax, P. (Chairman), Indiana University (1966) ; 
Behrens, 0. K., Indianapolis (1969); Hart, J. F., Indiana University 
(1967); Michaud, H. H., Purdue University (1968); Welch, W. H., 
DePauw University (1970). 

(President an ex officio member of all committees) 

Academy Representative on the Council of A.A.A.S.: Johnson, W. H., 
Wabash College. 

Auditing Committee: List, J. C. (Chairman), Ball State University; 
Cooper, R. H., Ball State University. 

Youth Activities Committee: Heniser, Virgil (Chairman), Indiana Uni- 
versity; Bateman, Jack, Ball State University; Brooker, Robert, 
Indiana Central College; Colglazier, Jerry, State Department of 
Public Instruction; Crider, Mrs. Elizabeth, George Washington High 
School, Indianapolis; Davis, John, South Bend School; Kaufman, 
Karl, Butler University; Kessel, William, Indiana State University; 
Kirkman, Gerald, North High School, Evansville; Lefler, Ralph, 
Purdue University; Middendorf, Rev. Richard J., S.J., Brebeuf School, 
Indianapolis; Winslow, Donald, University High School, Bloomington. 
Ex officio: Barton, Mrs. Robert, Crawfordsville; Reed, Miss Helen, 
Manual High School, Indianapolis. 

Indiana Science Talent Search: Heniser, Virgil (Chairman), Indiana 
University; Baldinger, L. H., University of Notre Dame; Green, 
Charles, Purdue University; Henry, Robert, Wabash College; 
Johnson, Charles, DePauw University; Zimmack, Harry, Ball State 

Indiana Science Fairs: State Coordinator, Kaufman, K. L., Butler Uni- 
versity; East Central Regional, Doeden, Gerald E., Ball State Univer- 
sity; South Central Regional, Gibbs, R. K., Indiana University; 
Tri-State Regional, Hartman, Paul, Evansville College; Southeastern 
Regional, Hill, Brian, Indiana University ( Jeffersonville) ; North- 
eastern Tri-State Regional, Hippensteel, Peter A., Tri-State College; 

Officers and Committees 9 

Lafayette Regional, Keim, Wayne, Purdue University; Northwestern 
Indiana Regional, Koester, A. C, Valparaiso University; Central 
Regional, Morris, Howard A., Indiana University Medical Center; 
West Central Regional, Uhlhorn, K. W., Indiana State University; 
Northern Indiana Regional, Weimer, H. R. (Director), Manchester 
College, Garber, James (Co-director), Manchester College; North- 
eastern Regional, Wise, R. E., Purdue University (Fort Wayne); 
Calumet Regional, Flannery, P. Vincent, Purdue University 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science Council: Winslow, Donald (Director), 
University School, Bloomington; Francis, Sister Marian, Reitz 
Memorial High School, Evansville (1968); Hunnings, Keith, New 
' Haven High School, New Haven (1969); Michaud, Howard (Chair- 
man), Purdue University; Saxman, F. Ray, Hartford City High 
School, Hartford City (1970); Souers, Charles, University High 
School, Bloomington (1970); Steinkamp, Erwin, New Albany High 
School, New Albany (1967). 

Visiting Scientist's Steering Committee: Kessel, W. G. (Director), Indi- 
ana State University; Cooper, Robert H., Ball State University; 
Crider, Mrs. Elizabeth, Washington High School, Indianapolis; 
Guthrie, Frank A., Rose Polytechnic Institute; List, James C, Ball 
State University; Litweiler, Ernest, John Adams High School, 
South Bend. 

Library: Coats, Nellie (Chairman), Indiana State Library; Burton, Mrs. 
Lois, Indiana State Library; Lilly, Eli, Eli Lilly and Co.; Lindsey, 
Alton A., Purdue University; Malin, Bernard, Eli Lilly and Co. 

Program Committee: Hoffman, Warren E. (Chairman), Indiana Institute 
of Technology; Carr, Charles; Miyakawa, Koza; Sprunger, Meredith. 

Publication Committee: Eberly, W. R. (Chairman), Manchester College; 
Clark, James A., Department of Conservation; Frey, David G., Indi- 
ana University; Lindsey, A. A., Purdue University; Pelton, John, 
Butler University; Wayne, W. J., Indiana University. 

Relation of Academy to State: Daily, W. A. (Chairman), Eli Lilly Co.; 
Clark, James A., Department of Conservation; Dineen, Clarence F., 
Saint Mary's College; Eberly, W. R., Manchester College; Wells, 
Herman B, Indiana University Chancellor. 

Membership: Stockton, Sister M. Rose (Chairman), Marian College; 
Bakker, G. R., Earlham College; Behrens, Otto, Eli Lilly and Co.; 
Hayden, J. F., Pitman-Moore; Bick, G. H., Saint Mary's College; 
Burger, W. L., Franklin College; Burns, Maurice, Marion College; 
Carlson, K. H., Valparaiso University; Coats, Nellie, Indiana State 
Library; Coleman, R. H., Evansville College; Cummins, G. B., Purdue 
University; Danehy, J. P., Notre Dame University; Edmundson, F. K., 
Indiana University; Feldman, Herman, Indiana University (Gary 
Campus); Forbes, Mrs. Olive E., Oakland City College; Frieders, 
Rev. Fabian, OSB, St. Meinrad College; Gammon, J. R., DePauw 

10 Indiana Academy of Science 

University; Gunther, W. C, Valparaiso University; Guthrie, F. A., 
Rose Polytechnic Institute; Hale, R. E., Huntington College; Hoffman, 
W. E., Indiana Institute of Technology; Hopp, W. B., Indiana State 
University; Hurt, W. R., Indiana University Museum; Johnston, 
E. R., Purdue University Center,, Indianapolis; Kent, R. L., Indiana 
Central College; Kohnke, Helmut, Purdue University; Leighly, Hollis 
P., Vincennes University; Mayo, Mrs. Marie J., Anderson College; 
Miller, D. E., Ball State University; Miller, G. R., Goshen College; 
Moussa, M. A., State Entomology Department; Murphy, Rev. Michael, 
CSC, Notre Dame University; Nussbaum, Elmer, Taylor University; 
Orpurt, P. A., Manchester College; Patton, J. B., Indiana University; 
Pelton, J. F., Butler University; Petty, Robert, Wabash College; 
Postlethwait, S. N., Purdue University; Reynolds, L. M., Ball State 
University; Schneider, A. F., Indiana Geological; Shanks, M. C, 
Purdue University; Siegrist, Rev. J., St. Joseph's College; White, 
Dr. H, K., Hanover College; Zeller, F. J., Indiana University; 
Zygmunt, W. A., Meade-Johnson. 

Fellows: Zoology: Breneman, W. R., Indiana University (1967); Anthro- 
pology: Driver, H. E., Indiana University (1966); Bacteriology: 
Fraser, Dean, Indiana University (1967); Botany: Welch, W. H., 
DePauw University (1966); Chemistry: Seymour, K. M., Butler 
University (1967); Entomology: Chandler, Leland, (Chairman), Pur- 
due University (1966); Geology and Geography: Moulton, Benjamin, 
Indiana State University (1967); History and Science: Daily, F. K., 
Butler University (1968); Mathematics: Carlson, K. H., Valparaiso 
University (1968); Physics: Conklin, R. L., Hanover College (1968); 
Plant Taxonomy: Heiser, C. B., Indiana University (1968); Psychol- 
ogy: Asher, E. J., Purdue University (1966); Soil Science: Barber, 
S. A., Purdue University (1967); Ecology: Miller, D. E., Ball State 
University (1968). 

Resolutions: Baldinger, L. H. (Chairman), Notre Dame University; Day, 
H. G., Indiana University; Guard, A. T., Purdue University. 

Invitations: Youse, H. R. (Chairman), DePauw University; Cooper, R. H., 
Ball State University; Peterson, Q. R., Wabash College; Stephenson, 
W. K., Earlham College; Young, F. N., Indiana University. 

Necrologist: Daily, F. K., Butler University. 

Parliamentarian: Weatherwax, Paul, Indiana University. 


Biological Survey Committee: Webster, J. D. (Chairman), Hanover 
College; Chandler, Leland, Purdue University; Heiser, C. B., Indiana 
University; Mumford, Russell, Purdue University; Webster, G. L., 
Purdue University; Welch, W. H., DePauw University; Young, Frank, 
Indiana University. 

Sesquicentennial Committee: Lindsey, A. A. (Chairman), Purdue Univer- 
sity; Cleland, Ralph E., Indiana University; Coats, Nellie M., Indiana 
State Library; Eberly, W. R., Manchester College; Guthrie, Ned, 

Officers and Committees 11 

Hanover College; Hoffman, W. E., Indiana Institute of Technology; 
Johnson, W. H., Wabash College. Ex officio: Dineen, C. F., Saint 
Mary's College; Markle, C. A., Earlham College. 


Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 


April 21, 1966 
President Carrolle A. Markle was unable to attend the meeting due 
to the illness of her husband, Dr. M. S. Markle. President-Elect Alton A. 
Lindsey presided and called the Executive Committee Meeting to order 
at 7:30 p.m. in Baxter Hall, Wabash College. Twenty-eight members 
attended the meeting. 

The treasurer, Frank A. Guthrie, submitted the financial report for 
the period Januray 1, 1966 to April 21, 1966. The total balance of ail 
accounts was $13,730.26 as of January 1, 1966. The income during the 
reported period was $31,327.48 and expended was $18,700.75. Thus the 
net balance as of April 21, 1966 was $26,266.09. 

Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, the chairman of the Indiana Sesquicentennial 
Committee, outlined the plans of the committee and reported on the 
progress to date. The papers read on April 22 and 23, 1966, on Natural 
Features of Indiana will be published in a Sesquicentennial Volume. 

The other members of the committee were Ralph E. Cleland, Indiana 
University; Nellie M. Coats, State Library; Clarence F. Dineen, Saint 
Mary's College; William R. Eberly, Manchester College; Ned Guthrie, 
Hanover College; Edward Haenisch, Wabash College; Warren E. Hoff- 
man, Indiana Institute of Technology; Willis Johnson, Wabash College; 
Carolle A. Markle, Earlham College; and William J. Wayne, Indiana 
Geological Survey. 

A motion was approved to give free of charge a Sesquicentennial 
Volume to each member of The Academy as of July 1, 1966, and to every 
high school library in the State of Indiana. The projected expenses of 
the Sesquicentennial publication and the high cost of publishing Volume 
74 of the Proceedings were discussed. A motion that the total cost of 
the Sesquicentennial Volume and the deficit incurred in publishing 
Volume 74 of the Proceedings be paid from the John S. Wright Fund 
of The Academy Endowment Fund was approved. 

The Editor, William R. Eberly, reported on the problems of editing 
the Proceedings and requested support of the Executive Committee to 
enforce the Instructions for Contributions as published in Volume 74, 

Dr. Paul Weatherwas, Chairman of the Research Grants Committee, 
reported that all money had been expended. The Treasurer's report indi- 
cated an additional $1,152.00 as available. The Research Grant Com- 
mittee planned to process additional requests for funds. 

The Visiting Scientist Program, under the direction of Dr. William 
G. Kessel, has had a very successful academic year, 


Minutes of the Executive Committee 13 

The chairman of the Library Committee, Miss Nellie M. Coats, re- 
ported that $10,000.00 was received March 31, 1966, from Lilly Endow- 
ment, Inc. which was in full payment of an additional grant to under- 
write acquisitions and services of the John Shepard Wrig-ht Memorial 

An invitation from Indiana State Unversity to be host for the Fall 
Meeting in 1970 was approved. Willis Johnson, Wabash College, re- 
quested that the Invitations Committee reconsider the location of the 
Fall Meeting in 1967, which had been set at Wabash College. The 
Academy is scheduled to meet in 1968 at Ball State University. 

In accordance with Article II (Membership), Section 4 (Emeritus 
Members) of the Constitution, Mr. Dorsey P. Marting petitioned the 
Executive Committee for emeritus status. The petition was approved. 

A motion was approved to have the Executive Committee of The 
Academy recommend two members of The Academy for appointment by 
the Governor to the State Board of Nature Preserves. This motion was 
in accordance with a proposed Bill for an Act creating a State Board 
of Nature Preserves, establishing a State System of Nature Preserves 
and providing for the acquisition, control and management of the same. 

The chairman of the Wabash College Committee for arrangements, 
Willis Johnson, reported all preparations had been made for the sessions 
of papers and for the Dinner Meeting of The Academy. The chairman 
of the Program Committee, Warren E. Hoffman, stated that plans were 
progressing nicely. 

Approved October 21, 1966 Clarence F. Dineen, Secretary 


April 22, 1966 
Following the dinner in the Student Center of Wabash College, the 
formal business session was called to order by the President-Elect, Alton 
A. Lindsey, at 7:30 p.m. Dr. Lindsey welcomed the members of The 
Academy and introduced the officers and guests. 

The secretary presented ninety-one applications to The Academy for 
membership. The applications were approved. 

A motion that the total cost of the Indiana Academy of Science 
Sesquicentennial Volume and the deficit from the publication of Volume 
74 of the Proceedings be paid from the John S. Wright Fund of The 
Academy Endowment Fund was approved. 

Dr. Donald Carmony, chairman of Indiana Sesquicentennial Com- 
mission spoke on the significance of the work of the Indiana Academy 
of Science. Rev. Ralph McFadden, 2nd District Congressional Candidate, 
spoke on the topic, "Remarks on Dialogue between Science and Politics." 
The Academy address entitled, ^'Conservation in Indiana," was given by 
Thomas E. Dustin, President, Engineering Writers, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 
Mr. Dustin, Indiana Conservationist of the Year for 1965, outlined the 
history and the future goals of conservation in Indiana. 

The following resolutions were read by A. T. Guard, of the Resolu- 
tions Committee: "1) Be it resolved that the Indiana Academy of 
Science in session at Wabash College expresses its sincere thanks and 
appreciation to the local program committee, consisting of Dr. Willis 
Johnson, Chairman, Dr. Edward Haenisch, and Dr. Eliot Williams for 
the excellent arrangement which they made for our meetings on the 
Wabash College Campus. We ask them to convey our thanks to Presi- 
dent Shearer. 2) Bt it resolved that The Academy wishes to express its 
appreciation to the Sesquicentennial Committee of The Academy for the 
arrangement of this program which has enabled The Academy, so 
uniquely and interestingly, to celebrate this milestone in the history of 
Indiana. We wish also to thank the many individuals who have partici- 
pated in the program and who have prepared papers for the special 
publication of The Academy. 3) Our president, Dr. Carrolle Markle and 
her husband, Dr. M. C. Markle, are unable to be with us because of his 
illness. We regret his illness and hope he will soon be improved in 
health. Also, Dr. Richard Laubengayer who has sei*ved us so well as 
editor for The Academy during more than ten years is unable to be in 
attendance because of illness. We wish for him a speedy recovery." 

Approved October 21, 1966 Clarence F. Dineen, Secretary 



Friday, April 21 

Session A, Baxter Hall 

John Pelton, Butler University, presiding 

9:30 Fleshy Fungi 

J. F. Hennen, Indiana University 

9:50 Plant Diseases 

R. J. Green, Jr., Purdue University 

10:00 Algae 

W. A. Daily and Fay Daily, Lilly Research Laboratory and 
Butler University 

10:30 Lower Green Land Plants 

Winona H. Welch, DePauw University 

10:50 Higher Plants 

C. H. Heiser, Jr., Indiana University 

11:10 Forestry 

W. C. Bramble, Purdue University 

Concurrent Session A, Baxter Hall 
R. H. Cooper, Ball State University, presiding 

2:00 Plant Communities 

R. 0. Petty and M. T. Jackson, Wabash College and Indiana 
State University 

2:20 Limnology of Lakes and Streams 

D. G. Frey, Indiana University 

2:40 Free-living Invertebrates other than Insects 
F. N. Young, Indiana University 

3:00 Animal Parasites 

R. M. Cable, Purdue University 

3:20 Origin and Composition of the Insect Fauna 
L. Chandler, Purdue University 

3:40 Insect Pests of Forest, Farm and Home 

J. V. Osmun and R. L. Giese, Purdue University 
Concurrent Session B, Waugh Hall 
J. L. Guernsey, Indiana State University, presiding 

2:00 Bedrock Geology 

R. C. Gutschick, Universit yof Notre Dame 

2:20 Glacial Geology 

W. J. Wayne, Indiana Geological Survey 

2:40 Physiography 

A. F. Schneider, Indiana Geological Survey 

3:00 Soils 

H. P. Ulrich, Purdue University 


16 Indiana Academy of Science 

3:20 Surface Waters 

M. Hale, U. S. Geological Survey 
3:40 Groundwater 

C. H. Bechert, Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
4:00 Speleology and Karst Hydrology 

R. L. Powell, Indiana Geological Survey 

Dinner, 6:30 p.m.. Student Center 

Carolle Markle, President, presiding 

Special Guest: Donald Carmony, Chairman, Indiana Sesquicentennial 


"Remarks on the Dialogue between Science and Politics," 

by Ralph McFadden, Lafayette, 2nd District 

Congressional Candidate 

Address, ''Conservation in Indiana," by Thomas E. Dustin, President, 

Engineering Writers, Fort Wayne, President, Indiana Isaac Walton 

League, and Indiana Conservationist of the Year for 1965 

Saturday, April 23 

Concurrent Session A, Baxter Hall 

W. R. Eberly, Manchester College, presiding 

9:00 Cave Fauna 

C. H. Krekeler and E. C. Williams, Jr., Valparaiso University 
and Wabash College 
9:20 Fish 

J. R. Gammon and S. D. Gerking, DePauw University and 
Indiana University 
9:40 Amphibians and Reptiles 

S. A. Minton, Jr., Indiana University School of Medicine 
10:00 Birds 

J. D. Webster, Hanover College 
10:20 Mammals 

R. E. Mumford, Purdue University 
10:40 Cultural History of the Indians 

J. H. Kellar, Indiana University 
11:00 Racial History of the Indians 

G. K. Neumann, Indiana University 

Concurrent Session B, Waugh Hall 
A. H. Meyer, Valparaiso University, presiding 
9:00 Mineral Resources 

C. E. Wier and J. B. Patton, Indiana Geological Survey 
9:20 Climate 

L. A. Schaal, State Climatologist, Purdue University 
9:40 Bioclimate 

J. E. Newman, Purdue University 
10:00 Changing Patterns in Agriculture 

H, Kohnke and L. S, Robertson, Purdue University 

Minutes of the Executive Committee 17 

10:20 Changing Patterns in Population 

B. Moulton, Indiana State University 
10:40 The State Parks 

H. H. Michaud, Purdue University 
The above papers are published by the Academy as a special Sesqui- 
centennial volume of 630 pages titled NATURAL FEATURES OF 
INDIANA (A. A. Lindsey, editor). This attractive blue and gold hard- 
bound book is available for $4.00 from the Indiana Academy of Science, 
c/o Indiana State Library, 140 N. Senate, Indianapolis 46204. 


Indiana Institute of Technology, Fort Wayne, Indiana 

October 21, 1966 
The Executive Committee Meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science 
was held on October 21, 1966, in the Library Conference room at Indiana 
Institute of Technology. The meeting was called to order at 7:30 p.m. by 
Dr. Carrolle A. Markle, president of The Academy. Thirty-two members 
were present. 

The minutes of the Executive Committee and the General Session 
of the Spring Meeting of The Academy (April 21-23, 1966) at Wabash 
College were approved. 

Treasurer— Dr. Frank A. Guthrie reported The Academy Funds as 

January 1, 1966 balance $13,730.26 

Income to October 20, 1966 67,000.25 

Expended to October 20, 1966 60,698.28 

Balance October 20, 1966 20,032.23 

The Editor — Dr. William R. Eberly discussed various aspects of 
publishing the Proceedings. After a lengthy discussion the following 
three motions were approved: 

1. That the statement for contributions to the Proceedings (page 
330, Volume 75) which states *'When a paper is signed by more than 
one author, all must be members in good standing," be changed to read, 
"When a paper is signed by more than one author, at least one of the 
authors must be a member." Change effective with Volume 76 of the 

2. That the statement for contributions to the Proceedings (page 
330, Volume 75) which states, "Only papers which have been presented 
in person at the meeting can be accepted," be changed to read, "Only 
papers which have been read at the meeting can be accepted." Change 
effective with Volume 76 of the Proceedings. 

3. The Publication Committee shall study the need and desirability 
of The Academy publishing monographs and shall submit a report to 
the Executive Committee at the 1967 Spring Meeting. 

Trustees of The Academy Foundation — William A. Daily reported: 
in the Academy Research Fund, balance as of October 1, 1965 — $787.18; 
disbursements as of November 23, 1965 — $300.00; receipts as of Septem- 
ber 30, 1966— $705.20; ending balance, September 30, 1966— $1,192.38. 
In the John S. Wright Fund, balance as of October 1, 1965— $7,371.83; 
total receipts as of October 30, 1966— $8,725.00; Indiana National Bank 
Fee — $602.56; payment for Volume 74 deficit and Sesquicentennial Vol- 
ume — $22,000.00; total disbursements as of September 30, 1966 — 


Minutes of the Executive Committee 19 

$22,602.56; to be transferred from income to principal in 1967 — 

Relation of The Academy to the State — William A. Daily stated that 
The Academy has requested an increase of $1,500.00 per annum for the 
next biennium (1967-69). 

The Library Committee — Mrs. Lois Burton undertook the supervi- 
sion of a project carrying- out the purposes of a third Lilly Endowment 
grant, $10,000.00 made in March 1966, to underwrite the completion of 
files and to bind materials so acquired. 

Research Grants Committee — Dr. Paul Weatherwax, chairman, re- 
ported two grants were made since the 1966 Spring Meeting which 
brought the total grants for 1966 to $1,594.00. 

Youth Activities Committee — Dr. Virgil Heniser summarized the 
activities. There are forty-three clubs affiliated with the Junior Academy. 
In addition to the annual meeting with the Indiana Academy of Science, 
the Junior Academy sponsored one regional meeting at Arlington High 
School in Indianapolis. Other regional meetings are being planned. 
Forty-seven Indiana high school seniors completed entries for the 1966 
National Science Talent Search. The 1965 Regional and National Science 
Fairs were reported to be more successful than in previous years. Six- 
teen Indiana students won awards at the International Science Fair in 
Dallas, May 11-14, 1966. Dr. Kaufman stated that the Indiana Science 
Educational Fund, Incorporated, has been formally organized. The direc- 
tor of The Visiting Scientist Pl-ogram reported the usual success of the 
program. There were 201 visits during the academic year 1965-66. The 
total for the seven consecutive years (1959-1966) was 1,469. 

Membership Committee — Sister Mary Rose reported numerous activi- 
ties aimed to increase the Academy membership. 

Invitations Committee — Chairman Howard R. Youse recommended 
that The Academy accept the offer of Indiana University to host the 
1967 meetings. The offer was received from President Stahr and Dean 
Merritt of Indiana University. A motion was approved. The schedule 
of future meetings is as follows: 1967 Indiana University; 1968 Ball 
State University; 1970 Indiana State University. The committee is 
taking necessary action to obtain meeting places for 1969 and 1971. 

Sesquicentennial Committee — Chairman A. A. Lindsey reported that 
the Academy received 5,048 copies of Natural Features of hidiana from 
the printers on July 30, 1966. To date, 2,153 copies were sold, and 1,737 
complementary copies were distributed to Indiana Academy of Science 
members, science clubs, high school libraries, officials, authors, and re- 
viewers, for a total disposed of 3,890. The remaining 1,158 copies are 
available for sale through the State Library. 

Public Relations Director, James Clark stated that the Sesquicen- 
tennial publication of the Academy, Natural Features of Indiana, re- 
ceived excellent publicity. 

20 Indiana Academy of Science 

Fellows Committee — Dr. Leland Chandler, chairman, listed the fol- 
lowing members as nominated as Fellows in The Indiana Academy of 

Dr. James List 

Dr. Wesley Hurt, Jr. 

Dr. Lee Guernsey 

Dr. William Eberly 

Dr. Clarence Dineen 

A motion was approved to accept these members as Fellows of the 

In accordance with Article II (Membership), Section 4 (Emeritus 
Members) of the Constitution, Mr. Raymond Elwood Girton petitioned 
the Executive Committee for emeritus status. The petition was approved. 
A motion to suspend the constitution and grant emeritus status to Frank 
N. Wallace was approved. Also, the minutes of Volume 75 (Page 12) 
of the Proceedings has a printing error: The name Dr. Paul S. Rickett 
should be corrected to read Dr. Paul S. Prickett. 

A motion to accept the request of the Indiana Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Meteorological Society to become affiliated with the Indiana Academy 
of Science was approved. 

President Carolle Markle appointed the following members of a 
special Natural Areas Committee: 
Robert Petty, Chairman 
William Wayne 
Carl Krekeler 
Rev. Damian Schmelz 
Benjamin Moulton. 

Dr. Warren E. Hoffman, Program Chairman of the host institution, 
Indiana Institute of Technology, discussed the plans for the meetings 
of the Senior Academy and Junior Academy on Saturday, October 22, 

The meeting was adjourned at 10:00 p.m. 

Approved October 22, 1966 Clarence F. Dineen, Secretary 

Biological Survey Committee, J. Dan Webster, Chairman 

Publications of 1965-1966 

Dealing with the flora and fauna of Indiana 

All groups of 
organisms and all 

Undsey, A. A. et al. 1966. Naturat features of Titdiana. 

Indiana Academy ol; Science, Indianapolis, rj97p. 

Vascular Plants: 

Allen, P. and Jackson, M. T. 1967. Use of large scale forest 
maps for teaching forest sampling methodology. Proc. 
Ind. Acad, of Sci. for 1966. In press. 

Beers, T. W. 1967. Rapid estimation of forest parameters 
using monareal and polyareal combination sampling. Proc. 
Ind. Acad, of Sci. for 1966. In press. 

Marks, G. C. 1967. Some taxonomic problems with Vihurnnm 
(lentatn-yn and some observations of Blephilia cilia ta. Proc. 
Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1966. In press. 

Mayrose, Carolyn K. and Wright, Marylin K. 1967. Pre- 
liminary studies of vegetation and miscroclimates on 30 
year old strip-mined lands. Proc. Ind. Acad, for 1966. 
In press. 

Mertens, T. R. and Savage, A. D. 1967. A preliminary in- 
vestigation of Polycjonum, sect. Polygonum (Avicularis) 
in Wisconsin and Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1966. 
In press. 


Laigo, F. M. and Paschke, J. D. 1966. A microsporidian 
TheloJiaiiia sp., in I'icris rapae. Journ. Invertebrate 
Pathology 8: 269-^70. 

Aschelminthes: Ferris, J. and Ferris, Virginia. 1966. Observations on Tetra- 

donema plicnns, an entomoparasitic nematode, with a key 
to the genera of the family Tetradonematidae (Nema- 
toda : Trichosyringa ). Annals Entomol. Soc. American. 
5«: 964-971. 
PfaltzgrafC, George H. 1967. A preliminary study of the 
Gastrotricha of Northern Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
for 1966. In press. 



Kabir, A. K. M. F. and Giese, R. 1966. The Columbian 
timber beetle, Corthylns, columhianus (Coleoptera: Scoy- 
tidae) in soft maple. Annals Entomol. Soc. America 

Pedigo, L. P. 1966. A new sminthurid from north-western 
Indiana with a redescription of Smintlinrus triliucatus 
Banks (CoUembola : Sminthuridae) . Journ. Kansas En- 
tomol. Soc. for 1966. 39: 90-98. 

Matthew, D. L. 1967. Wheat curl mite, Aceria tulipae 
(Keifer), a new record for Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
for 1966. In press. 

Sanders, D, P. and Dobson, R. C. 1966. The insect complex 
associated with bovine manure in Indiana. Annals 
Entomol. Soc. America 59:955-959. 

AVhitaker, J. W. and Corthum, K. W. 1967. Fleas of Vigo 
County, Indiana, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1966. In press. 

Wappes, J. E. 1967. An Indiana record of Amhlyomma 
americaniim (Einnaeiis). Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1966. 
In press. 


22 Indiana Academy of Science 

Pisces: Aderkas, E. and McReynolds, H. E. 1966. Upper Wabash 

River stream survey. Fisheries Research Reports (Mimeo.) 
Vol. unnumbered, 7 p. 

Christensen, D. 1966. Progress report on cliannel catfish 
studies. Fisheries Research Reports (Mimeo.) Vol. un- 
numbered, 7p. 

McReynolds, H. E. 1966. Recent Indiana fish collections 
with notes on five new or rare species. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 75: 299-302. 

Aves: Raker, Mrs. H. A. 1965 Breeding bird census #62, grazed 

brushy fields and tree-bordered creek. Aud. Field Notes, 

19: 624-62;-). 
Smith, Sheila. 1965. Breeding bird census #57, suburban 

edge. Aud. Field Notes. 19: 621-622. 
Webster, J. D. 1966. Winter bird population study #11. 

Mixed deciduous forest. Aud. Field Notes. 20: 467-468. 
Indiana Audubon Society Members. 1966. Many titles in 

Indiana Audubon Quarterly, Vol. 44, 
Mumford, R. E. 1966. Permanent Resident Birds of Indiana 

(revision). Ind. Dept. Nat. Resources, IndianapolLs. 56p. 

Mammalia: Whitaker, J. O. Jr. 1966. Food of Mus musculus, Peromysciis 

vianiculaturs hairdi and Perotnyscus leucopus in Vigo 
County Indiana. Journal Mammalogy 47: 473-486. 
Mumford, R. E. 1967. New distribution records for Sorex 
longirostris and Citellus triaecenilinestns in Indiana. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1966. In press. 

Theses Completed and Placed on File Dealing 
with the Flora and Fauna of Indiana 

Aschelminthes: Wong, K-Y. 1966. Effects of host species in population 

changes in Prati/lenchHS penetrans (Cobb). Ph.D. Purdue. 

Crustacea: Demaree, R. S. Jr. 1966. Studies on the ecology and the 

external morphology of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus of 
Vigo Count>', Indiana. M.Sc. Indiana State. 

Insecta: Crozier, R. G. Intrastand population distribution of Cor- 

thylus cohunbianus Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). 

Ph.D. Purdue. 
Dolphin, R. E. 1966. The ecological life history of Halictus 

(Seladonia) confnsus Sm. (Hymenoptera : Halictidae). 

Ph.D. Purdue. 
McManus, M. L. 1966. The effect of climate integrants on 

population fluctuations of the Columbian timber beetle, 

Corthylns columbianns Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). 

Ph.D. Purdue. 
Munsee, J. R. 1966. The ecology of ants of strip-mine spoil 

banks. Ph.D. Purdue. 
Pearson, D. L. 1966. Ecological studies of the Coleoptera 

associated with cow manure. M.Sc. Purdue. 
Tai, L-C. 1966. Biosystematic study of the genus Syvipetrion 

(Odonata). Ph.D. Purdue. 

Reptiles: Parker, W. 1965. Reptiles of Montgomery County. B.A. 


Aves: Wright, V. L. 1966. Status of the Gray Partridge in Indiana. 

M.Sc. Purdue. 

Mammalia: Corthum, K. W. Jr. 1966. A study of reproduction and 

placental scar duration in ^ric)•otus ochrogaster and 
Microtits pe)insi/lranictis. M.Sc. Indiana State. 

Minutes of the Executive Committee 


Work in Progress, but not yet Published, Dealing with the 
Flora and Fauna of Indiana 


Vascular Plants: 




Animal ecology: 

Lanz, L. A., DePaiiw. Liverworts of Indiana. 

Humbles, J. Indiana Univ. Indiana plant distribution records. 

Jones, G. S. Purdue. Wildlife management of strip-mined 
land in soutliwestern Indiana. 

Uamnion, J. R. DePauw. Validity of the species Moxostoma 
viacrolepidotum and M. hrevivcps (Castostomidae). 

Whitaker, J. O. Jr. and Walace, D. C. Indiana State. Con- 
tinued studies on the fishes of Vigo County, Indiana. 

Mumford, R. E. Purdue. The distribution of Indiana main- 

Whitaker, J. O. Jr. Indiana State. Continued studies on the 
mammals of Vigo County, Indiana (parasites, food, habi- 
tat, reproduction). 

Benda, R. and Gammon, J. R. DePauw. Normal population 

density and diversity of streams biota. 
Gammon, J. R, DePauw. Effects of inorganic sediments on 

stream biota. 


Indiana Institute of Technology, October 22, 1966 
The annual Fall Meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science was 
held in the Auditorium of Schick Hall of Indiana Institute of Technology, 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Saturday, October 22, 1966, at 9:30 a.m. Dr. 
Carrolle A. Markle, President, called the meeting to order. An address 
of welcome was given by Dr. Edward C. Thoma, President of Indiana 
Institute of Technology. 

The minutes of the Executive Committee on Friday, October 21, 1966, 
were read by the secretary and approved as read. 

Fay Kenoyer Daily read a biographical sketch of each member who 
had died since the 1965 Fall Meeting. These sketches are printed under 
Necrology in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

The meeting adjourned at 10:30 a.m. 

A luncheon for the Senior and Junior Academies was held in the 
gymnasium at 11:45 a.m. Following the luncheon, a thought provoking 
address "Divergent Aims in Water Pollution Abatement" was given by 
Dr. William A. Spoor, Department of Biological Sciences, University of 

The annual dinner meeting of The Academy was held in the dining 
hall of Indiana Institute of Technology at 6:30 p.m. Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, 
President-Elect of the Academy, presided. 

The secretary presented ninety-six applications for membership to 
the Academy. A motion was approved to accept the ninety-six applicants 
as members. 

Dr. Harry G. Day presented the following resolutions to the 

1. WHEREAS: The Indiana Academy of Science is deeply grateful 
to the Indiana Institute of Technology for placing its facilities at our 
disposal during the fall 1966 meeting, be it 

RESOLVED: That the Indiana Academy of Science members here 
assembled express sincere thanks to the Indiana Institute of Technology 
through Dr. Edward C. Thoma, President, and to Dr. Warren E. Hoffman, 
Chairman of the Program Committee, and to the staff for the courtesies 
extended to the members during this meeting. 

2. WHEREAS: The Indiana Academy of Science has gained prestige 
in the scientific community through the publication of the Sesquicen- 
tennial Volume, The Natural Features of Indiana, be it 

RESOLVED: That the members of the Indiana Academy of Science 
convey special thanks to Mr. Robert McClarren, Director of the Indiana 
State Library, for the important role he has played in the distribution 
of 2Vic Natural Features of htdiana, published by the Sesquicentennial 
Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science; to Mrs. Lois Burton of 
the Indiana Science Library staff for her dedicated services, over and 
above the demands of her customary duties, in connection wath the dis- 


Minutes of the Executive Committee 25 

tribution of this volume; and to Di-. A. A. Lindsey, President-Elect, for 
his untiring: efforts in the collection of the material for the book. 

3. WHEREAS: The Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore has received 
favorable consideration in the Senate and House of the United States 
Government, it is further 

RESOLVED: That the members of the Indiana Academy of Science 
who have conveyed their expressions of approval to the proper national 
fig-ures in support of this project be commended for their cooperation in 
this action to preserve this section of Indiana for posterity as a national 
park, and that Senator Birch Bayh and Representative J. Edward Roush, 
Fifth District Congressman, receive a vote of thanks for their continued 
and intensive support of the legislation concerned with this movement. 

The resolutions were approved. 

Dr. Harry G. Day of the nominating- committee read the names of 
the divisional chairmen for 1967. They are as follows: Anthropology, 

; Bacteriology, ; 

Botany, Sam Postlethwaite, Purdue University; Chemistry, G. B. Bach- 
man, Purdue University; Ecology, Marion T. Jackson, Indiana State 
University; Entomology, George H. Bick, Saint Mary's College; Geology 
and Geography, Al Schneider, Indiana University; History of Science, 
Lawrence H. Baldinger, University of Notre Dame; Physics, Konstantine 
Kolitschew, Indiana Central College; Plant Taxonomy, Rev. Damian 
Schmelz, Saint Meinrad's Abbey; Soil Science, Al Zachary, Purdue Uni- 
versity; Zoology, J. Hill Hamon, Indiana State University. 

The following slate of Officers and Committees to be elected by The 
Academy for 1967 was presented by Dr. Harry G. Day: President, Alton 
A. Lindsey, Purdue University (as 1966 President-Elect accedes Presi- 
dency according to the Constitution) ; President-Elect, William J. Wayne, 
Indiana State Geological Survey; Secretary, James R. Gammon, DePauw 
University; Treasurer, Frank Guthrie, Rose Polytechnic Institute; Edi- 
tor, William R. Eberly, Manchester College; Director of Public Relations, 
James Clark, State Entomology Department; Trustee Academy Founda- 
tion, W. P. Morgan, Indiana University Indianapolis Center (1968); 
Bonding Committee, D. J. Cook, DePauw University, and R. M. Brooker, 
Indiana Central College; Research Grants Committee, W. K. Stephenson, 
Earlham College (1971). A motion was carried to instruct the secretary 
to cast a unanimous ballot for the slate of officers and committee 

President Carrolle A. Markle delivered an excellent address, entitled 
"Whither the Indiana Academy of Science." The address is printed in 
the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

The meeting was adjourned at 8:30 p.m. 

Clarence F. Dineen, Secretary 

January 1, 1966 through December 31, 1966 


1966 Income: 

Item or Description 

Dues & Initiation Fees 

Reprint Sales to Authors 
Vol. 74— $1,417.60 
Vol. 75— 1,128.05 

Proceedings Sales 

John S. "Wright Foundation, partial publication cost, 

Vol. 74 of Proceedings 

Sales of "Natural Features of Indiana" 

John S. Wright P^oundation, paitial publicatioii cost, 
"Natural Features of Indiana" 



% 3,650.00 







TOTAL, 1966 INCOME : $35,854.40 

Plus interest credited to savings accounts +$ 814.33 

TOTAT^ 1966 INCOME & CREDITS : $36,668.73 

Less 196G Expenditures, from next page : — $35,063.83 

NET GAIN FOR 1966 : $ 1,604.90 

Plus balance, January 1, 1966: +$ 2,661.65 

BALANCE, December 31, 1966 : $ 4,266.55 

1966 Expenditures: 

Item or Description Expenditure Budgeted 

Secretary $ 188.15 $ 250.00 

Clerical $ 96.00 

Postage, etc 92.15 

Treasurer $ 214.45 $ 200.00 

Clerical 100.00 

Postage, etc 114.45 

Office Supplies & Expense $ 143.19 $ 150.00 

Stationery 137.24 

Miscellaneous 5.95 

Administrative Expenses 

Travel Allowance & Dues $ 150.00 $ 165.00 

President's Conting $ 79.19 $ 125.00 

Program Committee $ 609.05 $ 500.00 

Chairman's Expenses $ 12.50 

Printing & Mailing 596.55 

Proceedings Publication 

Editorial Expenses, Vol 75 $ 265.40 $ 265.40 $ 400.00 

Printing & Mailing, VoL 75 $1,295.28 $ 1,295.28 

Printing & Mailing, Vol. 74 $3,863.43 $ 3,863.43 $1,075.00 

Junior Academy $ 100.03 $ 150.00 

Library Binding 

From 1965 Budget $ 999.90 

From 1966 Budget $ 996.20 1,000.00 


Minutes of the Executive Committee 

"Natural Features of Indiana"... $23,356.59 

Editorial Expenses $ 121.76 

Advertising, etc 625.39 

Printing 22,412.89 

Mailing & Misc 196.55 

Miscellaneous 14.22 

Reprints from Proceedings 

Academy business. Vol. 74 101.10 

Academy business. Vol. 75 74.80 

Sale to Authors, Vol. 74 1,27 8.85 

Sale to Authors, Vol. 75 1,334.00 

TOTAL 1966 EXPENDITURES:' $35,063.83 






Item or 


Publications Fund (incl. 

"Natural Features ") $ 

Operational Funds 

Jan. 1, 



Dec. ni, 
1966 1966 1966 

Receipts Expenditures Balance 

$26,434.83 $24,613.02 $ 1,821.81 
10,233.90 10,450.81 2,444.74 

ACADE^MY ACCOUNTS: $2,661.65 $36,668.73 $35,063.83 $4,266.55 

Academy Research Funds $ 1,002.00 $ 2,240.58 $ 1,744.00 $ 1,498.58 

Science Fair 1,679.41 12,208.41 7,780.58 6,107.24 

Science Talent Search 2,365.77 1,289.41 1,076.36 

J. S. Wright Fund 134.28 134.28 

Lilly Endowment No. I 16.77 16.50 .27 2,751.02 2,728.44 22.58 

Lilly Endowment No, III 10,000.00 1,725.41 8,274.59 

Miscellaneous 56.00 56.00 

TOTAL IN STATE ACCOUNTS: $10,610.90 $61,173.72 -$50,348.17 $21,436.4( 

N.S.F. Grant GE-9588 
N.S.F. Grant GW-1110 

$ 3,119.36 $ 8,825.15 $11,944.51 

7,983.70 7,734.48 $ 249.22 


$13,730.26 $77,982.57 $70,027.16 $21,685.67 

Bank balances: Terre Haute First National Bank, Terre Haute, Ind. . .$ 2,393.73 

Lytton Savings & Loan, Los Angeles, Calif 9,390.86 

First Western Savings & Loan, Las Vegas, Nev 9,923.47 

Less Accounts Payable (F.I.C.A. withholding) — 22.39 


Frank A. Guthrie, 
December 31, 1966 
March 31, 1967 

We the undersigned have audited the treasurer's books of the Indiana Acad- 
emy of Science for the year 1966 and have found them to be accurate and in 
order. James C. List, Robert H. Cooper. 


Ahrlichs, James L., 214 Wood, West Lafayette, Ind. SS 

Allen, Mr. Phillip R., 427 Lafayette Ave., Columbus, Ind. Z 

Archer, Gary L., R. *1, West Baden, Ind. Z 

Arnett, Dr. Ross H., Jr., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. E 

Bateman, Mr. Jack A., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. C 

Beaver, Albert J., Agronomy Dept., Lilly Hall of Life Science, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 SS 

Beltz, Mr. David A., 755 North Emerson Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. Ba 

Benda, Robert Steven, Hess Trailer Court, Lot 15, 1218 S. Bloom- 

ington, Greencastle, Ind. Z 

Bergdall, Miss Irene F., Huntington College, Huntington, Ind. 46750 M 

Bernhardt, Dr. F. Leon, R. R. 6, Box 436J, Muncie, Ind. 47302 H 

Bessler, Mr. William C, Jeffersonville High School, 600 E. Court 

Ave., Jeffersonville, Ind. Z 

Biehn, Mr. William L., Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. Bo 

Blair, Dr. Robert P., 3728 Berneway Drive, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46808 C 

Blakely, Mr. Robert L., Dept of Anthropology, Rawles Hall, Indiana 

University, Bloomington, Ind. 47401 A 

Boener, Dr. Charlotte, Science Division, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Ind. 47809 Z 

Bracker, Prof. Charles E., Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Bo 

Brown, Paul, 441 East 20th, Apt. 7-C, New York, New York 10010 

Bruce, Mr. David S., Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Z 

Bunger, Dr. William B., Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809 C 

Burnor, Mr. Duane R., Dept. of Anthropology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401 A 

Cable, Mr. Louis W., 5223 Brendon Park Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46226 G 

Carmony, Dr. Donald F., Box 15, R. R. 3, Bloomington, Ind. SS 

Colglazier, Jerry M., 925 S. Pasadena St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219 P 

Cook, Anna, 2301 E. 2nd, Apt. 28 Bart Villa, Bloomington, Ind. 47403 Z 

Come, Audrey E., 1116 Woodlawn Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46203 Ba 

Corthum, Mr. Kenneth W., Jr., 2225 S. 61/2 St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47802 Z 

Cory, Mr. Walter A., Jr., 2948 Oak Hill Ct., Madison, Ind. 47250 Z 


New Members 29 

Cromer, Mr. John A., 609 S. W. 17th St., Richmond, Ind. 47374 E 
Crozier, Suzanne, Dept. of Anthropology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47405 A 
Crowe, Mr. Dennis R., Geography Dept., Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Ind. G 
Culley, Dr. William J., Muscatatuck State Hospital, Butlerville, 

Ind. 47223 C 

Cummings, Richard E., 522 E. Minnesota St., Indianapolis, Ind. Z 

Cutshall, Dr. T. W., 4221 E. Kessler Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220 C 

Dancis, Mr. Barry, Dept. of Zoology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401 Z 

Daniel, Mr. James F., 3960 N. Hartman Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46226 G 

Darlage, Mr. Larry, Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Ind. C 

Davidson, Carol R., Assoc. Prof. Biology Dept., Oakland City 

College, Oakland City, Ind. 47560 Z 

Day, Mr. Edwin J., 114 Crown Lane, Fort Wayne, Ind. G 

Delia, Anthony, 23 Baker Ave., Berkeley Hts., New Jersey 07922 C 

Dick, Stanley, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405 Bo 

Dilcher, Prof. David L., Dept. of Botany, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47405 Bo 

Dill, Mr. William T., R. R. -1, Box 83, Delphi, Ind. 46923 Z 

Docter, Mr. P. J., 1716 Klondike Rd., West Lafayette, Ind. Z 
Dolphin, Mr. Robert E., Entomology Research Division, 

1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591 E 

Duncan, Mr. Ronald J., 108 Rawles Hall, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401 A 

Early, Frances M., 606 Miami, North Manchester, Ind. Bo 

Edwards, Donald M., Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, 

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska SS 

Eilenfeldt, Miss Lynn E., 233 Scheele Hall, Valparaiso, Ind. G 

Filers, Dr. Lawrence J., Life Sciences Dept., Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Ind. Z 

Farringer, Dr. L. Dwight, R. R. 2, Box 43A, North Manchester, 

Ind. 46962 Ph 

Finley, H. Richard, Dept. of Geography and Geology, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809 G 

Fix, Mr. Gordon F., 6035 Winnpenny Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220 G 

Foltz, Mr. Paul Raymond, 18 South 19th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809 Bo 
French, Mr. Robert R., Ind. Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut 

Grove Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47405 G 

Geer, Mr. William H., Apt. 203, 2903 Westbrook Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. C 

Ginn, Mr. William E., 1536 Carroll White Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. Z 

30 Indiana Academy of Science 

Gooding", Dr. Ansel M., Dept. of Geology, Earlham College, 

Richmond, Ind. 47374 G 

Guindon, Prof. Edward P., 2431 Oxford St., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46806 G 
Grove, Mr. Stanley, Dept. of Botany and Plant Patholo^, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Bo 
Hadley, Dr. Charles E., 900 S. Washington St., Craw-fordsville, 

Ind. 47933 Z 
Hamilton, Phil, Director, Kokomo Public Library, 120 S. Main St., 

Kokomo, Ind. H 

Harrell, Mr. and Mrs. J. E., R. *6, Madison, Ind. Z 

Hart, Mrs. Henrietta, 1005 E. Sherman St., Marion, Ind. 46952 Z 
Harter, Mrs. Robert D., Dept. of Agronomy, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. SS 
Henson, Mr. Jack C, Marion Heights, Oakland City, Ind. 47560 Bo, Z 

Hetherington, Mr. Martin T., 2322 Apache Dr., Lafayette, Ind. 47905 Z 

Hibbs, Dr. Clyde W., 1508 Riley Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304 SS 

Hodes, Prof. M. E., Indiana University Medical Center, 

1100 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46207 C 

Hoffer, Dr. Roger M., 1220 Potter Drive, West Lafayette, Ind. 47906 

HornufF, Mr. Lothar E., Jr., Central State College, Edmond, Oklahoma E 

Huber, Roger T., Dept. of Entomology, Ag. Hall, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907 E 

Hudock, George A., Dept. of Zoology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47405 Z 

Hull, Dr. Richard J., Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Bo 

Hults, Dr. Malcolm E., Dept. of Physics, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Ind. 47306 Ph 

Hunn, Mr. James D., 1643 W. 57th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208 G 

Hurst, Mr. Robert N., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Ind. Z 

Husband, Mr. David D., 2113 Manitou Dr., Lafayette, Ind. 47905 Bo 

Irving, Rev. Brian H., O.F.M., 333 East Paulding Road, 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 46806 M, Ph 

Jacobs, Mr. Alan M., Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401 G 

Jinks, Prof. Willard L. and Mrs. Toni G., 1317 N. Tuxedo St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46201 Z 

Johannsen, Mr. Christian J., 1220 Potter Dr., McClure Research 

Park, W. Lafayette, Ind. SS 

Johnson, Dr. Charles H., DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 46135 M 

Judd, Prof. Robert W., 2035 Fruit St., Huntington, Ind. 46750 Bo 

Kahn, Prof. Albert, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Bo 

New Members 31 

Kalland, Mr. Gene, Dept. of Zoology, Indiana University, 

Blooming-ton, Ind. Z 

Kampmeyer, Susan, 1472 Crestwood Drive, Chattanooga, Tenn. 37405 Bo 

Kellog, Dr. Thomas F., 1205 Woodward Ave., South Bend, Ind. C 

Kemper, Mr. Byron W., Stanford Medical School, Stanford, Calif, C 

Kern, Mr. Orville L., Indiana Institute of Technology, 1600 E. 

Washington, Fort Wayne, Ind. Ph 

Kiefer, Prof. Wayne E., Dept. of Geography-Geology, Valparaiso 

University, Valparaiso, Ind. G 

Kirby, Miss Bonnie, R. R. 2, Wabash, Ind. Z 

Kirkpatrick, Dr. Charles M., Forestry and Conservation, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. Z 

Klotz, Dr. John W., Concordia Senior College, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805 Bo 

Kolberg, Mr. D. W., Dept. of Geography, Valparaiso University, 

Valparaiso, Ind. G 

Konrath, Mr. Robert, 822 25th St., South Bend, Ind. 46615 Bo 

Labavitch, Mr. John, Wabash College, Waugh Hall, Crawfordsville, 

Ind. 47933 Z 

Lawrence, Mr. Vinnedge M., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 E 

Leavis, Mr. Paul C, 9841 Lorelei Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio Ba, Ps, C 

Leon-Gallegos, Mr. Hector M., Dept. of Botany and Plant 

Pathology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. Bo 

Lewis, Dr. Jon E., Pitman-Moore Division of the Dow Chemical 

Co., P. 0. Box 10, Zionsville, Ind. 46077 Z 

Lindsey, Mr. Frank A., Evansville Museum of Arts & Science, 

411 S.E. Riverside Dr., Evansville, Ind. Z 

Link, Mr. Henry Adolph, R. R. 2, Dekalb Co., Waterloo, Ind. 46793 Bo 

Little, Mr. Robert M., 6363 Monitor Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220 A 

Luther, Mr. Frederic, 4515 Marcy Lane (239), Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46205 - G 

MacDonald, Mr. Ronald R., 618 Washington St., Oakland City, 

Ind. 47560 G 

Mayrose, Mrs. Carolyn J., 6114 West Lakeview Dr., Apt. 171, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46224 Bo 

MacLean, Mr. David B., Agriculture Hall, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. E 

McCrumb, Mrs. Eleanor L., 17 Anthony Apts., Muncie, Ind. A 

McFee, Dr. William W., Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. SS 

Menke, Mr. Robert, St. Henry Rd., Huntingburg, Ind. 47542 Bo 

Morgan, Prof. Fred D., 2320 College Ave., Huntington, Ind. 46750 Z 

Merkle, Mr. George W., R. R. 1, North Manchester, Ind. C 

32 Indiana Academy of Science 

Merritt, Prof. Neal R., 508 N. Wayne, North Manchester, Ind. G 
Meyer, Mr. Robert W., Entomology Dept., Agriculture Hall, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. E 
Michael, Prof. Harold L., 1227 N. Salisbury St., West Lafayette, 

Ind. 47906 SS 
Miles, Prof. Robert D., 1724 Sheridan Rd., West Lafayette, 

Ind. 47906 G 
Miller, Mr. Louis V., Indiana Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut 

Grove, Bloomington, Ind. G, C 

Miller, Carl D., Ind. Central College, Indianapolis, Ind. Ba 

Miller, Paul A., 1709 North 20th St., Lafayette, Ind. 47904 SS 
Miyakawa, Dr. Kozaburo, Indiana Institute of Technology, 

Fort Wayne, Ind. Ph 
Montgomery, Mr. Michael E., Box 632, Earlham College, 

Richmond, Ind. E 

Moore, Mr. Andrew E., 926 S. Kenwood, Indianapolis, Ind. Z 

Mouzin, Mr. Thomas E., 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591 E 

Murray, Mr. Charles E., 306 E. Central St., Bluffton, Ind. G 
Myers, Mr. William E., 213 W. Jefferson, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47993 PT 

Neidhardt, Dr. Frederick C, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. Ba 

Nelson, Dr. Joseph S., Dept. of Zoology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401 Z 

Neuhouser, Dr. David L., R. R. 1, North Manchester, Ind. M 

Nicholson, Miss Judy M., 5340 Camden St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46227 Z 

Nyman, Mr. Dale J., U. S. Geological Survey, Rm. 516, 611 

N. Park Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. G 

Oliver, Mr. Patrick F., 1218 Alden Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47303 Z 

Owen, Dr. Donald E., Dept. of Geography and Geology, Indiana 

State University, Terre Haute, Ind. G 

Oyer, Dr. Edwin B., Dept. of Horticulture, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. Bo 

Parks, Mr. Francis, R. R. 2, Box 91, Centerville, Ind. 47330 Bo 

Poppe, Mr. Robert H., 1400 N. State Parkway, Chicago, 111. 60610 Z 

Pickard, Mrs. Barbara L., DePauw University, 607 Anderson St., 

Apt. 4, Greencastle, Ind. Z 

Pfaltzgraff, Mr. George H., College Box 742, North Manchester, Ind. Z 

Quinney, Dr. Paul R., Butler University, Dept. of Chemistry, 

4600 Sunset Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46207 C 

Rarick, Mr. Reevan Dee, 611 N. Walnut Grove Ave., Bloomington, Ind. G 

Reeves, Mr. Richard A., Indiana Institute of Technology, 1600 E. 

Washington Blvd., Fort Wayne, Ind. Ph 

Rhoades, Dr. Marcus M., Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401 ' Bo 

New Members 33 

Roberts, Mr. Allan, 120 Hayes Rd., Richmond, Ind. 47374 Z 

Robinson, Mr. Tully M., 4828 E. 19th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46218 G 

Rodeffer, Mr. Michael J., 1140 E. Washington, Muncie, Ind. 47305 A 

Rosso, Mr. Wayne A., 2118 S. Sixth St., Lafayette, Ind. Z 

Roth, Dr. J. N., Dept. of Biology, Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526 Z 

Saksena, Mrs. Sudha S., E-103 Bicknell Apt., Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. A 

Schwartz, Mr. Ward, 1457 Parkview Ave., Whiting, Ind. 46394 Z 

Sebastian, Glenn R., 330 S. 17th St., Terre Haute, Ind. G 

Senterfit, Dr. Laurence B., Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47802 Ba 

Siddiqi, Dr. Akhtar H., Dept. of Geography, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Ind. G 

Simmons, Miss Kathleen, 171 South Park Dr., Seymour, Ind. 47274 Z 

Snodgrass, Mr. John B., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933 

Spencer, Mr. Harley 0., Mishawaka Public Library, 122 N. Hill St., 
Mishawaka, Ind. 46544 

Starr, Dr. Theodore J., Lobund Laboratory, Notre Dame, Ind. Ba 

Stevenson, Dr. Jerry L., Biology Dept., Anderson College, 

Anderson, Ind. 46012 Ba 

Straley, Mr. David B., Oakland City College, Oakland City, Ind. 47560 Z 

Streator, Mr. James T., 103 N. Elm St., North Manchester, Ind. 46962 C 

Suagstad, Edward S., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. E 

Swelstad, Mr. Jack, 316 N. Jordan St., Bloomington, Ind. Z 

Swenson, Miss Mary Karen, Indiana University Medical Center, 

1100 W. Michigan, Indianapolis, Ind. 46207 C 

Swindell, Prof. Robert James, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Institute 

of Technology, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46803 C 

Szegedy, Dr. Lasuo, 229 W. Maple Grove Ave., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46806 C 

Telinde, Mr. Harvey D., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Bo 

Tendam, Dr. D. J., Dept. of Physics, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907 Ph 

Tiano, Mr. Donald E., 1402 E. Dudley, Indianapolis, Ind. Ph 

Thompson, Mr. Daniel J., Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. Z 

Tschannen, Miss Marilyn, Dept. of Geography, Northwestern 

University, Evanston, 111. E 

Van Camp, Mr. and Mrs. D. L., 400 Jordan Rd., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46217 E 

(Wallace), Sister M. Jean Vianney, C.S.C, Saint Mary's College, 

Notre Dame, Ind. 46556 Z 

34 Indiana Academy of Science 

Wappes, Mr. James E., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. E 

Weimer, Dr. Harry R., 719 N. vSycamore St., North Manchester, 

Ind. 46962 C 

Webb, George W., Dept. of Geography and Geology, Indiana 

State University, Terre Haute, Ind. G 

Weismiller, Mr. Richard A., Dept. of Agronomy, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907 SS 

Weiss, Melford S., Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Ind. A 

Welker, Dr. George W., Dept. of Biology, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Ind. 47306 Ba 

White, Mr. Charles E., 2441 E. Northview Ave., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46220 E 

White, Charley M., Dept. of Forestry and Conservation, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Ind. Z 

Wicke, Brian, 727 Davidson Rd., Nashville, Tenn. 37205 C 

Windell, Dr. John T., Northwest Campus, Indiana University, 

3400 Broadway, Gary, Ind. 46408 Z 

Wolf, Mr. Ronald J., 4160 Guilford Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205 G 

Wong, Mr. Tim Tun Yuey, 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. E 

Wright, Mrs. Marilyn J., Apt, D, 624 Candle Berry Ct., 

Kirkwood, Mo. 63122 Bo 

Yeh, Miss Nancy W. S., Dept. of Biology, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Ind. E 

Yoder, Mr. Larry R., 2427 Chapman Rd., Huntertown, Ind. 46748 Bo 

Young, Mrs. Frances N., University Senior High School, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401 M 

Young, Dr. Ralph W., 1600 E. Washington Blvd., Indiana 

Institute of Technology, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46803 M 


Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting 

President: James Spreen, New Haven Senior High School, New Haven 
Vice President: Dennis Waltke, Division of University Schools, 

Secretary: Mary Ellen Lancaster, Franklin Central High School, Acton 

Dr. Howard Michaud, Chairman, Purdue University, Lafayette 
Mr, Keith Hunnings, New Haven Senior High School, New Haven 

Mr. F. Ray Saxman, Hartford City High School, Hartford City 

Mr. Charles Souers, Division of University Schools, Bloomington 


Prof. Virgil Heniser, Chairman, Indiana University, Bloomington 
Prof. Donald R. Winslow, Director, Junior Academy, Division of 
University Schools, Bloomington 


October 22, 1966 
8:00 A.M.-11:30 A.M. 

Registration and Election of Officers in the Main Lobby of the 
Anthony Building. Club representatives may file their ballots with 
the Junior Academy Council representative stationed in the lobby. 

8:30 A.M.-10:00 A.M. 

Junior Academy Council Interviews for "Best Boy" and "Best Girl" 
Awards. Students nominated for an interview should register in 
Room A- 175. 

9:30 A.M.-10:00 A.M. 

General Business and Welcome, Room A-371. James Spreen presiding. 

10:15 A.M.-11:30 A.M. 

Junior Academy members should visit with Senior Academy members 
in their morning ''paper sessions." Hanser and Schick Halls. Pro- 
grams will be available at registration. 

11:45 A.M.-1:45 P.M. 

Luncheon with Senior Academy. Gymnasium. 


36 Indiana Academy of Science 

2:00 P.M.-3:45 P.M. 

Presentation of papers. Rooms A-371 and A-269, if necessary. 
Dennis Waltke presiding in A-371. 

3:45 P.M.-4:00 P.M. 

Announcements and adjournment. 

Room A-371, James Spreen, Presiding 

1. A New Duodecimal Notation 

Malinda Finch, Portland Senior High School, Portland 

2. Construction and Operation of an Expansion Cloud Chamber with 
a Helmholtz Coil 

Mary Lancaster, Franklin Central High School, Acton 

3. A Spark Chamber for Amateur Research 

John W. Peterson, Brebeuf Preparatory School, Indianapolis 

4. The Production of High Energy Particles for Nuclear Experiments 
Steve Jost, Muncie Central High School, Muncie 

5. Ionic Propulsion 

Douglas A. Stephen, Portland Junior High School, Portland 

6. The Adhesion of Ice Crystals in Precipitation and Proposed Methods 
for Its Investigation 

James J. Peterson, Brebeuf Preparatory School, Indianapolis 

7. Platinum Decoration Techniques in Stress Corrosion of Al-2024 
Alfred C. Mecklenburg III, Hartford City High School, Hartford City 

8. The Production of an Efficient Oxidizer for Sounding Rockets 
David Lesniak, Griffith Senior High School, Griffith 

9. The Story of Glass 

Robert J. Michaelis, Brebeuf Preparatory School, Indianapolis 
10. Condition in the Silicon Controlled Switch 

James Spreen, New Haven Senior High School, New Haven 

Room A-269, Dennis Waltke, presiding 

1. The Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Balance of Emulsions 
Larry Jackson, George Washington High School, Indianapolis 

2. The Effect of Testosterone Applied to the Comb of Rooster and 
Pullet Chicks 

Georgia Dimmick, Portland Junior High School, Portland 

3. The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Pcnicilliuvi notattmi 
Sandra Kay Satterfield, Muncie Central High School, Muncie 

4. The Effects of Aspirin on Mice 

Dan Henkel, Brebeuf Preparatory School, Indianapolis 

5. A Survey of Fishes in a Drainage Ditch in Griffith, Indiana 
Douglas Wayne Deedrick, Griffith Senior High, Griffith 

G. Comparing Corn Hormones 

Betty Sue Settle, Portland Senior High School, Portland 

Program 37 

7. Antibiotics from a Spice Rack or "Spicy Antibiotics" 

Sandra Shepherd, George Washington High School, Indianapolis 

8. A Study of the Effects of Haemonchns contortus of Ovine Origin in 
Lambs and Kids 

Stephen Weber, Huntington County Community High School, 

9. Research in Endocrinology 

Mary Elizabeth Richardson, Hartford City High School, Hartford City 




The thirty-fourth annual meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy of 
Science was held on Saturday, October 22, 1966, on the campus of the 
Indiana Institute of Technology, Fort Wayne, Indiana. President James 
Spreen opened the meeting and introduced Dr. Young, a representative 
of Indiana Institute of Technology, who welcomed the academy to the 

The minutes of the thirty-third meeting of the Juunior Academy 
were read by the secretary, Mary Lancaster. With one correction the 
minutes were approved as they were read. 

Mr. Sauders, from New Haven, was next introduced to make an 
announcement of a Polemic planned for the spring. On the 15 of April 
the Polemic is going to be held at New Haven Senior High School. 
Mr. Sauders encouraged students to come because he felt it would be a 
rewarding day. More material on the Polemic will be sent to the various 
science clubs in the area. 

After the short business meeting, for the first time in the history of 
the academy, the Junior Academy spent the remainder of the morning 
listening to papers presented by the Senior Academy. The students went 
to various sections such as physics, chemistry, ecology and botany. 

At noon a luncheon was held in the Gymnasium for the Junior and 
Senior Academy. After the luncheon Dr. William A. Spoor of the 
University of Cincinnati gave a talk entitled "Divergent Aims in Water 
Pollution Abatement." 

In the afternoon the Junior Academy broke up into two groups to 
hear papers. President James Spreen presided at the physical science 
division, while Vice-President Dennis Waltke presided at the biological 
science division. 

After presentation of the nineteen papers in the two divisions, 
Dr. Theodore Star, representing the Indiana Branch of the American 
Society for Microbiology, gave an award for the best paper presented 
in the area of microbiology. A certificate and a check for $25.00 was 
given to Sandy Satterfield of Muncie Central High School whose paper 
was "The Effect of Gibberellic Acid in PenicilUuni notatum.'" A cer- 
tificate was given to Stephen Weber from Huntington County Community 

38 Indiana Academy of Science 

Hig-h School for his talk entitled "A Study of the Effects of Haemonchus 
contortus of Ovine Origin in Lambs and Kids." Mr. Runnings next 
announced the winners of the "Best Girl" and ''Best Boy" awards. The 
"Best Girl" was Mary Lancaster of Franklin Cenral High School whose 
paper was entitled "Construction and Operation of an Expansion Cloud 
Chamber with a Helmholtz Coil." Alfred Mecklenburg of Hartford City 
High School was the "Best Boy." His paper was entitled "Platinum 
Decoration Techniques in Stress Corrosion of Al-2024." 

Mr. Winslow made some final announcements to the Academy. He 
presented charters to science clubs of the following schools who were 
new members in the academy: Angola High School, Griffith Senior High, 
Kennedy Memorial High School and Ladywood High School of 
Indianapolis. To New Haven Science Club who had done a fine job as 
host, to the Council and to the officers, Mr. Winslow gave a special 
thanks. Next year's meeting is to be held at Indiana University with the 
following officers: Steve Jost of Muncie Central High School, President; 
John Peterson of Brebeuf Preparatory School, Vice-President; and Valerie 
Savage of University School, Secretary. 

James Spreen adjourned the thirty-fourth annual meeting of the 
Indiana Junior Academy of Science at 3:35. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Mary Lancaster, Secretary 


Town Club and School 

Acton Sigma Mu Chapter of FSA, Franklin 

Central H. S. 

Bedford Bedford Science Problems Research 

Group, Bedford H. S. 


Margaret Richwine 

Paul Hardwick 


National Scientific Honor Society, 

Bloomington H. S. 

Orville Long 


E. Wayne Gross Academy, Univer- 

sity H. S. 

Billie Stucky 


MSE Academy, University Junior 


Charles Souers 


Clarksville H. S. Science Club, 

Clarksville Junior, Senior H. S. 

Gerald K. Sprinkle 


Science Club, Columbus Senior H. S. 

L. N. Carmichael 


Up-N-Atom, Crawfordsville, H. S. 

David Wells 



Reitz Memorial Chapter of FSA, 

Reitz Memorial H. S. 

Charles Hames 

Fort Wayne 

Albertus Magnus Science Club, Cen- 

tral Catholic H. S. 

Sr. Winifred 

Fort Wayne 

Phy-Chem Club, Elmhurst H. S. 

Ruth Wimmer 

French Lick 

Springs Valley Science Club, 

Springs Valley H. S. 

D. L. Clark 


Andrean Biology Club, Andrean 

H. S. 

Sr. Marie Antoine 


Mu Alpha Theta, Andrean H. S. 

Sr. M. Nadine, 


Biology Club, Lew Wallace H. S. 

Lola Lemon 


Griffith Junior High Science Club, 

Griffith Junior H. S. 
Griffith Griffith Senior High Science Club, 

Griffith Senior H. S. 

Hammond Chemistry Club, Oliver P. Morton 

H. S. 

Hartford City Hartford City H. S. Science Club, 
Hartford City H. S. 

Highland Science Club, Highland H. S. 


Fred Meeker 
Geraldine R. Sherfey 

Mary J. Pettersen 

F. Ray Saxman 
Jon Hendrix 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Toivn Club and School 

Huntington Aristotelian, Huntington Catholic 

H. S. 
Huntington Science, Huntington H. S. 

Indianapolis Arlington Science Club, Arlington 
H. S. 

Indianapolis Nature Club, Arsenal Technical H. S. 

Indianapolis Brebeuf Science Club, Brebeuf Pre- 
paratory School 

Indianapolis Science Club, Howe H. S. 
Indianapolis Kennedy Research Center KRC, 

Kennedy Memorial H. S. 
Indianapolis Mendelian Science Club, Ladywood 

H. S. 
Indianapolis North Central H. S. Science Club, 

North Central H. S. 
Indianapolis Science Club, George Washington 

H. S. 
Indianapolis Science Club of Westlane, Westlane 

Junior H. S. 

Jamestown Science Club of Granville Wells, 
Granville Wells School 

La Porte Bi-Phi-Chem Club, La Porte H. S. 

Lebanon Junior Explorers of Science, Leba- 

non Junior H. S. 

Logansport Lewis Cass H. S. Science Club, 

Madison Madison Science Club, Madison 

Consolidated High 

Muncie Muncie Central Science Club, Mun- 

cie Central H. S. 

New Albany Science Club, New Albany Senior 
H. S. 

New Haven New Haven Science Club, New 
Haven H. S. 

Portland Science Club, Portland-Wayne 

Township Junior H. S. 

Portland Portland Senior H. S. Science and 

Mathematics Club, Portland Sen- 
ior H. S. 

South Bend Junior Izaak Walton League, John 
Adams H. S. 


Sr. M. Petrona 
Robert Diff enbaugh 

David Blase 
Michael Simmons 

Rev. Richard J. 

Middendorf, S. J. 
JeiTy Motley 

Sr. Mary Alexandra 

Sr. Helen Jean 

Robert Prettyman 

Mrs. E. H. Crider 

John Van Sickle 

Cecil O. Bennington 

Frances M. Gourley 
Byron Bernard 

Tom Ewing 
Raymond T. Kizer 

David Dunkerton 

Bill Norris 
William Beuoy 

John Moody 

Keith Hunnings 

Mary Zehner 

Ralph Settle 
Robert Freemyer 

Ernest Litweiler 

Junior Academy of Science 


Town Club and School 

South Bend JETS Junior Engineering- Technical 
Society, Central H. S. 

South Bend Second Year Biology Class, Clay 
H. S. 

South Bend IONS Club, J. W. Riley H. S. 

South Bend Science Research Group, Andrew 
Jackson H. S. 

Terre Haute Pius X Science Teens, Schutle H. S. 

Tipton Tipton H. S. Science Club, Tipton 

H. S. 

Vincennes Sikma Tau Science Club, St. Rose 



Lawrence K. Cox 

John V. Davis 
John Marker 

Robert C. Smith 

Sr. Thomas Mary 

Richard Garst 
Fredrick Calhoun 

Sr, Suzanne 


Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 

Lee F. Bennett 

Greenville, Michigan Kenosha, Wisconsin 

August 22, 1872 January 25, 1966 

Prof. Lee F. Bennett v^^as a member of the Indiana Academy of 
Science for 67 years. This is, undoubtedly, a record length of membership 
approached only by the 63-year membership of Martha Doan, deceased. 
Even though Prof. Bennett was out of the state after 1919, he maintained 
an active interest in the Academy and read the Proceedings regularly. 
He often pointed out articles of note to his family. 

Born in Greenville, Michigan, August 22, 1872, he lived there until 
he was nine years old when he moved to Dakota Territory, where his 
father took a claim in 1881. His early education was obtained in a 
one-room district school and by the time he was seventeen years old, he 
was teaching the school. He came to Valparaiso University in November, 
1891, and soon met Henry V. Brown who founded the university. In 
Prof. Bennett's words, "I will never forget his (Brown's) reassuring 
smile and words of encouragement." He spoke fondly of his teachers 
also in an autobiography prepared in 1958. Of them he said, "The only 
way I could repay the debt to my teachers was to pass on what I 
learned to others." 

Prof. Bennett completed the Teacher's Course in 1892, and then 
taught a term of school near Fort Wayne, Indiana. He then returned 
to Valparaiso University where a Scientific Course was completed in 
1894, and a Classic Course in 1895. He attended the University of 
Michigan one year and graduated from Indiana University in 1898. After 
graduation, he returned to Valparaiso University to teach Geology, 
Zoology and Mathematics. Later, he taught Embryology when Val- 
paraiso University became associated with the Chicago College of 
Medicine. He wrote a book on Rocks and Minerals which he used in 
his teaching. In the summer of 1917, he did a geological survey in 
southern Indiana for the government. Economic conditions became 
critical, so in 1919 he resigned to become superintendent of the H. W. 
Gossard Co. in Janesville, Wisconsin. In 1928, he moved to Saginaw, 
Michigan, where he had an insurance business. He retired in 1957 because 
of poor health and moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin, to live with his 
daughter, Ruth. He died there after a long illness at the age of 93 years, 
January 25, 1966. 

Prof. Bennett joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1898 and was 
made a Fellow in 1916. He presented papers at the Geology Section 
before the turn of the century. Two of these dealt with the Knobstone 
Area of Indiana, and one was on Salt Creek, Porter County. He was a 
leader of a symposium on Contributions of Science to Military Efficiency, 


Necrology 43 

and wrote a paper on Geology and the War (first World War), He 
prepared a memorial also for George D. Timmons. He delivered a paper 
in 1916 which showed much foresight and if heeded might have solved 
some problems which are still with us. In his paper The Sand Dunes 
Region as a National Park, he proposed a national park in the Indiana 
dunes area to be named after our Hoosier poet, Riley. He served as 
Editor of the Proceedings for 1916, 1917 and 1918. He was also a 
member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
since 1908 and received a Kiwanis Club community service award 
in 1944. 

Whether it was in teaching, business, or the many civic activities 
which he undertook. Prof. Bennett spread cheer and inspiration wherever 
he went. He was buried by the side of his beloved wife at Valparaiso, 

Charles L(eonard) Bieber 

Reinbeck, Iowa Greencastle, Indiana 

August 22, 1901 December 21, 1965 

Dr. Charles L. Bieber was a very personable and gracious man twice 
honored by DePauw students for his teaching ability. He was born in 
Reinbeck, Iowa, August 22, 1901. He received an A.B. from Cornell 
University in 1924 and returned to Iowa to teach and coach at the high 
school in his home town of Reinbeck, where he was located for three 
years, 1924-1927. He was assistant professor of Physical Education at 
North Central College at Naperville, Illinois, 1927-1937, and then profes- 
sor of Geology from 1937 to 1947. In 1932 he received an M.A. from the 
University of Iowa, and a Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1942. 
He served in the United States Navy as instructor of Meteorology in 
the Navy preflight program and taught Geography in the Army 
Specialized Training Program, 1941-1945. Dr. Bieber joined the faculty 
at DePauw University as head of the Geology and Geography Department 
in 1947 where he was affiliated at his death on December 21, 1965. 

He is listed in Who's Who in America, American Men of Science and 
Indiana Scientists. His chief interests were structural trends in south- 
west Missouri and northern Illinois, stratigraphy of Illinois and Indiana, 
sands and sandstone, and glacial deposits. Pursuit of geological study 
led him to international research on Paleozoic rock in France, Great 
Britain and Austria in 1955 and around the world in 1963 with particular 
attention to the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. He was with the 
Missouri Geological Surveys the summers of 1944, 1945, 1955 and 1956. 
He was also associated with the Indiana Geological Surveys during the 
summers of 1949-1952. He was a National Science Foundation Teacher 
of Geology in 1959, 1961 and 1962. 

Dr. Bieber joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1947, the same 
year that he went to DePauw, and was honored by becoming a Fellow 
in 1952. A number of papers were given before the Geology and 
Geography Section, the latest being delivered at the Notre Dame meeting 
in October, 1965. It was a very interesting paper on fossil algae in the 
St. Louis limestone of Western Indiana. He served on the membership 
committee of the Academy several years. 

44 Indiana Academy of Science 

In addition to his frequent contributions to professional journals, 
Professor Bieber was a lecturer and panelist for numerous regional and 
national geological conferences. He was national president for the 
Association of College Geology Teachers, 1949-1950, member of the 
Illinois Academy of Science, Sigma Xi, American Geophysical Union, 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Asso- 
ciation of University Professors and Fellow of the Geological Society 
of America. He was a member of the Greencastle planning board and as 
such encouraged conservation in West Central Indiana and the Wabash 
Valley flood control program. 

Associates of Dr. Bieber have established a fund at DePauw Univer- 
sity to create a permanent memorial in his honor. The feeling of 
affection and respect for him is perhaps best summed up by the remarks 
of President William E. Kerstetter in the DePauw Alumnus, Jan. -Feb., 
1966: "We deeply regret the loss of Dr. Bieber who was one of our 
most esteemed and valued colleagues. He will be greatly missed by 
students, faculty and administrators and the many alumni who have been 
privileged to know him." 

Ralph Conner Corley 

Tower Hill, Illinois Lafayette, Indiana 

June 5, 1901 January 24, 1966 

Professor Ralph Conner Corley was born June 5, 1901, at Tower Hill, 
Illinois. After graduation from Pana, Illinois, High School in 1918 he 
entered the University of Illinois. An A.B. degree was received there in 
1921, an A.M. in 1922 and Ph.D. in 1924. He was an assistant at Illinois 
University from 1922 to 1924, instructor at Tulane University 1924-1925, 
and an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry 1925-1930 at Tulane. 

He came to Indiana in September, 1930, as an associate professor to 
initiate a program in biochemistry at Purdue University. He became a 
full professor in 1935 and served until his death in 1966. His interest 
in the medical aspects of biochemistry was undoubtedly influenced by 
his Grandfather Corley, who was a physician, and his experience at 
Tulane University School of Medicine. In addition, during graduate study 
at the University of Illinois, two noted biochemists, Professors H. B. 
Lewis and W. C. Rose, enthusiastically encouraged his major field of 
research in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids, sugars and amino 
acids. He also studied enzymes. 

He joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1932 and became 
a fellow in the spring of 1935. He served as editor in the years 1944, 1945 
and 1946 and contributed several papers as co-author to the meetings. 
Other professional affiliations were with the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, American Society of Biological Chemists, 
American Chemical Society, Society for Experimental Biology and 
Medicine, and New York Academy of Science. Honor society membership 
included Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi and Phi Lamba Upsilon. Prof. 
Corley is listed in American Men of Science, and Indiana Scientists. 

A memorial prepared by Joseph F. Foster, M. G. Mellon and 
Thomas DeVries mentions many virtues of Professor Corley. Among 

Necrology 45 

them are the following- excerpts: "He contributed generously of his 
time and energy to carrying a full share of departmental and University 
assignments. ... As an associate, he was considerate, cooperative, 
competent and dependable. . . . His general intellectual impact at 
Purdue was extensive but probably reached its peak in his classroom 
teaching. ... To the students, it was at once evident that he was 
well prepared and had definite objectives. . . . For relaxation, he took 
every occasion to fish in the isolated trout streams of northern Michigan 
or to wander on the wooded slopes of the Great Smoky Mountains. 
No doubt, these experiences helped keep alive the realization that man 
is a part of a living world. Whether inspired or not by a Schweitzerian 
reverence for life, he returned to the streams the trout which he caught. 
He was concerned that man seems to be the only animal which delib- 
erately destroys the environment in which he must live." 

Ralph Conner Corley, of admirable character, died January 24, 
1966, after suffering a heart attack the day before. 

Frank R(oy) Elliott 

Spartansburg, Indiana Angola, Indiana 

May 19, 1888 October 17, 1965 

Frank R. Elliott was born in Spartansburg, Indiana, May 19, 1888, 
and reared as a Quaker. He graduated from Richmond High School and 
received B.S. and M.A. degrees from Earlham College in 1911 and 1912 
respectively. In 1916, he received an A.B. from Wilmington College and 
in 1929 a Ph.D. (Ecology) from Ohio State University. 

His professional career began as head of the Biology Department 
at Wilmington College from 1912 to 1919. He was an assistant professor 
at Earlham College from 1919 to 1924 and 1928 to 1929. He instructed in 
Zoology at Ohio State University from 1926 to 1928 and was Associate 
Professor and later Professor and Head of the Department of Biology 
at Valparaiso University from 1929 to 1954. He was Professor Emeritus 
from retirement until his death at Angola, Indiana, in 1965, following 
a brief illness. 

During his tenure at Valparaiso University, Dr. Elliott served on 
the Valparaiso University Senate, Committee for Admissions and 
Degrees, and was faculty advisor to all pre-medical and pre-dental 
students, so that many physicians and dentists have come under his 
guidance. In addition, he was director of athletics in 1944 and 1945 
when the basketball team gained national prominence as the "world's 
tallest basketball team" defeating both top-ranking college and service 
teams in the nation at that time. 

Prof. Elliott became a Fellow of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in 1933 and was a member of the Ecological 
Society of America. He served as President of the Indiana Student 
Health Asociation. He was active in the Indiana Academy of Science 
many years and encouraged all members of his department to become 
active in it. His membership began in 1929, the year he went to 
Valparaiso University. He was made a Fellow in 1935 and served as 
Divisional Chairman of the Zoology Section in 1952 and on the member- 
ship committee from 1934 to 1940. Papers were contributed to Academy 

46 Indiana Academy of Science 

programs dealing- with garden spiders of Indiana (Araneae). He was 
also interested in the ecology of spiders of the beech-maple forests of 
Ohio. He frequently contributed papers to scientific publications and 
was honored by mention in the American Men of Science and Indiana 

The words of Dr. William Bloom best sum up the respect with which 
Dr. Elliott was held, "He was a strong influence for strengthening the 
Liberal Arts tradition at Valparaiso University and was held in high 
esteem by both faculty and students." 

Sidney Raymond Esten 

Woonsocket, Rhode Island Indianapolis, Indiana 

November 22, 1893 November 20, 1965 

Most will remember Sidney Esten for his ability to make natural 
history subjects very interesting. His industry, sense of humor, enthu- 
siasm and joy in nature stimulated others. 

He was born in Rhode Island in 1893 and graduated in 1912 from 
high school at Worcester, Massachusetts. Early undergi-aduate work 
was taken at St. Lawrence University at Canton, New York, toward 
a B.S. and D.D. He came to Anderson, Indiana, in 1917 where he was 
ordained and became minister of the Universalist Church. He also 
taught History, Civics, and Public Speaking and coached basketball 
teams at Anderson Junior High School. He became licensed to teach 16 
subjects in Indiana High Schools. From 1920-1921, he taught General 
Science which marked a definite turning point in his career. 

During the summer of 1924, work for his B.S. was completed at 
Winona Summer School at Winona Lake and the degree was granted 
in ahseidia from St. Lawrence University in June, 1925. He also received 
a teaching fellowship in Zoology at Indiana University in the fall of 
1924 and received an M.A. in June, 1925. He taught that summer at the 
I.U. Biological Station and returned to the Bloomington campus that fall 
to work on a doctorate. However, because of financial problems, he 
left next spring to become lecturer on bird and wildlife conservation 
in Indiana for the Indiana Conservation Department and National 
Audubon Society. Upon request of Col. Richard Lieber, Sidney estab- 
lished the Indiana State Park naturalist service at Turkey Run State 
Park and v/as Chief Naturalist of Indiana State Parks from 1927-1933 
and again from 1945-1949. He conducted nature study classes at 
Culver, Indiana, 1933-1945, for the Woodcraft Camp at Culver Military 
Academy in summer school and taught evening division classes in birds 
geology, insects and camp counseling at Butler University, 1933-1952. 
Sidney was also naturalist at Holliday Park in Indianapolis, Indiana, for 
two summers. He became a teacher in Indianapolis city schools in 1934. 
After several assignments, he went to Broad Ripple High School in 1943 
and taught there until 1962, when he I'etired. He substituted after that. 
He is honored at Bi'oad Ripple by a scholarship fund established in 
his name. 

Sidney's ministerial duties did not end with the pastorate at Ander- 
son. He substituted for fellow ministers, performed marriage ceremonies 

Necrology 47 

and conducted summer activities for young people. He was also active 
in the Boy Scout and Girl Scout work. 

His hobbies, related to natural history and teaching, were of such 
general interest, that several newspaper and magazine articles were 
devoted to them. A collection of painted ties (many made by his 
daughter, Virginia, biology teacher) arrested attention in a special way 
in his classes. Some were decorated with objects illustrating the 
subject of the day, but others conveyed a message such as: a spotted 
tie for an approaching test (spots before the eyes?), or an airplane 
for test day (up in the air?). He took up color photography while state 
naturalist and made several thousand beautiful slides of plants and 
animals. He organized a Photo Club at Broad Ripple High School and 
compiled a photographic history of the school and community. He was 
president of the Biological Unit of the American Topical Association 
and a memorial issue of Bio-Philately dedicated to him is a revision of 
his Handbook of Birds on Stamps which is of international interest. 
In 1949, it was estimated that he had a collection of more than 6,000 
bird postage stamps believed to be the largest in the world. His wife, 
Mabel, botany teacher, and his daughter are well-known for their collec- 
tions of natural history subjects on buttons. 

Sidney Esten was a noted authority on birds and was one of the 
persons urging the cardinal as our state bird. Col. Richard Lieber was, 
undoubtedly, a great influence in Sidney's life in choosing birds and 
conservation as lasting interests. 

Sidney Esten joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1924 and 
became a Fellow in 1930. He presented a number of papers at meetings, 
mostly on birds, but others included nature guiding, conservation and 
the finding of a copper nugget at Turkey Run State Park. He served 
on the Biological Survey and Junior Academy of Science Committees. 
He was a member of the committee which organized the Junior Academy 
of Science and was appointed "field" and ^'contact" man at an organiza- 
tional meeting, Dec. 5, 1931. He was also a member of Sigma Xi, 
American Ornithological Union and national and state Audubon Societies, 
being president of the latter in 1939. 

Numerous articles and publications were written by Sidney Esten, 
the last being his valuable contributions to Compton's Dictionary of 
Natural Sciences published by the Compton Co., Division of the 
Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., which appeared in 1966. 

Mr. Esten was active and looking forward to ever-widening interests 
until the day he died at Indianapolis, Indiana, November 20, 1965. He 
had just fed his beloved wild birds in the yard when stricken. Not many 
are so fortunate to have such a zest for life and its fulfillment until 
that final day. 

Charles Matthias Goethe 

Sacramento, California Sacramento, California 

March 28, 1875 July 11, 1966 

Charles Matthias Goethe, son of a real estate broker, had made a 
fortune by the time he was 30 years old. Born in rural surroundings 

48 Indiana Academy of Science 

at Sacramento, California, March 28, 1875, he was gently guided at an 
early age in nature lore by his father who was born in Australia. Dr. 
Goethe was a precocious child and astonished his schoolmates with 
knowledge of various fields of life science. Fern fossils from Mazon 
Creek, Illinois, Tertiary bones and teeth of fossil horses and camels 
were part of a home museum established by the time he was seven years 
old. This nucleus of material later developed into the California Junior 
Museum Network. He worked in his father's office in his teens in the 
late 1800's and early 1900's, and then as a private banker in financing 
and developing much of the residential area of East Sacramento. 

Dr. Goethe's inquiring mind and great understanding turned to 
zoology, ethnology, botany, ecology, genetics and geology along with 
history, art, economics and literature as the boy matured and progressed 
into manhood. During his life he wrote 40 books. He traveled to many 
parts of the world to participate in field studies of animals and plants 
threatened with extinction and searched for solutions to unresolved 
problems. He studied the almost extinct Ceylon elephants, the zebra and 
giraffe of Africa, the flora and fauna of the jungles of Mexico and the 
desert lands of California. His field notes had entries on the Tamarisks 
in the Middle East, the dolomites of Tyrol, bones from the La Brea 
asphalt and dandelions of the Hebrides. 

He studied the peoples of many lands and had a great compassion 
for the underlying problems of the disadvantaged. Overpopulation and 
disease claimed his interest with a recognition that a study of genetics 
and oceanography could supply answers to some of the problems. Many 
of you may have received the brochures which he distributed widely, 
advocating human eugenics under Christian auspices. He realized that 
the study of oceanography held the key to a better knowledge of a food 
source from the sea for the future to produce better fed, healthier 

In the brochures, Goethe referred to his v/ife and himself as "We-2" 
or "We-too." He proposed to Mary Glide several times but was 
rejected for being a "money machine." He was finally accepted after 
promising that every cent earned after marriage would go for the 
betterment of mankind, a promise fulfilled. They worked together 
finding great happiness contributing time and money to about one 
hundred and seventy-five projects presenting a great diversity of under- 
takings. Mary Glide Goethe was the inspiration for a life of under- 
standing and helpfulness to others. 

His devotion to educating the American public to the wonders of 
nature led Dr. Goethe to urge the establishment of the Nature Guide or 
Naturalist Ranger Service for the public park systems. He supplied 
books and subscriptions to periodicals to hundreds of schools and 
libraries in the nation, conceived the idea and gave substantial contribu- 
tions for a planetarium in San Francisco, was a pioneer in a movement 
to save the California redwoods, aided in many ways the National Park 
movement and other efforts to conserve nature. He served as a member 
of the Board of Governors and National Council of the Nature 
Conservancy organization. 

He received many honors such as being made Honorary Chief Park 
Naturalist and a U.S. Department of Interior Conservation Award. He 

Necrology 49 

became Fellow of the Eugenics Society of Great Britain, Fellow and 
Life Member of a number of State Academies of Science, Honorary Life 
Member in the American Genetic Association, Honorary Chairman of 
the 1966 National Audubon Society Convention, Doctor of Law from 
the University of the Pacific and the McGeorge College of Law. Sacra- 
mento State College named its Science Building after him (he was chair- 
man of the board 1947). A national recognition day was arranged in 
his honor March 28, 1965, when he was 90 years old. Telegrams were 
sent for the occasion by Pres. Lyndon Johnson, Secretary of the Interior 
Udall, Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Governor of California, Mayor of 
Sacramento and many others. Much of the material in this report was 
gleaned from a booklet containing the numerous congratulatory messages 
and testimonials written for the occasion. Dr. Goethe is also listed in 
Who's Wiho in America. 

C. M. Goethe joined the Indiana Academy of Science in May, 1950. 
He sent us a number of checks to be used for specified purposes such as 
encouraging young scientists to attend our meetings by defraying some 
of their expenses. A congratulatory letter was sent by the Academy 
secretary to Dr. Goethe on his 90th birthday. 

When Dr. Goethe passed away July 11, 1966, in Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia, after a brief illness, he was 91 years old. He was a church, 
fraternal and civic leader, friend of youth, educator, conservationist, 
scientist and above all, a great man. 

Ned Guthrie 

Shelby County, Illinois Madison, Indiana 

February 8, 1899 February 5, 1966 

Ned Guthrie was born February 8, 1899, near Herrick in Shelby 
County, Illinois. His high school training was completed at Pana, Illi- 
nois, and he received a B.S. in 1925 from Illinois Wesleyan University 
at Bloomington, Illinois. He had taught three years in rural schools prior 
to this. He received the M.S. degree in Chemistry at the University of 
Illinois in 1926 and continued there as a summer student in advanced 
studies and research the summers of 1926, 1929-1931 and 1934-1936. He 
became Professor of Chemistry and Head of the Department at Hanover 
College, Indiana, in 1926 and retained that position until 1962 when he 
was made Professor Emeritus. During his career, more than one hundred 
of his former students received a Ph.D. in Chemistry or an M.D. Profes- 
sor Guthrie was keenly interested in athletics, often attending inter- 
collegiate and intramural games. He made a compilation of Hanover's 
football record since 1886. He prepared a newsletter to send to his 
former students to help keep in touch and continued to keep records and 
interest in them until his recent illness. 

Prof. Guthrie was a charter member and the 1956 President of the 
Indiana Chemical Society and became an Emeritus Member of the 
American Chemical Society in 1963 after 35 years of active membership. 
He was made a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science in 1936 and was elected to Phi Kappa Phi, Sigma Xi and 
Delta Epsilon Honor Societies. He is listed in American Men of Science 
and Indiana Scientists. 

50 Indiana Academy of Science 

Prof. Guthrie served as elder and treasurer for 25 years of the 
Hanover Presbyterian Church. He was a past Master and treasurer of 
the Hanover Masonic Lodge, belonged to the Ancient Accepted Scottish 
Rite in Indianapolis and was a member of the Eastern Star. 

He became a member of the Indiana Academy of Science in 1927 and 
served as Chairman of the Chemistry Section in 1933 and Chairman of 
the History of Science Section in 1962. He was elected Fellow of the 
Indiana Academy of Science in 1953. He spoke to the History of Science 
Section, when he was chairman, on chemical research publications by 
alumni of Hanover College. Other papers delivered before the Chemical 
Section embraced teaching chemistry, chemical terms and preparation and 
properties of some ethoxy compounds. He served on various committees 
of the Academy. In the same fine tradition of service, his son, Frank A. 
Guthrie of Rose Polytechnic, Terre Haute, Indiana, now serves as treas- 
urer of our society, a valuable legacy. 

Ned Guthrie died February 5, 1966, in a hospital in Madison, Indiana. 
As chairman of the Department of Chemistry at Hanover College his 
sincere interest in students and professional ability had contributed to 
a very effective administration. In the organizations to which he had 
belonged, professional, religious and fraternal, he had served long and 

Janet Fern Henson 

Paris, Illinois Terre Haute, Indiana 

February 24, 1942 August 1, 1965 

Miss Janet Fern Henson, born February 24, 1942, grew up and 
attended public school in Paris, Illinois. She was in the upper ten per 
cent of her class when she graduated from Paris High School, May, 1959. 
She entered Indiana State University at Terre Haute, Indiana, the fol- 
lowing fall where she majored in biology and minored in chemistry on 
the teaching curricula. She had a special interest in botany and was a 
competent and reliable laboratory assistant in this field for 3 years. Her 
Academy membership began in 1961. She graduated in June, 1963, and 
went back to Paris, Illinois, in September, 1963, to teach Biology and 
Chemistry. She also taught the next year. 

In 1964, she returned to Indiana State to work on her Master's 
Degree. It was while at Terre Haute to attend summer sessions at 
college, August 1, 1965, that this young, talented scientist met a tragic 
death by murder along with her mother, sister and a friend. Her unfor- 
tunate demise ended a short but very promising career. The brevity of 
this memorial is mute testimony to society's loss. 

Richard A(ugust) Laubengayer 

Salina, Kansas Crawfordsville, Indiana 

September 10, 1902 May 5, 1966 

Dr. Richard A. Laubengayer was born September 10, 1902, in Salina, 
Kansas. He received a B.S. in 1925 and a Ph.D. in 1934 from Cornell 
University, where he was an assistant in Botany from 1925-1927, and 




52 Indiana Academy of Science 

instructor from 1928-1929, 1931-1938 and 1940-1945. He was a Profes- 
sor of Botany at the University at Puerto Rico at Mayaguez in 1929-1930, 
Insti-uctor of Botany at Northwestern University, 1938-1939, and assist- 
ant professor at Wabash College 1946-1949. He was Associate Professor 
at Wabash College, 1950-1956, and Rose Professor of Botany, 1956-1965, 
when he resigned because of ill health. 

One of his early and lasting research interests was the morphology 
and anatomy of corn. While teaching at Wabash College, he conducted 
studies on the effects of radiation on plant life. This work was done 
under contract with the Atomic Energy Commission. He collaborated 
on the Johnson, Laubengayer and DeLanney General Biology Textbook 
published by Henry Holt and Company, 1956, and wrote material for a 
Lab Manual for General Biology, 1956. 

Dr. Laubengayer belonged to a number of organizations such as the 
Botanical Society of America, American Association of University Pro- 
fessors, Nature Conservancy, Ecological Society of America, American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Biological Stain Commis- 
sion, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi, and Alpha Zeta. He served in the Boy 
Scout and Explorer Scout activities at Crawfordsville. 

He joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1946, the year he 
began teaching at Crawfordsville. He was a member of various com- 
mittees and became a Fellow and Editor in 1956. He served as editor 
until 1965, the longest period that anyone has ever held this position. 
This embraced a difficult period in the history of the society because of 
adjustments to a rapid rise in cost of publication. As Chairman of the 
Index Committee, he prepared the Cumulative Index for the Proceedings 
of the Indiana Academy of Science, Volumes 61 to 70, published in 1962. 
This was a large task and of great service to Academy members. On 
October 8, 1965, a special nomination was made and Dr. Laubengayer 
was elected as Honorary President of the Indiana Academy of Science 
in recognition of his service. This was a distinguished honor never con- 
ferred before. 

He was a very enthusiastic and popular teacher and received the 
Distinguished Professor Award given by the Senior Council of Wabash 
College. He is listed in Who's Who in America, American Men of Science 
and Indiana Scientists. 

Dr. Laubengayer's enthusiasm and great interest in nature made 
him a stimulating companion on botanical field trips. Whether he was 
up in the mountains of Canada collecting algae for classroom work, sunk 
to the armpits in a bog, or conducting you on a tour of the lovely sur- 
roundings of his rural home, there were prizes to be found, lessons to 
be taught and marvels to enjoy! He found that most elusive of treasures, 
happiness, in the enjoyment of his natural surroundings. 

Memorial services were held at Wabash College Chapel, May 10, 
1966, to honor Dr. Laubengayer. Many colleagues, friends and relatives 
attended. It was obvious that he was held in great esteem by his asso- 
ciates. He was a kind friend, respected scientist, stimulating conversa- 
tionalist, great teacher and honorable man. 

Necrology 53 

Jeanette S. Pelton 

Minneapolis, Minnesota Indianapolis, Indiana 

October 31, 1924 October 20, 1966 

Jeanette S. Pelton, daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth Siron, was 
born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 31, 1924. She attended the 
University of Minnesota where she was a teaching assistant and re- 
ceived a B.A. degree in 1947 and a M.A. degree in 1950. She was married 
in 1948 to Dr. John Forrester Pelton, also a former Minnesota Univer- 
sity graduate student. In 1953, they came to Indianapolis where Dr. 
Pelton is now head of the Botany Department of Butler University. 

Jeanette continued her research in Indianapolis and was a part- 
time lecturer in the Botany Department at Butler University from 1955- 
1958. She was a great asset to the department taking an active interest 
in seminars and other departmental activities. She wrote a fine article 
for the Butler Alumnus (Spring, 1965) about the Botany Department 
and alumni called "Ever Widening Circles." She found time besides 
teaching, for being a wife and mother to a son, George S., to be on the 
index committee of Ecological Monographs and to write a number of 
articles related primarily to the genetic basis of growth. Some papers 
appeared in the Butler University Botanical Studies, others were sub- 
mitted elsewhere including a very important one which appeared in the 
Botanical Review in 1964 entitled, "Genetic and Morphogenetic Studies 
of Angiosperm Single Gene Dwarfs." She was an able partner to her 
husband in annual summer field studies which took them to the Rocky 
Mountains and western desert areas for a number of years. 

Jeanette S. Pelton joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1953 
and attended the Botanical Section meetings. She was very active in the 
Butler University Sigma Xi — RESA Club and was hostess for the annual 
dinner held in May, 1966. She had served as Secretary-Treasurer and 
v/as President-elect at the time of her death. She was also a member 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American 
Institute of Biological Science, Botanical Society of America, Sigma 
Delta Epsilon, and American Association of University Women. She 
was listed in Who's Who in the MidWest, 1966. 

The death of Jeanette S. Pelton, October 20, 1966, after a lost 
struggle with cancer, brought to a close the life of a gracious and 
intelligent person, dedicated to helping others. 


Whither the Indiana Academy of Science? 

Carrolle a. Markle, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 

"The President shall deliver a public address on the evening of one of 
the days of the meeting- at the expiration of his term of office" was 
By-Law 2 and it first appeared in published form in the Proceedings of 
this Academy in 1893 (6). Some years later the wording was changed 
to read "the morning of one of the days," then still later no such by-law 
appeared; and now the Constitution of the Academy does not indicate a 
public address as one of the duties of the President. Yet the custom is 
still with us. (That there are issues of the Proceedings which contain 
no address leads me to wonder if none was delivered, or whether it was 
considered unprintable; or perhaps the author did not follow the direc- 
tions of the Editor, or failed to get the typed copy in on time!) 

As I was trying to decide upon a topic for my presidential address, 
I went back through the years to see what subjects had been presented 
and to soak up a little history of the Academy. From the 33 people who 
attended the first spring meeting of the Academy in 1885 to the 133 
whose names are found in the first published membership list of 1891- 
1892, we have grown to the present membership of over 1100. When we 
look back at the organization and committee structure of the early years 
of the Academy we find substantially the same number of committees 
listed and essentially many of the same interests or functions as today, 
but through the years some very active eff'orts have been made by special 
committees set up to function for varying periods of time, to meet 
special needs. It is these committees that often carried the flag of the 
Academy most effectively and that sound so interesting to us today, for 
example, committees to consider legislation for the restriction of weeds, 
for the preservation of birds, for the preservation of the aboriginal earth- 
works near Anderson, to name three very early ones. 

In looking at titles or in reading some of the presidential addresses, 
I have found they covered subjects relating to practically every field of 
science, as was to be expected. But the number that related to the 
history of science, or of Indiana science, or that had philosophical, edu- 
cational, sociological or even political implications was noticeable. It is 
my opinion that many members of the Academy might gain considerable 
perspective by spending a few hours reading some of these past addresses 
which stand as a part of our heritage and, furthermore, they would find 
them enlightening and enjoyable hours. It might be noted that the first 
published address was in 1891, by 0. P. Hay, a palaeontologist at 
Butler University and was entitled "A Consideration of Some Theories 
of Evolution" (4). Some other addresses of particular interest to me 
were : 

The Interdependence of Liberal Pursuits 
The Special Senses of Plants 


Presidential Address 55 

Science and the State 

Photomicrography as it May Be Practised Today (1900) 

The Evolution of Medicine in Indiana 

The History and Control of Sex 

The Place of Research in Undergraduate Schools (this in 1910) 

The Work of the Indiana Academy of Science (1913) 

A Century of Progress in Scientific Thought (for Indiana's 
100th birthday) 

Biological Laws and Social Progress 

Bacteriology and its Practical Significance 

The Earth's Framework 

More Scientific Education; Less Educational Measurement (1927) 

Physics, Past and Present 

The Story of Synthetic Rubber 

The Aquatic Habitat 

Indiana as a Critical Botanical Area 

Parasitism as a Way of Life 

Biology and the Post- War World 

The Capture and Use of Sunlight 

Science and Conservation of Our Natural Resources 
But it is not my intention to linger further on these topics, nor to 
follow in the footsteps of the authors of past addresses, either by 
presenting a paper based upon any research of mine, or any achievement 
in a department of science, or a review of the present day status of a 
particular science. In this sesquicentennial year I have chosen to raise 
the question, "Whither the Indiana Academy of Science?" This should 
indicate that I intend to raise questions which relate to the future — and, 
furthermore, I now state, unequivocally, that there will be questions I do 
not intend to answer. This may be an innovation. That innovations are 
not new in science we should be fully aware, though perhaps the word 
and idea was overworked in our educational jargon of a few years ago. 
I particularly appreciated the statement of Stanley Coulter (3) to the 
Academy in 1896, when he said he recognized the fact that ^'innovation is 
dangerous, especially when it involves an attempt to give definite form 
to thoughts, which in varying degrees of distinctness are common prop- 
erty." So I shall leave the answers to you and the Academy of tomorrow. 
However, before raising my specific questions, there are two kinds 
of background information I would like to present. First, something of 
what seems to have been the Academy's position, historically, as regards 
its objectives, its functions, its progress; and second, something of what 
other state academies of science are doing today. 

In 1913, Bodine (1) said in his retiring address that: "Societies, like 
individuals, must be undergoing a continuous development, unless they 
are moribund. They must be adapted to the needs and demands of the 
times, and from time to time readjustments are imperative if a vigorous 
life is to be maintained. Not too infrequently, then, should we pause 
to take stock of our present condition and consider ways and means by 
which greater effectiveness can be secured." Perhaps now is a time 
for taking stock. 

56 Indiana Academy of Science 

John M. Coulter in 1924 (2) commented that "An organization like 
the Academy of Science is primarily intended to secure perspective. It 
is at these meetings we bring our fields together, and discover they 
form one landscape ... I can wish nothing better for you than that 
your threefold ideal shall be: (1) the advancement of knowledge that 
man may live in an everwidening horizon; (2) the application of knowl- 
edge to the service of man; and (3) the training of man in the methods 
of science, that he may solve his problems and not be their victim." 
Certainly these ideals, if they are being met now and continue to be 
met as the years move along, will mean change and, hopefully, progress. 

As one reads today's Constitution and By-Laws of the Indiana 
Academy of Science (7), one notes that its specific objectives are: "to 
promote scientific research and the diffusion of scientific information; 
to encourage communication and cooperation among scientists, especially 
in Indiana; to prepare for publication such reports of investigation and 
discussion as may further the aims and objectives of the Academy . . . 
and to improve education in the sciences." It is to be hoped that v/e 
all subscribe to all these objectives, and if we do, we, must be aware of 
the fact that we in Indiana do not operate in a vacuum but in an environ- 
ment which involves a rapidly changing scientific climate, hence chang- 
ing patterns may need to be considered if we achieve objectives. 

One of my most useful sources of information about other state 
academies and their functions today has been the Directory and Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy Conference of 1965 (5). It was a member of 
long standing in our Academy who suggested we should know more 
about what other academies are doing in order to evaluate our own. 
Thirty-five states submitted information about their academies in this 
publication, and the following facts may be of interest. 

1. Indiana Academy of Science ranks in the top ten state academies in 
terms of membership size, with only California, Maryland, Michigan, 
Minnesota, Nebraska and Ohio having more members. 

2. Most state academies have several science sections or divisions such 
as we do, but there are many other areas or fields of science, and 
some social sciences, that have been represented by sections in other 
states. It should be understood that no one academy would have all 
of the following list of sections in addition to the ones we do in 
Indiana, but here are a few that we do not recognize as separate 
divisions: Forestry, Science Education, Science Teaching, Medical 
Science, Astronomy, Meteorology and Climatology, Industry and Eco- 
nomics, Engineering, Radiation, Agriculture, Aquatic Biology, Philos- 
ophy of Science. 

3. We know that most state academies publish at least one volume of 
proceedings or transactions, or one journal of some sort, per year, 
but some also send out from one to four newsletters per year. One 
academy states that it publishes "Memoirs — Proceedings — Occasional 
Papers — Monthly Newsletter and Bimonthly Magazine". Sometimes 
the publication is a quarterly journal or bulletin, and one of our sister 
states indicates it publishes six issues of its journal of science, and 
two issues of its newsletter per year, and in addition special publica- 
tions at irregular intervals. 

Presidential Address 57 

4. When it comes to science education activities we find the greatest 
variation among- state academies. Of the thirty-five that listed their 
activities (in such a manner that it is not always easy to compare) 
we find: 

26 sponsor a Junior Academy of Science, with functions much 

like ours; 
14 sponsor a Collegiate Academy, and this is apparently a recent 

and, perhaps, a growing trend; 

17 sponsor Science Fairs, Talent Searches or some special science 
day programs with awards or special acknowledgments of 

5. In the awarding of grants or moneys there is also much variation. 
Grants-in-aid or scholarships to high school students are listed by ten 
academies, and five academies make available grants-in-aid to college 
science students. Only a very few academies list research grants to 
adult or senior scientists, and these are spoken of as "modest." To 
really make a study of grants, however, one would need more ade- 
quate information because of the lack of uniformity in the way this 
activity was reported. 

6. Some state academies have other very ambitious activities listed, 
such as field expeditions to fairly distant places as Alaska, Galapogos 
Islands, Brazil, Mexico, etc., not just local field trips; operation of a 
planetarium and science museum; public lecture series or science 
seminar programs often in different sections of the state; operation 
of coastal research laboratory; operation of a full time central office, 
administering a varied and full program of science features and radio 
programs (weekly). One academy is about to try to raise two million 
dollars to match the state's two million, for the building of its own 
headquarters for the academy on land donated by the capital city. 

7. Special sponsoring or encouragement of college undergraduate papers 
was indicated. One state indicated twenty papers were given by col- 
lege undergraduates at its annual academy session in 1965, and 
another state now regularly sponsors a research paper program for 
college science undergraduates. 

Having given some background, let us get down to the questions I 
have been threatening. Last November, in preparation for assuming the 
presidency of this academy, I sent out a mimeographed letter to about 
fifty members of the Indiana Academy of Science (mostly present or 
recent officers or committee chairmen plus some relatively new members 
known to be somewhat critical of the Academy) asking for their 
"thoughtful and candid appraisal of the Academy's situation" concern- 
ing the following four questions: 

1. What should be our main function or functions in the Indiana 

Academy of Science? 

2. What do we do well that should be continued? 

3. What do we leave undone, or do poorly, that we ought to be 

doing, or doing better? 

58 Indiana Academy of Science 

4. What new trends, ideas, functions would you like to have the 
Indiana Academy of Science take on, and how might they best 
be initiated or implemented? 

Not everyone replied; in fact, less than half the members to whom the 
questions were sent did, but the replies were heartening in that several 
viable criticisms were voiced, often by more than one person; and con- 
structive suggestions were offered, some of which I have taken the 
liberty of passing on to the specific committee chairmen involved so 
that something might be done immediately if they felt it was desirable. 
I was not overwhelmed with replies, however, and I felt there might be 
a person or two not reached by the earlier communication who would 
like to comment on the Academy's status and future, so the same four 
questions were raised again in my presidential letter to all members of 
the Academy, in March of last spring. There were some replies to this 
letter, and other thoughtful suggestions. 

The following is a sort of abbreviated summarization of some of 
these suggestions that it seems to me should be recorded for possible 
reference or action, if you deem desirable. 

In general our stated objectives and functions are deemed right and 
proper, and several expressed the feeling that we have made advances in 
keeping with the times, but some felt we still needed a "shot in the arm" 
or that we are a somewhat "conservative outfit," and that we might do 
more to improve the scientific climate of our immediate geographical 
area, not only among scientists of the state but the general citizenry as 
well. That we are doing things only "fairly well" was suggested, or 
that there was room for improvement, that it is not always the result 
of faulty organization but rather the result of lack of imagination or 
energy and proliferation of interests on the part of those who have the 
responsibility when results fall short of fulfilling objectives. 

Specific comments indicated that we might encourage and improve 
communications and cooperation among Indiana scientists by giving 
better opportunities at our meetings for people to get to know each 
other, to broaden horizons and interests among ourselves in Indiana. 
Many scientists in institutions that are not large or affluent cannot regu- 
larly attend national meetings, but most can afford the time and cost 
of attending state meetings which could provide better for exchange of 
ideas and be more stimulating, over perhaps even a broader spectrum 
of disciplines. Special symposia or programs for collegiate level teach- 
ing and research activities, or special social periods of fellowship and 
conversation might be included. That our present one day program 
makes this difficult is clear. 

As to our meetings or the question of where and when they should 
be held, one person suggested that all meetings be at the larger, more 
centrally located campuses, but there were those who felt that visiting 
the smaller institutions was equally valuable, if scientists there were 
interested in being hosts, and that even if facilities were less capacious 
we should continue the rotational system of the past, but care should be 
taken not to have consecutive meetings in the same region. One pro- 
posal was that the research paper meeting be held in the spring, instead 
of fall, so there would be less conflict with other fall meetings and so 

Presidential Address 59 

there might be better opportunity for both students and faculty to pre- 
pare papers. Still another suggestion was that the Junior Academy might 
come in the spring, instead of fall, to give the younger scientists more 
chance to attend the senior papers in the fall, and the senior members 
a better chance to attend junior papers and give encouragement and con- 
structive criticism. 

It was felt that we could encourage institutions hosting the Academy 
to do more to inform the group of their research and teaching activity 
because one often finds in another's teaching methods, or in another's 
laboratories and its gadgets, things which stimulate one's own imagina- 
tion. That such demonstrations call for adjustment of the program so 
that they do not compete with papers is obvious, and, again, a one day 
meeting makes this difficult. 

There was considerable feeling that spring field trips should not be 
eliminated, as had been suggested two springs ago, but rather that they 
be revitalized to become a more outstanding part of the Academy, as 
they have sometimes been in the past. It was deemed desirable that we 
continue our historically strong natural history orientation, and field trips 
are an area in which we generally would not compete with national 
societies, and an area that offers real possibilities for "cross fertilization" 
of the sciences as well as an opportunity for fellowship. 

There were criticisms that the management of the Academy is vested 
too much in a closed society, or a comparatively small group has been 
active as officers and committee chairmen, that new blood should be 
brought in to both elected and appointed committees, that perhaps many 
have not been active because no one has asked them to be. 

There were comments on our research papers and on the publication 
of the Proceedings. It is generally agreed that we probably cannot com- 
pete with national organizations for some kinds of papers, or for those 
whose authors are seeking national prestige or to greatly enlarge their 
sphere of influence. However, we should continue to attract good papers 
and not be the dumping ground for second rate research. In view of 
undergraduate research participation today, some of the best of this 
should find its way into our Proceedings. There were many who ex- 
pressed the feeling that the Academy meetings and publication perform 
a vital function in training of graduate students by offering a place where 
they can begin the presentation of their research, and where they can 
at the same time receive encouragement and constructive criticism. Some 
papers were thought to have been given which were not deemed quite 
up to the Indiana Academy of Science standards, and it was felt that 
the editorial committee might exercise more control by not accepting 
such papers for publication. 

Earlier or prompter delivery of the Proceedings was of general con- 
cern. That events beyond anyone's control have complicated the issuance 
of our Proceedings in the past should be emphasized — for example, the 
serious and protracted illness of the former Editor which necessitated 
the very difficult problem of picking up where he left off, as well as the 
ever-with-us problem of printers, their schedules and expensive services. 

A comment was made that the rule necessitating the actual presen- 
tation of papers by authors or their representatives might have resulted 

60 Indiana Academy of Science 

in the loss of fine papers for the Academy, and hence a journal separate 
from the Proceedings might make such oral presentation unnecessary 
for publication of some articles. That some workers in the state have 
monograph materials awaiting publication, and these particularly perti- 
nent to or about Indiana natural science, might also argue that it may 
be time to increase the frequency of publication or establish a new 
journal or quarterly. That there is a growing body of other sorts of 
good research material by Indiana scientists awaiting publication was 
mentioned by some and this, too, may indicate it is time to consider 
additional publications of some sort. 

That the function of the Academy in improving education in the 
sciences is in general being well met was often voiced though there was 
some concern that this area of our activities should not be considered 
the prerogative of members of one or a limited number of institutions, 
or of any one set of committee members, over too long a period. There 
were many who felt we could take an even stronger stand in the field 
of science education, or in promoting better science education, but that 
while we should continue to promote such activities as we now have, 
vigorously, we should not spread ourselves too thin. However, there 
were those who suggested the introduction of a section or division on 
the teaching of science, realizing that this may evoke an almost violent 
reaction in some quarters. Suggestions of a distinguished science lecture 
series, or symposia or programs for college teachers within the state 
were numerous. For example, the possibility of NSF or otherwise financed 
Visiting Scientists Programs on the collegiate level, to introduce teachers 
and researchers to each other in the state, and to stimulate them and 
their students (who after all are to become tomorrow's teachers and 
researchers in science). Perhaps this has real virtue since our meeting 
time is almost too full for adequate exchange of ideas. 

The suggestion of topical symposia for the fall or spring meetings 
were suggested — for example in biology, ones on newer techniques in 
systematics, developmental biology, ecology, limnology, to name a few. 
These Symposia, spread over several years, could be planned to bring in 
experts in a number of areas and this could help in updating both 
research and teaching. 

There are concerns about our membership and the feeling v/e should 
do more active campaigning or proselyting. There are scientists in 
Indiana who should belong to the Academy and who do not, and whose 
contributions would be valued. That there is some disdain for our pro- 
gram is true. Perhaps an efi'ort should be made to create a program 
which will appeal and better fill local needs and of the sort that will 
not compete with national organizations. Again, better communications 
are stressed, better publicizing of our functions. If there are weak or 
sporadic sections or divisions they should be revitalized or eliminated so 
that they do not breed contempt, and lessen the over-all effectiveness 
of the divisions that are strong. Possibly new sections might increase our 
membership and broaden and hence increase the influence of the Academy 
if these are in areas where state interests can be met and hence real 
contributions made. There was stress on obtaining more good high 
school teachers in our ranks (there are very few teachers) and superior 

Presidential Address 61 

students, both in the junior academy, and collegiate students. It was 
suggested that special programs for collegiate students might be just 
as significant today in promoting science as the programs for high school 

In view of the activities of other academies, and having heard some 
of the suggestions from our own membership for the betterment of the 
organization, let me in closing put to you again the four questions I 
started with. 

1. What should be our main function or functions in the Indiana 

Academy of Science ? 

2. What do we do well that should be continued? 

3. What do we leave undone, or do poorly, that we ought to be doing, 

or doing better? 

4. What new trends, ideas, functions would you like to have the 

Indiana Academy of Science take on, and how might they best 
be initiated or implemented? 

Let me suggest that only as you express your views and work for 
the Academy can it remain a strong one, or become a stronger one. 
Whither the Indiana Academy of Science goes depends on the member- 
ship, and the leadership and energy assumed by imaginative members. 

Literature Cited 

1. BoDiNE, Donaldson. 1914. The Work of the Indiana Academy of Science. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 23:43-5;]. 

2. Coulter, John M. 1925. The Evolution of Botany. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 34: 


3. CouLTEK, Stanley. 1S97. Science and the State. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. «:33-46. 

4. Hay, O. P. 1892. A Con.sideration of Some Theories of Evolution. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 2:33-46. 

5. Directory and Proceedings of the Academy Conference, 19G5. Issued as 
Mimeographed Copy under AAAS auspices, p. 1-7 7. 

6. Indiana Academy of Science Constitution and By-Laws. 1893. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 3 :7-8. 

7. . 1965. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 74:21-29. 

1816 - 1966 


A Symposium of invited papers arranged by the Sesquicentennial 
Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science for presentation October 
22, 1966, at the Indiana Institute of Technology, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 

William R. Eberly, Editor 


64 Indiana Academy of Science 

It was appropriate that the Indiana Academy of Science take note 
of the celebration of the Sesquicentennial of the State of Indiana during 
1966. To this end, President Carrolle A. Markle appointed a special 
committee under the able chairmanship of Dr. Alton A. Lindsey of 
Purdue University. Other members of the committee included Lois 
Burton, State Library; Ralph E. Cleland, Indiana University; Nellie 
M. Coats, State Library; Clarence F. Dineen, Saint Mary's College; 
William R. Eberly, Manchester College; Ned Guthrie, Hanover College; 
Edward L. Haenisch, Wabash College; Warren E. Hoffman, Indiana 
Institute of Technology; Willis H. Johnson, Wabash College; Carrolle 
A. Markle, Earlham College; and William J. Wayne, Indiana Geological 

A special program of invited papers was arranged for the spring 
meeting on the topic. Natural Features of Indiana. The program is 
noted elsewhere in this volume. The papers have been published as a 
special sesquicentennial volume. Natural Features of Indiana. 

A second effort of the Academy to observe the State's Sesquicen- 
tennial celebration was the solicitation of a series of papers concerning 
the history of the various sections of the Academy, or more specifically, 
the history in Indiana of the various disciplines represented by the 
different sections of the Academy. The writers of these papers are all 
men of long experince in Indiana and long association with the Indiana 
Academy of Science. They have all been active in education and research 
in their own particular field, and all have published widely, including 
numerous papers in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

It is a signal honor and a mark of respect and confidence for these 
men to have been chosen to write the history of their own fields in 
Indiana. The collected papers published herein comprise a unique 
contribution to the history of science in Indiana by those who know 
it best and who have helped to make some of that history as well as 
write it. 

The History of Bacteriology in Indiana 

Leland S. McClung, Indiana University 

This paper will attempt to summarize the beginnings of this area 
of biological science in Indiana. Since the history of the development 
at Indiana University (6), Purdue University (10), Butler University 
(7), DePauw University (11), and Notre Dame University (3) has 
been the subject of previous reviews in the Proceedings of the Indiana 
Academy of Science stress will not be given to these locations. Addi- 
tional information has been published on the germ-free laboratories 
at Notre Dame (3, 4, 8, 9), In expressing my appreciation to the 
various individuals who have supplied the data on which this compila- 
tion has been based, I regret that it will not be possible to give credit 
to each individual by name. Some have supplied more information than 
could be used while others have supplied less than might be desired. All 
of the letters and other material which I have collected for this review 
will be placed in the Archives of the American Society for Microbiology 
— now housed in the Lilly Library on the Bloomington campus of Indiana 
University. Thus others, who may in the future desire additional ma- 
terial, may have access to the complete details. 

At Ball State University (earlier Ball State Teachers College) in 
Muncie, 0. B. Christy introduced — upon his appointment to the faculty 
in 1918 — a course in bacteriology for agriculture students. In 1936 
different introductory courses in this science were offered according to 
the major subject area of the student, and in 1942 a course was added 
for home economics majors. In addition to the usual laboratory experi- 
ments, the courses included field trips to local milk plants, sewage 
disposal installations, clinical laboratories, and industrial companies. 
Dr. Christy first published his laboratory manual in 1940; this was 
titled A Guide for Laboratory Instructions in Bacteriology. A revision 
with Robert H. Cooper was published in 1942. Upon the retirement of 
Dr. Christy in 1950, the responsibility for instruction in bacteriology 
was assumed by George Welker, who with Christy and Cooper revised 
the laboratory manual. Christy's interest in applied microbiology and the 
sanitary standards of the local dairy products is reflected in the short 
course he gave in 1947 for the employees in the dairies in Muncie. 

At Earlham College, about the turn of the century, the first course 
in bacteriology was offered by David Worth Dennis. Legend, if not 
accurate history, indicates that the once heavily bearded professor 
became clean-shaven after concluding — following his study of bac- 
teriology — that beards were not sanitary. In later years bacteriology 
was taught by M. S. Markle and Carrolle Anderson Markle. None of 
these individuals held bacteriology as the primary interest. 

The first organized course in bacteriology at Franklin College 
appears to have been offered by J. W. Adams in 1909. The catalog 
description includes **This course is mainly one of technic. The student 
prepares all media, inoculates specimens with many different forms of 
bacteria and studies growth and action of the same. He also will be 


GG Indiana Academy of Science 

given a fair idea of the methods of identification of common forms, 
making slides from cultures. The relation of the subject to hygiene 
and to infectious diseases, together with the history and relation to 
medicine will also be considered." A similar course has been continued 
to the present in the curriculum of the Department of Biology. 

S. W. Witmer, now Professor Emeritus, introduced the first course 
in bacteriology at Goshen College in the winter quarter of 1921 for 5 
term hours. With the change to the semester plan in 1921-22, the course 
was offered for 3 semester hours credit at the sophomore level. From 
the beginning, an introductory course in the biological sciences was a 
prerequisite. By 1932 the course was moved to the junior level. Other 
instructors included H. Clair Amstutz, M.D., and 0. J. Eigsti. By 1950 
a course in microbiology was added at the sophomore level and designed 
for students in the pre-nursing program. Alta Schrock offered, 1948 to 
1951, both courses. With the retirement of Professor Witmer in 1962, 
J. N. Roth assumed responsibility for the courses — except in 1964-65 
they were taught by Albert Isaak who served as a visiting instructor. 

At Manchester College apparently the first course was offered in 
1932 by 0. W. Neher. This was continued until his retirement in 1954 
when Philip A. Orpurt, whose primary interest is in mycology, joined 
the faculty. 

At Marian College (Indianapolis) Sister John Joseph Blackwell, 
M.D., first offered a course in the second semester of 1944-45. The 
laboratory was conducted in the former Allison greenhouse which had 
been converted to science laboratories. Until 1963 the course was offered 
in alternate years but is now offered each year with Sister Marie Bernard 
Witte as instructor. An additional course was initiated in 1957 for nurses 
from St. Vincent Hospital. With the opening, in 1954, of Marian Hall 
the laboratory sessions are now held in a modern well-equipped labora- 
tory with the usual equipment — a far cry from the beginning days with 
a pressure cooker in a converted greenhouse! 

From 1934-37 the introductory course in microbiology at Marion 
College (Marion) was offered by James Young who had been trained 
in biochemistry. Charles DeVol, Paul Parker, Elizabeth Poe, Thomas 
Davidson, and Maurice Burns followed in successive years. Only the 
latter was trained in bacteriology as a major area. 

When St. Joseph's College (Rensselaer) was advanced from a junior 
to a senior college in 1936, Reverend C. Kroeckel first offered a semester 
course in bacteriology. In 1946 this was taken over by Reverend Urbon 
J. Siegrist, who, in addition to formal class instruction, has found 
time to do research on effect of Azotobacter on germination and growth 
of Helianthus and other plants; on effect of plant extracts on inhibition 
and /or regression of the Rous sarcoma virus in fowls; and on human 
and veterinary pathogens. 

Bacteriology was introduced at Saint-Mary-of-the-Woods in 1920 
as a requirement for majors in home economics, but by 1931 this was 
changed to a general course and in 1963 the course name was changed 
to Microbiology. Beginning in 1943, an additional course "Determinative 
Bacteriology" was offered to provide further training*. This was dis- 

History of Science 67 

continued in 1051 to allow use of the more general course title "Prob- 
lems in Biology." Student interest in bacteriology has been stimulated 
by speakers at the Mendelian Club on topics of current significance in 

Bacteriology appears to have been mentioned first at Saint Mary's 
College in the description of the curriculum for the junior year of 
1963-64. In 1917 a course for home economics majors was offered by 
Sister Laurita who was succeeded in 1919 by a Dr. Powers from Notre 
Dame, In 1935 Sister Amadeo assumed charge and the relatively simple 
tables and equipment were replaced. 

Wabash College will compete with the few colleges which claim to 
have been the first to oflFer a course in bacteriology. The course there 
was introduced in 1892 by Mason B. Thomas. He was followed in 1913 
by Harry W. Anderson (1913-1917), Richard M. Holman (1918-1920), 
Albert R. Bechtel (1921-1953), and Richard A. Laubengayer (1946- 
1966). In 1966 James Cavender, the first of the group to be trained as 
a microbiologist, was added to the faculty. His primary interest is in 
the slime molds, reflecting his training with Kenneth Raper. 

At Valparaiso University, bacteriology seems to have been listed 
as a requirement in pharmacy as early as 1906. It appears that a formal 
course was oflfered only infrequently until 1944 when William W. Bloom 
assumed responsibility for the introductory course. In more recent years 
Robert Hanson has served as the instructor and an advanced course has 
been added. 

Of equal importance to the development of bacteriology in Indiana 
with the curricular development in the various colleges and universities 
is the development of bacteriology in various industries. Representative 
companies should be mentioned. The Eli Lilly and Company, later to 
become one of the largest and best known pharmaceutical companies in 
this country, had its origin (May 10, 1876) in the small shop opened in 
Indianapolis by the founder — Eli Lilly — in the year of the Centennial. 
I have been unable to determine the earliest date on which a person with 
bacteriological training was employed, but certainly this must have been 
by the turn of the century — or before — for from the beginning Colonel 
Lilly had decided to manufacture products for use by the physician. In 
1882 J. K. Lilly, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
had joined the business as superintendent of the laboratories. It should 
be unnecessary to detail the development of this company and to record 
the important discoveries and advances made by the bacteriologists of 
the Production and Research Divisions in vaccines, antisera, antibiotics, 
and other specific antimicrobial compounds. Many interesting details 
are recorded in the book of Clark (1). 

The Pitman-Moore Biological Laboratories, now a division of the 
Dow Chemical Company, were constructed in 1913 to produce hog 
cholera serum and virus for the veterinary profession. Later, standard- 
ized veterinary bacterins were added to the early line of products, and 
by 1932 the laboratories entered the field of human medicine. Approxi- 
mately 40 biologicals are now produced and the following partial list 
of products with date of government licensing indicates the rapid 
growth and development of these laboratories: 

68 Indiana Academy of Science 

1939 — Equine encephalomyelitis vaccine (Eastern and Western 
strains) — first vaccine produced in fertile eggs. 

1949 — Immune serum globulin — produced from human placental 
tissue using the alcohol precipitation method. 

1955 — Poliomyelitis vaccine (Types 1, 2, and 3) — first human 
vaccine using tissue culture methods. 

1960 — Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 

1965 — Measles virus vaccine (live virus, attenuated). 

Microbiology at Miles Laboratories, Inc. (at Elkhart) was de- 
veloped initially as part of an effort to become independent of supplies 
of citric acid which the company used in large tonnage. A consultant 
was employed, who demonstrated a microbial production of citric acid 
early in 1940. The demonstration was not considered to represent a 
commercially feasible process, and research on the problem was initiated 
by members of the Miles staff. These early studies developed the use 
of ion exchange resins for culture medium purification. Both surface and 
submerged fermentation citric acid plant construction was started. 
Throughout this period, considerable culture isolation and mutation 
work were done. 

The first formally organized bacteriology laboratory was formed 
in 1946 by L. B. Schweiger. Studies on the citric acid fermentation 
were continued and brought to a successful outcome. 

The range of bacteriological studies within the company was 
broadened considerably during the 1950's and the development and mar- 
keting of the household antiseptic, BACTINE^^ resulted from this in- 
creased interest in the field of microbiology. Fermentation research 
was further broadened by the transfer of the enzyme laboratory of 
the Takamine Laboratories, now part of Miles Chemical Division, from 
Clifton, New Jersey to Elkhart in 1962. 

Serological and immunological work, with possible applications in 
the diagnostic field, was initiated in the research laboratories of the 
Ames Division of Miles Laboratories, Inc. in 1961. Biological manufac- 
turing in Elkhart was initated with the opening of the citric acid plant 
in 1952. An additional plant to make enzymes and dextrose syrups was 
opened in 1965. Over the years, the microbiological staff of Miles Labora- 
tories, Inc. has developed competence in the following areas: surface 
and submerged fermentation, production of cells, bulk chemicals, enzymes, 
vitamins, growth factors, allergens, and in the areas of serology and 
immunology as they relate to the diagnosis and clinical evaluation of 
disease conditions. 

Bacteriology at Mead Johnson and Company (Evansville) had its 
beginning in the early twenties. At that time, direct microscopic counts 
were being made on milk deliveries along with chemical tests for lactic 
acid content. During this early period, Mead Johnson was already 
making a cultured lactic acid milk product. Around 1925, methylene 
blue reduction tests were made on milk samples at Mead Johnson's sub- 
sidiary plant in Zeeland, Michigan. This test was required at that time 
to conform to standards set by the Chicago Board of Health. 

History of Science 69 

Until 1928 there was no bacteriologist at Mead Johnson. In that 
year, Robert P. Meyers (Ph.D., Cornell) joined the existing but small 
scientific staff with the responsibility for establishing a bacteriological 
laboratory. His tenure with the company was rather short, and in 
1929 Paul S. Prickett (Ph.D., Cornell) came to Mead Johnson. It was 
under his direction that many bacteriological developments were made. 
Dr. Prickett retired in 1964, but during his years with Mead Johnson 
he applied sound sanitary principles to bacteriological problems and 
was instrumental in establishing high standards of microbiological 
quality for company products. 

With the assistance of Norman J. Miller (B.Sc, Iowa State) and 
a small bacteriological staff, studies requiring interdiscipline cooperation 
were conducted in several areas during the thirties and forties. Pablum 
cereal was developed and patented. The ergosterol content of yeast and 
bacteria were studied as a possible high yielding vitamin D source. The 
effect of vitamins on resistance of rats to Staphylococcus aureus was 
investigated. Studies of egg white extracted lysozyme were made in 
an effort to control the intestinal flora of infants. Microbiological 
methods for examining dried milk products were devised; e.g., lithinum 
hydroxide was first used for dissolving milk solids thereby diminishing 
the possibility of confusion with bacterial colonies. Some early work 
in the field of ethylene exide sterilization of food products was conducted 
in the Mead Johnson Bacteriological Laboratory. 

Microbiological assays of vitamins were being made at Mead Johnson 
in the early forties. In addition, the nutritional quality of proteins as 
assayed by microorganism was studied. The development of a protein 
hydrolysate for parenteral administration involved the application of 
immunological principles to the detection and elimination of hyper- 
sensitivity and pyrogens. Further studies were also made concerning 
the use of pectin and agar in the control of diarrhea. 

A management decision to expand company interest to pharma- 
ceuticals as well as nutritional products was implemented in the early 
fifties and was followed by an expansion of the scientific staff and in- 
creased microbiological efforts. Bacteriological studies from then on were 
done in several different departments of the Research Center. Attention 
was given to chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics; and work was 
done on sulfa drugs, helminthics and with tetracycline. Bacterial genetics 
studies with antibiotics producing strains of microorganisms were also 
pursued, and microorganisms were employed in the search for additional 
growth factors. More recently, Mead Johnson undertook the develop- 
ment of the antibiotic Lysostaphin first detected at the University of 
Texas. This enzyme selectively lyses staphylococcal cells. 

A Mead Johnson innovation which required a great deal of bac- 
teriological work concerned development of the Beniflex System of in- 
fant formula feeding. Disposable nursers are filled from cans of formula 
and used for infant feedings in hospitals. All components of this system 
are sterile and the opening and filling operation require aseptic tech- 
nique. With this system, the need for refrigeration is eliminated. 

The last industrial laboratory to be mentioned is the Commercial 
Solvents Corporation (Terre Haute). This, as described by Kelley (5), 

70 Indiana Academy of Science 

was a product of the needs of World War I for acetone, a product of bac- 
terial fermentation of corn. Chaim Weizmann, a native of Russia but 
for many years a resident in England, had been attempting the produc- 
tion of synthetic rubber for which he needed commercial quantities of 
butanol. He had isolated an organism, later named Clostridiiiin aceto- 
butylicwm, which produced butanol, acetone, and a small quantity of 
ethanol by fermentation of carbohydrates. After the United States 
entered the war, the British War Mission bought the plant of the 
Commercial Distillery at Terre Haute and later the U. S. government 
bought the Majestic Distillery. These operations were incorporated 
under the name Commercial Solvents Corporation, and the plants re- 
modeled for the butyl fermentation. The product line of the company 
was later extended, and it should be noted that this company (and also 
the Lilly Laboratories) aided greatly the industrial production of 

Literature Cited 

Clark, R. C. 194G. Threeiscore years and ten, a narratve of the first seventy 
years of El Lilly and Coinpany, 1S7G-1946. Privately printed. 132 p. 

Ervin, R. F. 1946. Lobund : Notre Dame's contribution to bacteriology. 
Notre Dame Scholastic 87(4): ll-14t. 

Ervin, R. F., P. C. Trexler, and J. A. Reyniers 1943. History of bacteriology 
at the Univei'sity of Notre J3ame. Indiana Acad. Sci., Proc. 53: 52-65. 

Ervin, R. F. 1949. Germfree life. Notre Dame Magazine ^(3): 5-10. 

Kelly, F. C. 1936. One thing leads to another. Houghton Mifflin Co., 
Boston. 103 p. 

McClung, D. S. 1943. History of bacteriology at Indiana University. Indiana 
Acad. Sci., Proc. 53: 59-61. 

Palmer, C. M. 1943. History of bacteriology at Butler University. Indiana 
Acad. Sci., Proc. 53: 55-56. 

Pleasants, J. R. 1966. History of germfree animal research at Lobund 
Laboratory — 1928 to 1965. Indiana Acad. Sci., Proc. 75: 220-226. 

Pollard, M. 1964. Germfree animals and biological research. Science 145: 


Tetrault, P. A. 1943. History of bacteriology at Purdue University. Indiana 
Acad. Sci., Proc. 53: 66-71. 

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. History of bacteriology at DeFauw University. Indiana 
Acad. Sci., Proc. 53: 57-58. 

Indiana Botany in Retrospect 

Paul Weatherwax, Indiana University 

It would be difficult to pinpoint the beginnings of botany in Indiana. 
The early European settlers, like the prehistoric inhabitants who had 
been here for centuries, made profound observations at their levels of 
understanding and accumulated much information about the beneficial 
and harmful properties of the plants that they found around them. 
They knew which plants could be used for food, which should be 
avoided, and which had medicinal properties. They were especially well 
acquainted with the durability, strength, elasticity, and other physical 
properties of the many kinds of wood, and they recognized many funda- 
mental ecological relations. They doubtless noted also many other inter- 
esting plant characteristics which they were not immediately able to put 
to use. This primitive lore is often brushed aside as of little consequence, 
but when we sift it judiciously, we find in it much to command respect. 
Although practically none of it was ever published and little was even 
written in letters or diaries, it was, in quality, not far behind what was 
known about plants in Europe up to late Medieval times. 

Whether we should dignify this volume of knowledge by calling it 
botany is a matter of definition. Etymologically, the word refers to 
food value, and in this sense, these early observers were truly botanists. 
But if we prefer to reserve the term for more sophisticated activities, 
involving precise observations, good records, better organization, pos- 
sibly some experiment, and a degree of theoretical consideration, some 
time was yet to elapse before real botany made an appearance in Indiana. 

Early Floristics 

The first studies in our area to measure up in any substantial degree 
to this latter definition of botany were made in the closing years of the 
eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth, before Indiana 
became a state. Some of the early visitors had far more than a mere 
utilitarian interest in botany and brought with them the more or less 
refined techniques in use in the eastern states and in Europe. In a list 
of these, we find such names as Rafinesque, Michaux, Thomas, Nuttall, 
Lapham, and Maximilian, along with many others with more diverse 
interests including botany. The work of these men was summarized in 
some detail by John Merle Coulter and mentioned incidentally by W. S. 
Blatchley, Barton W. Evermann, and others in the Indiana Centennial 
program of this Academy fifty years ago. 

As these pioneer botanists began to explore the new area with 
its rich and unknown flora, their main interest was in collecting and 
naming the plants and preparing herbarium specimens for their own 
use and for exchange with other collectors in the more advanced cultural 
centers. Their interests were limited mainly to the vascular plants. 
This was a kind of activity well adapted to the time and place. It 
required only a minimum of technical training and no elaborate equip- 
ment, and it provided answers for many of the urgent questions that 


72 Indiana Academy of Science 

were being asked about the plants of the New World at that time. It 
is the natural approach to the botany of any underdeveloped country 
and one that can still be profitably engaged in in many parts of the world. 

This phase of the history of botany in Indiana will be treated more 
fully in other parts of this program, but it is introduced here as a bridge 
to certain other points frequently overlooked. These botanists are 
usually thought of as taxonomists, but few of them were really sys- 
tematists in the modern sense of the word. They recognized similarities 
and differences as guides to what was then a useful classification, and 
they attached names to plants which could be used in talking or writing 
about them, but, except for an occasional maverick like Rafinesque, 
they were restricted by the idea of the immutability of organisms and 
the fixity of species. Without any sound and generally accepted concept 
of evolution, they had nothing to give to systematics a philosophical 
basis of meaning. 

In these early floristic studies there was also as much geography 
as taxonomy. This is reflected by the prevalence of lists of plants 
limited to counties, river valleys, the environs of certain towns, or the 
State as a whole. A sophisticated systematics certainly recognizes 
distributional boundaries, but these do not often coincide with lines 
separating political divisions. There is no intention here to discount 
the value of regional catalogs of plants. They will always serve useful 
purposes, but they usually do not solve many problems of theoretical 

A vast wealth of information, not necessarily a part of the taxonomic 
picture is also to be found in these early publications. The pioneer 
botanist had a deep human interest in plants and an active and widely 
ranging curiosity. He often noted interesting characteristics beyond 
those useful as guides to classification, such as unique economic values, 
striking morphological features, adaptations to soil, moisture, and light, 
and many baffling variations which have since yielded to physiological 
or genetic analysis. A perusal of Deam's Flora, the Gray Manual, 
Britton and Brown, or any other comprehensive treatment of this kind 
will disclose much of this lore still carried along. It is largely lost 
because the modern taxonomist employs criteria better suited to his 
purposes, and the morphologist, physiologist, or geneticist seldom has 
the patience to ferret it out. 

A New Emphasis— 1875 to 1900 

As the nineteenth century passed the three-quarter mark, important 
world-wide changes were occurring in botany. The recently promulgated 
theory of organic evolution by natural selection was giving new meaning 
to everything. American botanists were going to Europe for graduate 
study and coming back to introduce new ideas at home. In due time, 
Indiana felt the impact of this catalyst. So here we part company with 
early floristics and look at some of the new developments. The spirit 
of the times may be sensed by examining the activities of this Academy 
as recorded in the first few volumes of its Proceed'mgs. 

For a time, morphology took the lead. It was passing out of the 
old, largely descriptive phase, in which investigators pictured what 

History of Science 73 

they saw but usually had little framework of basic theory on which 
to attach their observations. The brilliant work of Hofmeister and others 
in Europe had shown that the many diverse life histories in the plant 
kingdom tended toward a common theme, and evolution was giving 
these homologies a rational basis. Men like Coulter at Wabash, Arthur 
at Purdue, Hay at Butler, and Jordan at Indiana were disseminating 
the new views with missionary enthusiasm in the backwoods of Indiana. 
This stimulated others to look for new items of information to fill in 
the gaps in the rapidly developing integrated picture. Since this picture 
could not be complete without them, the bryophytes, and then the algae, 
began to assume a prominent place in a range of studies which had 
been largely limited to the vascular plants. Some years were yet to 
elapse before the intricate life histories of most of the fungi could be 

Along with these studies centered largely in phylogeny came many 
isolated items of anatomy and histology which were ultimately to con- 
tribute to a background for physiology, pharmacology, and develop- 
mental morphology. 

A few examples from the field of morphology in its broadest sense 
will give some concrete indication of what was happening. Before 
leaving for Stanford University in 1891, D. H. Campbell, of Indiana 
University, presented a few papers of a series which, continuing for 
many years, was to lead to his being recognized as an international 
authority on the liverworts, mosses, and ferns. D. M. Mottier read 
several papers on the cytology and embryology of angiosperms. Kath- 
erine Golden discussed a variety of subjects, such as the application of 
mathematics to botany, the use of the auxanometer in physiological 
investigations, and the anatomy of wood. Stanley Coulter spoke on 
topics related to forestry and plant anatomy. John S. Wright, who was 
to continue for so many years his generous support of the Academy, 
was discussing drug plants as early as 1892. Two or three early papers 
gave detailed description of apical meristems and contributed toward the 
abandonment of the older idea that an apical cell ought to be found in 
the tips of all stems and roots, at least below the level of the angio- 
sperms. Besides all these, there were many other tantalizing titles of 
morphological papers which may have been read but were not published 
— some of them by investigators who have apparently disappeared from 
botanical history. 

One important stimulus for the morphological studies of this period 
was the development of methods for making thin serial sections, and 
in the early meetings of the Academy there were occasional discussions 
of the paraffin and celloidin techniques and new methods of staining. 

As plant morphology moved rapidly toward the brilliant climax at 
the end of the century, Indiana botanists continued to play significant 
parts. Chromosomes had been discovered, and the more readily visible 
aspects of cell division were described. With the discovery of meiosis 
and of fertilization in the angiosperms, the picture of the sexual life 
cycle was clarified. It was unfortunate, however, that meiosis was not 
at that time equated with fertilization in significance, and we were to 

74 Indiana Academy of Science 

be saddled for a long time with the concept that the gametophyte was 
the sexual and the sporophyte the asexual generation. 

An important phase of the morphological story passed its zenith 
at the very end of the century as the details of the embryology of the 
angiosperms were discovered. This definitely brought the flowering 
plants into alignment with the gymosperms and cryptogams and almost 
completed the picture which Hofmeister had sketched in outline 50 
years earlier. It also laid a firm foundation for the genetic structure 
which was soon to rise. For Indiana, it may be noted that many 
important contributions toward the completion of this picture were made 
by Mottier and his students. He had, for example, seen double fertiliza- 
tion in the lilies a few years before it was announced by Nawaschin and 
Guignard, only to have the discovery suppressed by the dogmatic 
Strasburger with whom he was studying. 

Meanwhile, plant physiology was also developing, but at a slower 
tempo. We were well along in the twentieth century before physiology 
began to pass out of the stage of description and simple demonstration. 
Reasons for this are not hard to find. The close connections between 
biology and chemistry, which are now yielding phenomenal results, had 
not yet been established, and electricity, that versatile servant of all 
science, was still a fickle and poorly controlled agent. At the turn of 
the century, and even later, the comparative merits of direct and alter- 
nating currents for domestic use were still being debated. Take away 
from modern laboratories all the electric equipment for analysis and 
measurement, all the devices for the control of light and temperature, 
all the shakers, stirrers, centrifuges, etc., operated by simple motors, 
and all the electric computers, the x-ray techniques, and the electrom 
microscope, and you can begin to realize some of the limitations under 
which physiologists worked only half a century ago. 

A few specific examples, some from even a later period, will 
emphasize this point. The basic experiments which established the prin- 
ciple of photoperiodism, just previous to 1920, were carried out, not by 
control of artificial light, but by carting the plants from greenhouse 
to dark room and back each day. A device in use at about the same time 
in the Bureau of Plant Industry for photographing experimental plants, 
consisted of a round table on which the plant and the camera could be 
rotated before an open window and illuminated on all sides. 

To bring the illustrations closer home, as an undergraduate student 
at Indiana University in 1912, I performed some of my first physio- 
logical experiments with a spring-operated clinostat and auxanometer, 
which, when needing repairs, had to be sent back to the manufacturer 
in Germany. At Purdue, in 1895, they had devised equipment for main- 
taining a uniform head of water for operating similar equipment, since 
neither the water pressure nor the electric current was dependable. 
There also, a year earlier, they announced the completion of a "vegeta- 
tion house," which seems to have been an unheated greenhouse in which 
experimental plants could be grown in summer. In 1912, Indiana Uni- 
versity was petitioning the State legislature for steam heating equip- 
ment for the greenhouse, which was then being heated with a coal stove. 
It was common practice in those days to lower the temperature and 

History of Science 75 

turn off the electricity in all classrooms and laboratories at night and 
on week-ends. 

Several reports indicate that, in spite of these handicaps, botanists 
were plugging away on a variety of physiological studies, such as: 
nitrogen nutrition in wheat, periodicity in root pressure, symbiosis in 
orchids, ash content as an index to mineral nutrition, water culture 
methods, fermentation of some of the less common sugars, movement 
of the protoplasm in cells of aquatics, and the mechanism of abscission 
of leaves and twigs. 

A notable contribution illustrating the state of plant physiology in 
those days was the presidential address of J. C. Arthur in 1893. Because 
of the prominence which he later achieved as a specialist in the taxonomy 
and physiology of the rust fungi, we might easily make the mistake of 
thinking that this was his only interest. In addition to his status as a 
mycologist, he was a fine example of the broadly trained oldtime botanist. 
In his address on "The Special Senses of Plants," he described many of 
the ways in which plants respond to stimuli and noted that their re- 
sponses were usually advantageous, but he quickly refuted any teleolog- 
ical interpretations. He suggested that the spectacular behavior of the 
mimosa plant might protect it from hail. Plant tropisms had him 
puzzled. He cited experiments on the responses of roots to gravity and 
showed that the downward curvature was not the same as the bending 
of an inanimate, flexible rod. He concluded that the principal mechanism 
of tropisms was by movement of water, "complicated," as he said, "by 
growth and other conditions too recondite to be explained here." Before 
his death almost half a century later, he could, and doubtless did, re- 
shape this statement to attribute tropisms to growth, regulated by auxins 
and complicated by the movement of water and other factors. 

Stagnation— 1900 to 1940 

The first four decades of the twentieth century were not particularly 
fruitful of botanical progress in Indiana. There were some good studies 
in ecology and floristics, the latter culminating, in 1940, in the publica- 
tion of Beam's Flora of Indiana, but there was little attention paid to 
taxonomy in the modern sense. 

Morphological studies were continued, most of them tending toward 
the elucidation of taxonomic and phylogenetic problems rather than 
toward the development of morphology itself. Among these were a 
number of good contributions from graduate students, many of whom 
have gone on to successful careers in botany in Indiana and elsewhere. 

Plant cytology remained largely at a standstill during this period. 
The old descriptive aspects of the subject had been pretty well worked 
out, and there was no one ready to give it the new life that it was 
receiving elsewhere through liaisons with either genetics or cellular 

There was little substantial activity in plant physiology. Although 
the basic facts of photoperiodism had been established by 1920, Indiana 
added little to its further development or applications except for a few 
studies at Purdue University on the effects of light of different wave- 
lengths. Studies begun there on plant respiration during this period 

76 Indiana Academy of Science 

have since grown in sig-nificance. The very fruitful approach to the 
explanation of the mechanisms of plant responses through the action of 
hormones bypassed Indiana almost completely. 

The most important work on plant genetics during- this period was 
done at Purdue University in the improvement of crop plants, especially 
corn. Largely sidestepping an older program of com breeding, mainly 
pre-Mendelian in character, a group of energetic young investigators 
there began to apply the new genetic principles soon after their redis- 
covery in 1900, and this led to an active role in the development of 
hybrid corn. Many of the leaders in this spectacular enterprise in later 
years — J. R. Holbert, George Hoffer, Glenn Smith, Ralph St. John, John 
Trost, and Arthur N. Brunson, for example — had at least brief connec- 
tions with this program at Purdue. 

With due credit given for the items of progress that we have 
noted, we must admit that Indiana did not keep pace with botanical 
progress in other parts of the country during these forty years preceding 
the second world war. For this lag there may be many explanations, 
but, as I look back over the years, I see what seem to me to be three 
outstanding factors operative at least in the two state universities which 
should have been taking a long lead. One of these, the one easiest to 
explain and substantiate, was a lack of financial support. It was a time 
of rapid increases in enrollment in colleges, demanding more classrooms, 
more equipment, and more teaching personnel, and most of the facilities 
needed for research, especially in such fields as physiology, were ex- 
pensive. Industrialization had not yet produced a broad tax base, and 
public interest in higher education was not yet aroused. There was 
simply not enough money to go around. 

Closely coupled with this lack of funds, there were often frugal and 
unimaginative administrative policies in both universities which failed 
to make the best use of the resources that were available. The third, 
and probably most important factor, was the static personnel in the 
two state universities. A survey of their departments of botany over 
a long period shows very few changes in stafi', and the lack of a system 
of retirement kept aging men in positions of influence to the point 
where youthful initiative was suppressed. 

For a brighter picture in the history of these forty years, we take 
note of some excellent undergraduate teaching, especially in the smaller, 
independent colleges. On the roster of great teachers of this period are 
the names of such men as Mason B. Thomas, at Wabash, T. G. Yuncker, 
at DePauw, Ray C. Friesner, at Butler, M. S. Markle, at Earlham, and 
many others. Eloquent testimony is given on this point by the long 
procession of graduates of these institutions who have gone on to ad- 
vanced study and illustrious careers in botany. There is hardly a single 
one of the smaller colleges that cannot claim credit for at least some 
small part in this contribution. 

Another significant educational enterprise carried on for many years 
during this period was the commercial manufacture of microscope slides 
by Professor M. S. Markle and some of his colleagues at Earlham Col- 
lege. Combining superior histological techniques with an uncanny con- 
sideration for leai-ning processes, slides bearing the Markle label gave 

History of Science 77 

to thousands of students far and wide, their first glimpse into the 
fascinating field of plant morphology. 

Botanical Publication 

In the founding and sponsoring of organs of botanical publication, 
Indiana has played a long and active role. 

In 1875, John Merle Coulter, then at Hanover College, began pub- 
lishing a little periodical known as The Botanical Bulletin. A year later, 
its name was changed to The Botanical Gazette, under which it con- 
tinues to the present as one of the outstanding botanical publications of 
the world. The Gazette accompanied Coulter as he moved successively to 
Wabash College and Indiana University, and then out of the State in 

The American Midland Naturalist was founded by J. C. Nieuwland, 
at the University of Notre Dame, in 1909. Like the Proceedings of this 
Academy, it publishes a wide variety of papers, many of them botanical. 
With a flexible and independent editorial policy, it publishes many ar- 
ticles which would automatically be ruled out of many other periodicals 
because of their length. 

Since 1929, the Butler University Botanical Series has published at 
irregular intervals a series of articles, mainly by Butler students and 
faculty members, on many botanical subjects, especially ecology. 

A short-lived journal which had been overlooked until brought to 
light by L. J. King in the Proceedings of this Academy in 1939, was 
the L. B. Case Botanical Index, published at Richmond from 1877 to 
1881. At first scarcely more than a trade catalog, it quickly grew into 
a scientific publication with a circulation of 5,000. It carried a number 
of articles on the flora of Indiana. 

The American Botanist, which began publication in Binghampton, 
N. Y., in 1901, was brought to Indiana when its owner and publisher, 
Willard N. Clute, came to Butler University in 1929. It ceased publica- 
tion soon after Mr. Clute's death in 1950. Making no pretense at being 
a highly technical journal, it employed the popular approach with an 
assortment of items of human interest about plants. 

Botanical Gardens 

Since the State of Indiana has never had a really great botanical 
garden, the few attempts that have been made to establish such collec- 
tions of living plants deserve special mention. 

One of these gardens, at Butler University, and another established 
by the late Fred A. Loew, at Huntington College, have served as useful 
adjuncts to the educational equipment of these institutions. The garden 
at Huntington has, for many years, been the focus for an annual meeting 
which has done much to keep alive a public interest in botany. 

The Holliday Park Garden and Woolen's Garden of Birds and 
Botany, both at Indianapolis, have had similar purposes, but have 
probably fallen short of their full possibilities through not being form- 
ally connected with educational institutions. 

78 Indiana Academy of Science 

Near the beginning of this century, an elaborate plan was drawn 
up for converting the entire campus of Indiana University into a 
botanical garden, in which the plantings would reflect taxonomic rela- 
tionships. For some reason, probably economic, the plan was never 
carried out, but the subsequent development of the area was directed by 
botanists for many years. The result is a fine, informal collection of 
plants, especially trees and shrubs, so located as to preserve most of 
the natural features of the original woodland. A program now in opera- 
tion is adding many species to this collection. The Ross Biological 
Reserve at Purdue University and the Christy Woods at Ball State Uni- 
versity serve similar purposes. A college campus would seem to be an 
ideal location for such a development at minimum cost. 

Partial compensation for the lack of any large formal botanical 
garden is provided by our city and state parks, state and national for- 
ests, lake recreational areas, and special holdings such as those of the 
Nature Conservancy and many private individuals. Some of these, how- 
ever, must operate as compromises between scientific interests on the one 
hand and recreational, economic, or political pressure on the other. A 
continued healthy public interest in plants and animals as living things 
is our best bargaining power for maintaining a favorable balance in this 
conflict of interests. 

Current Trends 

World War II has been followed by a period of scientific ferment 
which promises to continue bubbling for a long time to come, and botany 
in Indiana has been adding a creditable share of catalyst to the process. 
This influence is reflected to a certain extent in the number and quality 
of papers presented in the meetings and published in the Proceedings 
of this Academy. But these contributions do not tell the whole story, 
for many active investigators are finding outlets for expression through 
other, more highly specialized organs of publication. 

This rebirth of vigor in all the sciences has been due to many 
things. Our war experiences and many subsequent developments created 
a new awareness of and interest in the sciences and a far greater 
public confidence in their practical and cultural values. This has re- 
leased generous funds for education and research. But probably the 
greatest influence, as far as Indiana is concerned, has been the infusion 
of new blood into the stream of scientific activity through additions of 
vigorous, new personnel. 

One striking manifestation of this scientific renaissance has been 
the fading of the rigid lines which have long been drawn between the 
various disciplines. The mycologist and phycologist no longer limit 
themselves to the publication of lists of species new to certain areas, 
but are finding in their taxonomic areas of interest many new approaches 
to basic problems of morphology, physiology, and genetics. The 
morphologist, without forsaking the descriptive and phylogenetic aspects 
of his subject, is looking for underlying chemical mechanism of develop- 
ment and differentiation. Physiology is penetrating deeply into the 
biochemical foundations of observed phenomena. Taxonomy, mourned 
as a dead subject only a generation ago, has come to life with the 
utilization of genetics, cytology, physiology, and mathematics to probe 

History of Science 79 

deeply into phylogeny and the species concept. These are all world-wide 
trends, but in every one of them Indiana is now playing a most credit- 
able role. 

Research is no longer limited so much as it once was to the two 
older state universities. There is a growing recognition that productive 
scholarship is a significant function of college faculties and advanced 
students everywhere, and the college that is wise enough to support 
research activity with funds and recognition and flexibility of program 
is the one that will attract and hold the most stimulating teaching 

To attempt to describe and evaluate the many botanical activities 
in progress in Indiana today would take us far beyond the scope of 
this discussion and involve the hazard of premature judgments. So 
that appraisal is left to some future narrator who can view this era 
in better perspective — perhaps to the one who will continue this story 
on the occasion of the Indiana bicentennial. 

It seems very likely that, when this narrative is continued to 
include our current activities, it will be an account of our progress in 
solving broad biological problems rather than a history of botany and 
zoology as separate disciplines. The subject matter will be oriented 
around such topics as: the genetic code, enzyme and hormone actions, 
protein synthesis, theories of phylogeny, organic evolution, the origin 
of life, and, quite likely, extraterrestrial life. The emphasis will fall on 
the development of general principles, and botany and zoology will have 
receded to secondary roles in the drama. 

The vigor with which we are now engaged in erasing the lines 
that used to separate the conventional divisions of science sometimes 
leaves the impression that the original recognition of botany, zoology, 
physics, chemistry, and geology, and their further fragmentations into 
specialties, was some sort of academic sin for which we must now seek 
atonement. But there was very good reason for making these divisions. 
It was the simple principle of divide and conquer. What we are now 
doing is to cut through the extensive and complex volume of subject 
matter in new directions so that we can employ new techniques to carry 
out this ancient strategy of conquest. And it would be naive, indeed, 
to expect that these new subdivisions would not, sooner or later, come 
to have defects of the same order as those inherent in the system that 
we now try to eliminate. 

The pendulum of biologic thought and interest is always swinging 
this way and that in conformity with fashions and the development of 
new techniques. It seldom tarries long on dead center, and it is in the 
long swings that our greatest progress is made. But it is usually a 
lopsided progress, and, when we are riding the crest of a wave of popu- 
larity and success, we are prone to the very human failing of thinking 
that we have at last found the only true O'pen-sesame. 

For botany it is particularly regrettable that, in a highly specialized 
search for principles, we so often relegate the plants themselves to 
the background. It is, after all, the individual plant that counts. It is 
the entity that we are trying to understand. It is necessary that we 

80 Indiana Academy of Science 

take it apart and concentrate on its separate organs and processes, but 
it is equally important that we frequently put the pieces together again 
to see how they contribute to form and function in the living individual. 
It is only when botany does this that it can have its broadest cultural 
impact on mankind. 

Chemistry in Indiana at the State's Sesquicentennial 

M. G. Mellon, Purdue University 

In presenting the historical status of any science, such as chemistry, 
there are two broad aspects to consider. The first aspect concerns the 
subject as a science, which involves primarily its position in educational 
institutions. The second aspect concerns any practical applications, 
which, in this case, means chemical industry. 

For a sesquicentennial program there arises the question whether 
to present a broad perspective of the subject, going back as far as 
feasible toward 1816, or to emphasize the present, that is, the current 
status of chemistry. For reasons stated later, most attention is cen- 
tered on the place Indiana occupies in 1966 in chemical education and 
on the position it has achieved in industrial chemistry at this time. 
Because both chemical science and chemical industry are so important 
in 1966, each is considered separately. 

I. Education 

According to Noll (15), the first professorship in chemistry in this 
country was established just two centuries ago, i.e., in 1767, at King's 
College. Two years later chemistry was offered at the University of 
Pennsylvania. A half-century was to pass before Indiana achieved 
statehood. The territory had no colleges at this time. 

The next half-century marked the founding of a number of colleges 
in Indiana (17). Also it was the time of the struggle to have at least 
some courses in science incorporated in what had been classical cur- 
ricula. According to Browne's report (1), the significant developments 
in chemical education during the five decades prior to 1870 occurred 
east of the Appalachian Mountains. 

Then followed the half-century which involved the slow develop- 
ment of chemistry in the small and simply equipped institutions in the 
new state. Many interesting facts for this period are presented in four 
historical papers to which reference may be made for details. On reading 
these publications one has the feeling that the whole subject of the 
evolution of the teaching of science in the state merits reexamination 
by a trained science historian. 

As 1916 was the centennial of Indiana's statehood, a part of the 
program of the general session of the fall meeting of the Academy was 
devoted to a century of science in Indiana. H. W. Wiley, famed graduate 
of Hanover College and first professor of chemistry at Purdue Uni- 
versity, represented chemistry. He spoke on the subject, "The early 
history of chemistry in Indiana" (18). It should be noted that, at this 
time, he had been away from the state for a third of a cenutry, and 
that his professional experience in the state covered only about a decade. 
On going to Purdue in 1874, he stated, "I immediately fitted up a 
laboratory where large numbers of students could be accommodated. 
As I remember, we had working desks for about 25 or 30." 


82 Indiana Academy of Science 

Another paper, entitled "The development of chemical science in 
Indiana," by J. H. Ransom of the Purdue staff (16), was included in 
the Proceedings for 1916. It was listed by title only on the program 
because of h^aving been presented before the Indiana Section of the 
American Chemical Society in Indianapolis. Ransom noted the dis- 
agreement on how chemistry (and probably other sciences) should be 
taught. In the earliest years there seems to have been no work in a 
laboratory, perhaps because there were none available. One wonders if 
the current aversion of some young teachers to undergraduate labora- 
tory assignments is an emulation of the practice of the early mid-19th 
century. Wiley obviously believed in having students do laboratory 
work. In fact, he thought that, as far as possible, they should have to 
discover things for themselves rather than to be told. 

In 1931 R. E. Lyons (13), Head of the Department of Chemistry 
at Indiana University for many years, published a paper, *'The history 
of chemistry at Indiana University, 1829-1931." Constituting the entire 
March issue for 1931 of the Indiana University Neivs-Letter, it is the 
best historical resume known to the writer for any of the state's 
colleges. There are many details on buildings, students, staff, and 
publications. This report has been supplemented and up-dated by Day 

As a part of the program in 1935 for the semicentennial of the 
founding of the Academy, Test and Allen (17), also of the Purdue 
staff, presented "A review of a century of chemical education in 
Indiana." They consulted many sources and discussed the beginning of 
the teaching of chemistry in various colleges for which information 
could be located. Tabular data for 24 institutions include the college 
enrollments and the credits in the chemistry courses then being offered. 
In addition, other data cover the staff, enrollments in general chemistry, 
number of degrees awarded, and accommodations for general chemistry 
and advanced courses. 

These papers reveal something of the difficulties encountered to 
establish courses in chemistry and to obtain and equip laboratories in 
which to teach the subject. The names of many men, a number of whom 
later became noted in chemistry, are mentioned. 

The earliest courses might have been taught by a chemist, but more 
likely by someone whose primary interest and training were in some 
other area. Thus, at DePauw University in 1839, a Methodist preacher- 
president, the Rev. Mathew Simpson, taught chemistry. As a graduate 
of a similar Methodist college, the writer wonders what the content of 
this course might have been. In 1858, at Butler University, R. T. Brown 
became professor of botany, chemistry, geology, meterology, natural 
philosophy, natural science, physiology, and zoology. H. W. Wiley's 
first appointment, at Butler University in 1868, was as professor of 
Latin and Greek. Such men must have been among the giants to whom 
Edington paid tribute (9). The first full-time appointments in chemistry 
seem to have been in 1874, with T. C. Van Nuys (M.D.) at Indiana 
University and H. W. Wiley (M.D.) at Purdue University. 

There has not been much change in the list of colleges which pro- 
vided Test and Allen's data in 1935 (17). A recent publication (3) 

History of Science 


contains information on the 32 accredited institutions listed in Table I. 
Included are data compiled from a questionnaire sent to each of these 
colleges. Vacancies in the table indicate that there were no replies. The 
number of graduates achieving doctoral degrees is for the period 
1920-61 (9). 


Data on accredited colleges 




on staffa Underg. 


Average number of degrees 
awarded, 1961-66 


M.S. Ph.D. 

Ch.E. torates 

Anderson Coll. 
Ball State Univ. 1 
Butler Univ. 
Concordia Sr. Coll. 
DePauw Univ. 
Earlham Coll. 
Evansville Coll. 
Franklin Coll. 
Goshen Coll. 
Hanover Coll. 
Huntington Coll. 
Indiana Cent. Coll. 
Indiana Inst. Tech. 
Ind. State Univ. 1 
Indiana Univ. 3 

Manchester Coll. 
Marian Coll. 
Marion Coll. 
Oakland City Col 
Purdue Univ. 5 

Rose Polytechnic 

Saint Francis Coll. 
Saint Joseph's Coll. 
Saint Mary-of-the 

Woods Coll. 
Saint Mary's Coll. 
Saint Meinrad Coll. 
Taylor Univ. 
Tri-State Coll. 1 

Univ. of 

Notre Dame 3 

Valparaiso Univ. 
Vincennes Univ. 
Wal)ash Coll. 








2 50 

2 50 











5 '^ 5 













3 50 


































a Includes part-time members, but not teaching assistants. 

I) Enrollment in all courses. 

cM.S., 20; Ph.D., 6. 

d Chemistry and chemical engineering. 

For some years the American Chemical Society has had a Com- 
mittee on Professional Training to recommend standards for curricula 
for students majoring in chemistry or chemical engineering. An annual 


Indiana Academy of Science 

report lists the institutions having approved curricula, adequate fa- 
cilities, and competent staff. Table 2 lists 10 Indiana institutions in- 
cluded in the report for 1965 which have achieved this status, to- 
gether with the number of degrees awarded that year (19). 

Degrees awarded by ACS approved institutions 

Degrees awarded 









Butler University 


DePauw University 



Earlham College 


Evansville College 


Indiana University 




Purdue University'' 




University of Notre Dame 




Valparaiso University 


Wabash College 



(lOG)'-^ (90) 

Purdue University 123 20 

Rose Polytechnic Institute 15 1 

University of Notre Dame 25 6 


a Total number of institutions listed. 

ij Data for Department of Biochemistry are not included. 

Such recognition reflects a commendable trend in the courses 
available, the facilities for teaching, and the number and training of 
the staffs. 

Just as important in recent decades is the rather general change in 
emphasis on the content of courses. Teachers are becoming less con- 
cerned with "what" and more with "why" and "how" of chemical 
phenomena. Sodium chloride crystals are white (normally) and the 
structure is face-centered cubic. Why is this so; i.e., what are the 
interpretations of these facts? May there be a danger of going too 
far in this direction, at least for certain types of students? For ex- 
ample, will a class of freshman girls in home economics be thrilled by a 
dull lecturer who finally demonstrates (from his notes) that the angle 
between the two hydrogens in the water molecule is 105°? Even if they 
are, to what wisdom will this knowledge lead in later life? 

History of Science 85 

Teachers' Colleges. For many years Indiana maintained two insti- 
tutions whose primary purpose was the preparation of teachers for 
secondary schools. These were Ball State Teachers' College and Indiana 
State Teachers' College. They gradually evolved into institutions with 
four-year curricula, and the names were changed to Ball State Uni- 
versity and Indiana State University. As such, along with Indiana and 
Purdue, they are now part of the state university system, and they 
have the usual chemistry offerings of an arts college. 

Extension Centers. A system of junior colleges, so familiar in some 
states, has not developed in Indiana. Instead, Indiana and Purdue 
Universities have established a number of extension centers, now 
designated as regional campuses. Purdue's are at Fort Wayne, Hammond, 
Indianapolis, and Michigan City. Shortly, the one at Michigan City will 
be moved to a new campus some ten miles to the south and will be 
known as the North Central Regional Campus. Indiana's centers are 
at E. Chicago, Fort Wayne, Gary, Indianapolis, Jeffersonville, Kokomo, 
Richmond, South Bend-Mishawaka, and Vincennes. In 1965 the two 
centers in Fort Wayne were combined in a new building and now operate 
as a combined Indiana-Purdue campus. Each university is responsible 
for specific areas of study. 

The extension system has been fostered because each of the two 
universities supervises the work of its centers, including the selection 
of the teaching staffs. Thus, a member of the Department of Chemistry 
at Purdue visits the Purdue centers each month. He attempts to co- 
ordinate the various courses and to maintain them on a level with the 
corresponding ones at Purdue. 

These extension centers seem destined to expand to full four-year 
institutions. In fact, the Hammond Purdue center and the Fort Wayne 
Purdue-Indiana center may soon be offering four years of chemistry. 

Graduate Work. Table 2 shows that, in chemistry, only four of the 
nine institutions awarded any M.S. degrees, and only three granted 
Ph.D. degrees in 1965. All three of the institutions offering chemical 
engineering curricula awarded one or more M.S. degrees, and two gave 
Ph.D. degrees. 

The first advanced degree at Purdue was A.C. (Analytical Chemist), 
awarded to W. A. Fankboner in 1887. At Indiana University it was an 
A.M. degree, awarded to R. E. Lyons in 1890. From this meager 
beginning graduate work developed slowly through the next four 
decades. Graduate schools were established at Indiana in 1904, at 
Purdue in 1928, and at Notre Dame in 1944. The first Ph.D. degrees in 
chemistry were awarded at Notre Dame in 1912, at Indiana in 1922, and 
at Purdue in 1930. 

These decades marked a period of struggle to establish the programs 
on a sound basis, as graduate schools do not rapidly achieve quality. 
Competent staff's had to be secured, adequate laboratory and library 
facilities provided, students of ability recruited, and a graduate at- 
mosphere developed. 

In 1920 Purdue had an all-Ph.D. permanent staff in chemistry, and 
most of the permanent staffs of Indiana and Notre Dame had the 

86 Indiana Academy of Science 

doctorate degree; but essentially the teaching programs at all three 
institutions comprised undergraduate courses. Some research was being 
done, but relatively it was undistinguished. There were bright spots, of 
course, such as the work of Father Nieuwland at Notre Dame. 

Institutions with well-known graduate schools provided strong 
competition. A half-dozen of these were in the east but probably more 
serious were neighboring institutions, such as Chicago, Illinois, Michigan, 
Ohio State, and Wisconsin. In general, they had better known staffs and 
more nearly adequate laboratories, equipment, libraries, and other 
facilities. Because of these advantages, it seems likely that they secured 
many of the more promising students. 

Four decades later Indiana's "Big-Three" institutions occupy a 
much improved relative standing. All three have relatively new labora- 
tories, well equipped with instruments for modern research. The libraries 
are reasonably well stocked. The programs of research, some of which 
are outstanding, cover many areas of chemistry. 

The staffs include a commendable number of individuals with 
established reputations in their specialties. Through the years various 
kinds of national recognition have come to many men, but only the 
following have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences: F. D. 
Rossini at Notre Dame, and A. K. Balls and H. C. Brown at Purdue. 
No institution has had a winner of the Nobel prize from its staff. 

A composite viewpoint is presented in a recent publication (2) which 
rates 96 institutions in chemistry and 56 in chemical engineering. The 
relative ratings are on the basis of quality of the graduate faculty and 
the effectiveness of the graduate program. 

a. Quality of Faculty. Arranged on the basis of relative standing, 
the first six institutions are listed as "Distinguished," and the next 22 
as "Strong." In this total group of 28, Purdue is tied in chemistry for 
17th place with the Ohio State University, and Indiana is 20th. The 
next 19 departments, listed as "Good," include Notre Dame. 

In chemical engineering, Purdue appears among the 11 departments 
rated "Good." 

b. Eflfectiveness of Graduate Program. In this listing, the first nine 
institutions are rated as "Extremely attractive," and the next 14 as 
"Attractive." In the total of 23, Indiana ranks 18th in chemistry and 
Purdue 22nd. Notre Dame is among the next 37, rated as "Ac- 
ceptable +." 

In chemical engineering, Purdue is among the 22 departments 
rated as "Acceptable +." 

According to the report, these ratings were made on the basis of 
replies to questionnaires sent to more than 4,000 deans, heads of de- 
partments, and others well-known in the respective fields. Whatever 
limitations such an evaluation has, it seems clear that the published 
results do indicate what the evaluators thought of the institutions 
listed. For Indiana's institutions to rise from what the situation was in 
1920 to the positions listed is a real accomplishment, when one con- 
siders the competition encountered. To rise further in the listing is the 
challenge of the future. 

History of Science 


Interesting data on the production of doctorates in chemistry are 
contained in a publication which covers the period 1920-1962 (10). 
Tables 3, 4, and 5 are based on this report. 

Leading states in the production of doctorates in Chemistry- 



Number of doctorates 

1 New York 

2 Illinois 

3 California 

4 Massachusetts 

5 Pennsylvania 

6 Ohio 

7 Indiana 

8 Wisconsin 

9 Iowa 

(Number for all states— 23,696) 


The distribution, by decades, of the 1335 doctorates in chemistry 
for Indiana follows: 21 for 1920-29; 150 for 1930-39; 357 for 1940-49; 
666 for 1950-59; and 141 for 1960-61. Table 4 shows, by 5-year periods, 
the production of the "Big-Three" institutions. 


Distribution of doctorates in Chemistry by periods in 
Indiana's "Big-Three" institutions 



Notre Dame 




























a Number from 1920 to 1944. 

The nation's top institutions granting doctorates are shown in 
Table 5. For the period covered, Indiana University granted 247 degrees 
and the University of Notre Dame 299. 

88 Indiana Academy of Science 


First ten institutions granting doctorates in Chemistry 

Rank Institution Number of doctorates 

1 University of Illinois 1564 

2 University of Wisconsin 1061 

3 Ohio State University 954 

4 Columbia University 913 

5 Massachusetts Institute of Tech. 888 

6 Purdue University 789 

7 University of California 776 

8 University of Chicago 741 

9 Cornell University 625 
10 Harvard University 590 

II. Chemical Industry 

The early history of Indiana reveals little on the industrial ap- 
plications of chemistry. Chemical industry, in the modern sense of the 
term, did not exist. 

From the geological report of 1871, Ransom (16) quotes, "Chem- 
istry as a science was almost unknown in its practical applications 15 
or 20 years ago." Yet earlier developments in states to the east must 
have reached Indiana. For example, someone must have leached wood 
ashes for crude alkali to make soap from waste fats; somewhere con- 
taminated ethanol must have been distilled for a beverage; and in some 
way impure iron was refined from an Indiana ore. 

To locate and present all such items, and to follow their develop- 
ment was too much of a historical assignment for the writer to under- 
take. Instead, he chose to confine discussion very largely to the last 
third of the sesquicentennial period, when relevant data became more 
readily available. It would be interesting to know where and when 
peppermint oil was first distilled in Indiana, but more important now 
is the current position of the industry. Some industries, such as the 
production of iron from its ore, arose, reached a peak, and then disap- 
peared because of the exhaustion of raw material. In this case, there 
never was any large deposit of iron ore in Indiana. 

Of special interest to the writer is the emphasis on chemical 
analysis in the 19th century in the historical papers cited. Much early 
work was done on clays, sands, ores, coal, soils, fertilizers, foods, and 
other materials. In a way, this may be taken as the most consistent and 
definite evidence of the development of applied chemistry, for chemical 
analysis is the measuring means of chemical industry and very largely 
of chemical research (14). 

Sources on industrial activities often are not entirely satisfactory 
in that they may not differentiate between the production and the ap- 
plication of an item. Thus, the large plant of the Aluminum Company 
of America in Lafayette does not produce aluminum. It extrudes the 

History of Science 89 

metal, mostly as alloys, to make a great variety of structural forms. 
Many pharmaceutical firms package and sell Epsom salts, but very 
likely the stock material is obtained from some chemical firm. 

The U. S. Census of Manufactures is perhaps the most important 
source of data. For over a century these reports were decennial, but 
now they are quinquennial. Of course, they are always late in appear- 
ing. Lisack's compilation (12) bears a date later than 1963, but the 
information may have come at least partly from this census. 

Currently the census reports do not include detailed data, such as 
the production of anesthetic diethyl ether, by states. Such information 
was available, at least for selected items, in the 1920 and 1930 Census 
of Manufactures. Lisack's data are for Indiana. 

With all these limitations, some data are included in the hope 
that they may have later historical interest. 

Lisack's report on manpower requirements supports the need for 
establishing a curriculum to train chemical technicians. The following- 
data, including Tables 6, 7, and 8, together with comments, are adapted 
from his report. 

The total employment for 1963 in the chemical and allied products 
industry in Indiana averaged 24,300 people. This was four per cent of 
the total manufacturing employment for the state. Although Hoosiers 
account for only 2.8 per cent of the nation's employment in this industry, 
they make up nearly 11 per cent of the nation's employment in the 
drugs sub-group. Nationwide, 13 per cent of the workers in the chem- 
icals and allied products industry are in the drugs sub-group, but in 
Indiana this proportion has been about 50 per cent since 1959. 

Firms in this industry in Indiana totaled 190 in March, 1964. 
Table 6 shows the data for several sub-groups. 

Data for the Chemical and allied products industry 

Number Percentage of 
Subgroup of firms employment 

Industrial inorganic and organic chemicals 

Plastics and other synthetic products 


Soap, detergents, and allied products 

Paints, varnishes, and allied products 

Agricultural chemicals 

Miscellaneous chemical products 

Total 190 100 

Firms with more than 500 employees comprised only six per cent 
of the total, while those with fewer than 50 comprised 70 per cent. 

Data on the geographical distribution of these firms are shown 
in Table 7. 
















Indiana Academy of Science 

Location of chemical firms 


Number of firms 

Number of employees 







St. Joseph 




All others 









3 or less 

ca. 8750 
ca. 3400 

> 1500 

> 1500 

> 1500 

> 1500 

< 1500 

< 1500 

< 1500 

< 1500 

< 1500 

The first six counties have more than 80 per cent of the total em- 
ployment, with Marion County far ahead. 

Although Indiana is not one of the large producers of chemical 
products, Table 8 lists some of the important firms which are rep- 
resented by one or more plants in the state (11). 

Important chemical firms having plants in Indiana 



Allied Chemical and Dye Corp. 
American Cyanamid Co. 
Charles Pfizer and Co. 
Colgate-Palmolive Co. 
Commercial Solvents Corp. 
Dow Chemical Co. 

Pitman-Moore Division 
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. 
Eli Lilly and Co. 
International Minerals and 

Chemical Corp. 
Lever Brothers Co. 
Mead Johnson and Co. 
Miles Laboratories 
Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp. 
Philadelphia Quartz Co. 
Reilly Tar and Chemical Corp. 
Stauffer Chemical Co. 
Union Carbide Corp. 

Chemicals Division 

Linde Air Products Co. 

Beech Grove 
Michigan City 
Terre Haute 
Terre Haute 

Indianapolis; Zionsville 
East Chicago; Fortville 
Indianapolis; Greenfield; Lafayette 





Peru; Warren Co. 




East Chicago 

History of Science 91 

The production of sulfuric acid is often taken as a general index 
of industrial chemical activity. The data for this product give Indiana 
a relatively low rating. Thus, in 1958 (6) the state produced about three 
per cent of the nation's total acid. Only four plants were reported, 
compared with 216 for the nation. 

The situation is better as a whole for industrial organic and 
inorganic chemicals. In terms of the number of employees in the 
industry, the state ranks 12th for organic chemicals and 13th for 
inorganic chemicals. The U. S. census employment data (4) for 1963 
are shown in Table 9. 

Employment for organic chemical industry 

Rank of Number of Number of 

state employees plants State 








New Jersey 




West Virginia 








New York 








































North Carolina 








Rhode Island 

Probably Indiana makes its best showing in the drug industry, 
which may be attributed largely to Eli Lilly and Company. Incidentally, 
this company was not founded until May 10, 1876. The census statistics 
for 1963, shown in Tables 10 and 11 rank the state third in number 
of employees for pharmaceutical preparations and first in the value of 
shipments for vitamins, nutrients, and hematinic preparations for 
human use (5). 

92 Indiana Academy of Science 

Employees in pharmaceutical preparations industry 

Number of 

Number of 








New York 




New Jersey 










































Value of Shipments for vitamin, nutrient, 

and hematinic 

preparations for human use 









New York 









New Jersey 













a In thousands of dollars 

According to census reports (7), four establishments produced 
sodium silicate, two each anhydrous ammonia, ammonia solutions, am- 
monium nitrate, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and phosphoric acid, and 
one each aluminum chloride, aluminum sulfate, potassium pyrophosphate, 
trisodium phosphate, meta sodium phosphate, tetra sodium phosphate, 
and tripoly sodium phosphate. 

More general, area data for Indiana are shown in Table 12. 

History of Science 93 

Area statistics for Indiana 

Total number of Number of Value added 
Product establishments employees by manufacture** 

Chemicals and allied products 255 23,635 630,109 

Basic chemicals 36 2,403 69,674 

Cleaning and toilet goods 47 3,237 121,835 

Paints and allied products 32 1,621 20,555 

Agricultural chemicals 52 1,095 12,766 

Miscellaneous chemical products 41 994 17,646 

Gary-Hammond-E. Chicago Area 

Chemicals and allied products 31 3,195 134,186 

Basic chemicals 13 1,175 47,877 

Indianapolis Area 

Chemicals and allied products 57 10,462 200,154 

Cleaning and toilet goods 15 518 9,987 

Paints and allied products 10 711 9,514 

a In thousands of dollars. 

To present a really representative sample of data for all industrial 
chemical activities is a difficult assignment. The foregoing data for 
selected products are obviously fragmentary and meager. The general 
conclusion to be drawn is that the state ranks low in some areas and 
high in others. 


In 150 years chemistry has become firmly established in Indiana 
and in 1966 its position seems reasonably sound. In educational work 
the content of courses and methods of teaching are generally being 
improved and up-dated. Nine of the 32 accredited colleges offer ACS 
approved curricula for chemistry majors and three for chemical engi- 
neering. The "Big-Three" universities have established Indiana in 7th 
place in the production of doctorates, and the institutions are acquiring 
quality prestige. 

A variety of chemical products is being produced in the state, al- 
though in many cases the amounts are not large. Probably pharma- 
ceutical products of various kinds are relatively the most important. 
If one considers steel and petroleum products as chemical entities, 
the Gary-Hammond area is very important. As a whole, the position 
of the state is important, but not outstanding. 

94 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Browne, C. A. 1932. The history of chemical education in America between 
the years 182 and 1870. J. Chem. Educ. 9: 696. 

2. Cartter, A. M. (ed.). 1966. An Assessment of Quality in Graduate Education. 
Am. Council on Education, Washington, D.C. 

3. Cass, J. and M. Birnbaum (eds.). 1965. Comparative Guide to Aiuerieaii 
Colleses. Harper and Row, New York. 

4. Census of Manufactures, Inorganic and Organic Chemicals, 28A-11. 1963. 
U. S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 

5. Census of Manufactures, Drugs, 28C-5 and 28C-17. 1963. U. S. Bureau of 
the Census, Washington, D.C. 

6. Chemical Statistics Handbook. 1960. Manufacturing Chemists Association, 
Washington, D.C. 

7. Current Industrial Report Series, Inorganic Chemicals and Gases, M2SA-13. 
1964. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 

8. Day, H. G. 1966. A brief history of the Department of Chemistry. The 
Accelerator 30: 87. 

9. Edington, W. E. 1934. There were giants in those days. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
44: 22. 

10. Harmon, D. R. and H. Soldz (eds.). 1963. Doctorate Production in United 
States Universities, 1920-1962. Publn. 1142, Nat. Acad. Sci. Nat. Res. 
Council, Washington, D.C. 

11. Indiana Industrial Directory, 1964-1965. Ind. State Chamber of Commerce, 

12. Lisack, J. K. (ed. ). 1965. Manpower Report 65-3, October. School of Tech- 
nology, Pvu'due University. 

13. Lyons, R. E. 1931. The history of chemistry at Indiana University, 1829- 
1931. Ind. Univ. News-Letter 19, No. 3. 

14. Mellon, M. G. 1937. Metliod.s of Uiiantitative Clieniieal Analy.sis. Mac- 
millan Company, New York. 

15. Noll, V. H. 1935. The extent of chemical education, J. Chem. Educ. 13: 475. 

16. Ransom, J. H. 1916. Development of chemical science in Indiana. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 2G: 38 9. 

17. Test, L. A. and F. J. Allen. 1935. A review of a century of chemical edu- 
cation in Indiana. Proc. Ind. A^cad. Sci. 45: 166. 

IS. Wiley, H. W. 1916. The early history of chemistr.y in Indiana. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. '2(i: 17 8. 

19. 1965 Report of ACS Committee on Professional Training. 1965. Chem. 
Eng. News p. 80, March 7. 

A Brief History of Geography in Indiana 

Stephen S. Visher, Indiana University 

Geography, a comprehensive science, embraces several subdivisions 
which often are studied individually, for example, physical geography, 
climate, plant geography, economic geography, political geography, 
historical geography, conservation. 

Numerous people have contributed to the history of geography in 
Indiana. In this necessarily brief article (limited to about 5,000 v^ords) 
slight mention is made of work by non-professional geographers. The 
excellent volume Natural Features of Indiana (2) contains many 
splendid chapters, some of which are cited here as particularly sig- 
nificant.' Also cited are numerous additional volumes and articles. 

This article is primarily a discussion of contributions of some 
professional geographers to the history of Indiana's geography. It is 
a sort of supplement to Indiayia Scieyitists (9) where, in addition to 
brief sketches of about 5,000 scientists who were born, partly trained or 
employed in Indiana, are presented summaries by institutions and 
subjects of the history of various sciences in Indiana, including 
geography, geology, conservation, soils, and biology. 

Prior to World War I, although many professionally trained 
geologists, biologists, etc., were employed in Indiana, there was no pro- 
fessional geographer. The first Ph.D. in Geography, Visher, came to 
I.U. in 1918. 

During World War II, three Ph.D.s in Geography taught briefly at 
I.U. (Chauncy Harris, 1939-41; Ed Ullman, 1941-42; Otis Freeman 
1943-46.) Indiana's first Department of Geography was established at 
I.U. in 1946. Very little formal geography has ever been taught at 
Purdue or Notre Dame and that not by professional geographers. 

There still (1966) is no second Department of Geography in 
Indiana although some geography is taught at numerous institutions, 
and several Ph.D.s in Geography have taught at Ball State University 
and Indiana State University. However, the geographers at Ball State 
teach in a "Division of Social Studies" while those at Terre Haute 
teach in a "Department of Geography, Geology and Astronomy." 
Valparaiso University currently offers 31 courses in geography in its 
Department of Geography and Geology. 

Land Survey 

Prior to the federal survey into north-south arranged townships, 
ranges and sections, small parts, especially near Vincennes and Clarks- 
ville, were surveyed into rectangles which are not north-south. These 
are shown and discussed by A. F. Schneider in the Proceedings (1964) 
and Natural Features. The first moderately detailed description of the 
state was a 130-page Gazetteer published in 1825 by John Scott, an 
able journalist. 

1. Referred to hereafter as Natural Features. 


9G Indiana Academy of Science 

An excellent account of the early land survey by men employed 
in carrying- out Thomas Jefferson's plan for official surveys of the 
public land northwest of the Ohio River is presented in Lindsey's 
introductory chapter in Natural Features. A more detailed discussion 
is the large volume by Pence and Armstrong (4). 

The U.S. Geological Survey has done much mapping in Indiana, 
commencing with preliminary surveys made by two sons of the famous 
Robert Owen, founder of the New Harmony socialist settlement of 
1825. David Dale Owen's survey was made in 1837-46 and Richard's in 
1859-64 (9). Leverett and Taylor authored a 529-page monograph 
largely on Indiana in 1915. (1) More recently, the U.S.G.S. has made 
detailed maps of many parts of the state, of which numerous quad- 
rangles and several geologic folios have been published. 

Soil maps of much of Indiana have been made by the U.S. Bureau 
of Soils and Purdue University on a cooperative basis. T. M. Bushnell 
of Purdue was active in this work 1918-45. His summary in Indiana 
Scientists (9) and his Story of Indiana, Soils (1944) merit mention 
here. The chapter on ''Soils" by H. P. Ulrich in Natural Features also 
merits mention. 

Clyde A. Malott of I.U. was active in mapping various aspects of 
the physiography of Indiana 1919-30 and wrote the physiography sec- 
tion of Handbook of Indiana Geology. (3) It is partly a refinement for 
northern and central Indiana of Leverett and Taylor's monograph, 
supplemented by much on southern Indiana, which area is not dealt 
with by the U.S. geologists. Malott also studied extensively Indiana's 
Lost River area and contributed a historical section to Indiana Sci- 
entists. (9). 

W. J. Wayne of the Indiana Geological Survey has been decidedly 
active since 1940, especially concerning glacial features of Indiana. His 
chapter "Ice and Land" in Natural Features is highly illuminating, 
and he contributes considerable to several other chapters of this volume, 
and elsewhere. Dr. Wayne also has been active as to land-use planning 
in Monroe County as to Lake Monroe, now Indiana's largest lake. 

Alfred H. Meyer of Valparaiso University has studied since 1930 
the northwestern corner of the state in considerable detail, mapping 
many aspects and changes in land use. The Proceedings of our Academy 
for 1945, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1961, and 1962 contain articles by him on 
the Calumet Region. The Anyials of the Association of American 
Geographers (Sept. 1954 and Sept. 1956) contain several of his maps, 
diagrams and photos. The Transactions of the Michigan Academy of 
Sciences published lengthy articles by him on northwestern Indiana in 
1935 and 1952. 

Regionalization of Indiana 

The most comprehensive study of regionalization of Indiana is by 
Visher in the Ajinals of the Association of American Geographers 
(Dec. 1948). There, 16 maps present river drainage basins; geologic 
regions; physiographic regions (types of topography); elevation 
regions; regions based on the amount of local relief; regions based on 
soil productivity; native vegetation regions; climatic regions; 0. E. 

History of Science 97 

Baker's agricultural regions; Purdue's farming types regions; regions 
based on dates of maximum population; regions based on amount of 
urbanization. There are brief descriptions of most of the regions and 
subregions, with citations to numerous sources of information about 
them. The final section is reprinted in our Proceedings (1948). Visher's 
Economic Geography of Indiana (6) and Climate of Iridiayia (8) also 
contain much on regionalization. 

Brief descriptions by professional geographers include articles 
on "Major Cities of Indiana" by Otis W. Freeman in Economic Ge- 
ography (1945) and on state parks in the Proceedings (1946) and two 
by T. F. Barton on "Comparisons Between Indiana Cities" in the 
Proceedings and three by J. Fraser Hart in the Proceedings on popula- 
tion contrasts, especially urban vs. rural. 

Several chapters of Natural Features by non-geographers contain 
significant bits on regionalization. Examples are "Bedrock Geology" by 
Gutschick; "Physiography" by Schneider; "Soils" by Ulrich; "Lakes 
and Streams" by M. D. Hale; "Ground Water" by Bechert and Heckard; 
"Caves" by R. L. Powell; "Mineral Resources" by C. E. Wier and J. B. 
Patton; "Plant Communities" by R. O. Petty and M. T. Jackson. 

Studies of Indiana's Weather and Climate 

Indiana's weather and climate have been studied in many ways: 
1) by persons who spent perhaps only a little time somewhere in the 
state, and reported their impressions in places which had some in- 
fluence; 2) by other people who kept records. After the U.S. Weather 
Bureau was established in 1891, many individuals kept records with 
instruments supplied by the federal government, which published 
summaries of their daily and monthly reports. Hundreds of observers 
served thus faithfully day after day for decades, a few of them for 
more than fifty years. (Climate of Indiana (8) lists many who have 
served long.) 3) Other people studied the records. Of the successions of 
official representatives of the U.S. Weather Bureau stationed in Indi- 
anapolis, J. H. Arming-ton, who served skillfully for decades, merits 
special mention. 

The U.S. Weather Bureau expert in Washington, D.C., who served 
long making more useful the weather records which had accummulated 
was J. B. Kincer, author of many maps and articles and especially of 
much of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Yearbook: Climate and 
Man, 1941, a monumental work with considerable on Indiana. 

Of geographers who studied Indiana's weather and climate, Visher 
contributed many articles on aspects of Indiana's weather and climate 
to the Academy's Proceedings, to numerous scholarly journals, to farm 
magazines, and more than 30 to the Indianapolis Sunday Star. Climate 
of Indiana (8) is widely rated as the most satisfying treatise on the 
climate of any state. The chapter on Bloomington's weather and climate 
is listed officially by the U.S. Weather Bureau as one of the five best 
discussions of the weather and climate of an American city. 

Climatic Atlas of the United States (10) has nearly 1,000 maps 
each of which includes Indiana. It facilitates comparisons between 

98 Indiana Academy of Science 

Indiana and other parts of the nation. ''Climatic Contrasts in the 
United States" in Scientific Monthly, Sept. 1955, presents 15 maps 
selected from the Atlas, and considerable text which is not in the Atlas. 
That article is the fifteenth on aspects of the climate of the United 
States by Visher to appear in the Scientific Monthly. Each had numerous 
maps, which include Indiana, and considerable text. 

"Indiana's Weather: Some Extremes and Advantages" in the 
Proceedings for 1953 presents a supplement to Climate of Indiana, 
whose data end with 1940. The last paragraph states approximately: 

"When compared with other parts of the world, Indiana's weather 
and climate rank relatively high. No part of the world lacks serious 
weather and climate defects. Vast areas, during parts of the year at 
least, are much colder, hotter, wetter or drier, less satisfactory as to 
sunshine, winds and storms. The more one knows about the weather 
and climate of other regions, the better one realizes that Indiana's 
weather and climate (despite numerous and considerable imperfections) 
are comparatively suitable for civilized man. It is doubtful if one- 
eighth of the world fares better." 

Two chapters in Natural Features contribute significantly to the 
better understanding of Indiana's weather and climate. Chapter 9 by 
the present U.S. Weather Bureau State Climatologist L. A. Schaal, and 
Chapter 10, "Bioclimate" by James E. Newman, both of Purdue's De- 
partment of Agronomy. 

Social Geography 

An aspect of human geography which has been specially studied in 
Indiana is that part of social geography which deals with the place of 
birth, education, and employment of people who somehow have become 
recognized as leaders. Since 1921 Visher has written several dozen 
articles on aspects of this subject in an eff'ort to learn more about what 
conditions favor the production of leaders, who now are, of course, 
vitally important to the advancement of civilization. The Geography 
of American Notables considers numerous sorts of leaders, including 
many from Indiana. Scientists Starred 1903-191,3 in American Men of 
Science (1947, Johns Hopkins University Press) includes much on 
Hoosiers. Indiana Scientists includes brief sketches of thousands of 
Indiana scientists and considerable information, including summaries 
of the contributions of various Indiana institutions (9). 

The Annals of the Association of American Geographers published 
(March 1952) "An Aspect of the Social Geography of Indiana." An 
article in the Academy's Proceedings, 1962, "Indiana's Yield of Eminent 
People Compared with that of Nearby States," presents clear evidence 
that Indiana ranks lower than nearby states except Kentucky as the 
birthplace of the presidents of a dozen internationally recognized 

A special aspect of social geography in Indiana are some con- 
tributions of Amos W. Butler (1860-1937) of Indiana's State Board of 
Charities, an eminent penologist. He instigated the official sterilization 
of defective people. (Indiana was the first American state to do this.) 
Butlerville, Indiana (adjacent to the state institution for mental patients) 

History of Science 99 

is named after him. He authored Indiana, A Century of Progress in the 
Developynent of Public Charities and Corrections (1916) and Birds of 
Indiana (1897). 

The excellent chapter "The Birds" in Natural Features is men- 
tioned here especially as presenting abundant evidence of the great 
progress made since Butler's detailed 1897 study of Indiana's Birds. 

Studies of Various Changes in Indiana 

Many people, particularly those especially interested in history, 
have v^itten on various changes which have occurred in Indiana. The 
Indiana Historical Society, with its numerous publications (partly 
financed by Eli Lilly), and the Indiana Magazine of History (edited and 
published by Indiana University) merit special mention. John Shepard 
Wright of Eli Lilly Co., and Will E. Edington of DePauw University 
have also contributed significantly in this field. Dr. Wright organized the 
Academy's History of Science section and persistently stimulated it. He 
also greatly aided financially in the preparation of Indiana Scientists 
and also of Natural Features. Dr. Edington prepared for the Proceed- 
ings obituary sketches of scores of former members of the Academy, 
wrote valuable sections of Chapter III of Indiana Scientists, (9) 
and also several historical articles published in the Proceedings. 

Natural Features of Indiana (2) contains numerous valuable con- 
tributions to ''Changes in Indiana." Already mentioned are some by its 
editor, A. A. Lindsey, in the introductory chapter. Wayne's chapter 
*'Ice and Land"; Hale's ''Lakes and Streams"; Bechert and Heckard's 
"Ground Water"; Wier and Patton's "Mineral Resources." "Plant Com- 
munities" by Petty and Jackson is another chapter already mentioned 
which has considerable on changes which have occurred in Indiana. The 
chapter on "Plant Diseases" by Ralph J. Green, Jr., also contains con- 
siderable about changes which have occurred. 

J. V. Osmun and R. L. Giese's "Insect Pests of Forest, Farm and 
Home" clearly merits mention here as does the chapter "The Fishes" 
by Gammons and Gerking, and "Mammals" by Russell and Mumford. H. 
Kohnke and L. S. Robertson's chapter "Changing Patterns of Agricul- 
ture" is an especially thought-provoking summary of its subject. The 
same is true of the book's final chapter, T. E. Dustin's "Perspective." 

A few geographers have contributed some significant studies on 
changes in Indiana since 1816. A. H. Meyer's work in northwestern 
Indiana has already been mentioned. B. H. Schockel wrote his Ph.D. 
thesis (1947) on changes in manufacturing in Evansville. J. E. Switzer 
wrote on "Indiana's Historical Geography" in the Proceedings (1942). 
Charles R. Dryer, M.D., at Indiana State Normal 1893-1913, contributed 
studies of Indiana's geology and regionalization. (He became president 
of the Indiana Academy in 1911 and of the Association of American 
Geographers in 1919.) 

Geography of Indiana by Visher (5) and his Economic Geography 
of Indiana (6), Geography of American Notables (7), Climate of In- 
diana (8), and Indiana Scientists (9) each contain numerous bits on 
changes that have occurred in Indiana. 

100 Indiana Academy of Science 

An article in the Academy's Proceedings by Visher dealing with 
total population changes 1840-1940 was published in 1942. One on 
contrasts in county population was published in 1944. Four articles 
in the Proceedings for 1925, 1926, 1934, 1938 dealt with changes in 
death rates in Indiana. The Indiana Magazine of History published four 
articles of Visher's: "Sources of Indianians of 1870" (1930) ; "Indiana 
Governors" (1938) ; "Sources and Dispersals of Indiana Population" 
(1942); and "Indiana's Towns and Cities" (1950). The Annals of the 
Association of American Geographers published (1956) "Changing 
Significance of Environmental Factors at Blcomington, Ind." Expanded, 
this article was republished in the Academy's Proceedings (1961). In 
brief, Bloomington was established in 1818 where it is in response to 
locational conditions which have been profoundly altered since then by 
the spread of population over the state, by the development of improved 
transportation facilities, and by the increased population and wealth 
of the state and its s])read northward. Bloomington's location on a 
drainage divide in an area of rolling topography, which was decidedly 
significant in early years, has become far less valuable. That it was 
in a densely wooded area was somewhat disadvantageous for several 
decades during which most of the land was cleared for agriculture. 
However, the remaining forest became advantageous when the town's 
first sizable factory used much local lumber for furniture-making. 
When the nearby lumber supplies were largely depleted, the furniture 
factory could not compete with some of those of the South, and went 
out of business. Bloomington's location upon limestone was advantageous 
until the springs became infected. For some decades thereafter, many 
people got tj^phoid, and Bloomington had a relatively high death rate 
from typhoid. The limestone yielded choice building stone, especially 
1890-1930, but before 1880 and since 1950 the stone was relatively 
unimportant. Agriculture was the chief source of livelihood of Bloom- 
ington's people during its first century, but soil erosion is relatively 
rapid in this unglaciated rolling land, with its often heavy rains. In 
recent decades, farming has greatly decreased. Since Indiana University 
became sizable (about 1920) it has yielded vastly more wealth than 
has local farming. After several decades with serious water-supply 
problems, a series of sizable dams have created an abundant water- 
supply as well as several recreational areas welcomed by the many 
people which the University now attracts. 

Another geographic article by Visher which deals with highly im- 
portant changes in Indiana is on "increasing the value of Indiana's 
human resources" {Proceedings 66:254-55). It points out how increased 
population, partly by immigrants from other areas, increased talent and 
permitted more diversification. Improvement in health aided notably 
(for the early decades of statehood much of Indiana was relatively un- 
healthful in summer partly because malaria was common in the many 
poorly drained areas). Better educational facilities supplied in recent 
decades have helped greatly, as did better transportation facilities; and 
better use of the soil, partly by much land drainage, particularly in 
central and north Indiana. Also important was increased use of the 
soil, timber, coal, oil, gas. 

History of Science 101 

In other words, five major methods of increasing the efficiency 
of people in Indiana are: 1) by better education; 2) by curtailing 
premature deaths; 3) by increasing physical and mental vigor (not 
merely prolonging life); 4) by making available betters tools with which 
to work; and 5) by improving incentives, goals, or objectives. 

A chapter of Natural Features by Benjamin Moulton presents 
many interesting bits of evidence and suggestions as to population 
changes in Indiana. 

Conservation or Resource Use Planning 

Purdue University professors and associates in the extension 
division and in the U. S. Agricultural Experiment Station at Purdue 
have contributed notably to Conservation in Indiana. A series of bulletins 
present well various methods of better use of resources: Bull. 376 
Marginal Land in Southern Indiana; 409 Back to the Land in Southern 
Indiana; 431 Development of Previously Grazed Farmwoods; 454 Econ- 
omy of Pastures on Limestone ; 473 Management of Farms in South 
Central Indiana.; 515 Adjustments Needed to Coyiserve Soil Resources; 
Circular 306 Trees for Recreation in Indiana; and Cir. 331 Forest 
Plantations, Their Establishment and Managemeyit. 

Purdue experts played significant roles with respect to three sizable 
bulletins issued by the State of Indiana Department of Public Instruc- 
tion: The Conservation of Soils; Conservation of Plants; and Conserva- 
tion of Wildlife. 

The State Geologist for 1894-1911, Willis S. Blatchley (1859-1940) 
merits special mention partly because of the great breadth of his 
interests, his skill as a writer, his many worthy books, and his wide- 
spread educational influence. Dr. Batchley and Dean Stanley Coulter 
(1853-1943) of Purdue and Richard Lieber, an Indianapolis businessman, 
helped greatly in the establishment of the State Department of Con- 
servation in 1919, after failing in 1917. Under the inspiring leadership 
of Col. Richard Lieber (1869-1946) Indiana had, for a few years while 
he was director, the nation's finest state park service. Lieber is widely 
credited with "creating Indiana's state parks." His America''s Natural 
Wealth (Harper, 1942) had considerable national influence. A Purdue 
professor, Howard H. Michaud, has conducted a summer training school 
in conservation at a state park and has contributed a valuable chapter 
on "Indiana's State Parks" to Natural Features. 

Indiana University's contribution to conservation included teaching 
several large college classes every year until Visher retired in 1958 
and since then by T. F. Barton, L. J. Guernsey and others. T. F. 
Barton wrote well on wiser planning as to artificial Lake Monroe and 
as to the Ohio River. A chapter by Visher appeared in a leading uni- 
versity conservation textbook in 1937, 1951, and 1965. A pamphlet. 
Aids to the Student of Conservation (1937), and several articles in 
various journals also appeared by the same writer. 

Since its establishment in 1919, the state Department of Conserva- 
tion has contributed notably in addition to the state parks already 
mentioned. The first state geologist appointed by the Department was 

102 Indiana Academy of Science 

I.U.'s Prof. W. N. Logan (1869-1941). (Previous state geologists had 
been political.) Dr. Logan planned the Handbook of Indiana Geology (3) 
and wrote about half of this 1120-page volume, on economic geology. 

The first state entomologists was Frank N. Wallace (1878-1966), 
who beside reducing insect damage, did much to increase public appre- 
ciation of Indiana's scenery and wildlife with the help of exceptionally 
fine color photos and attractive lectures. He also augmented public 
appreciation of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

Indiana has had a succession of state geological surveys which 
contributed considerable knowledge as to the state and some of its 
resources, with many somewhat detailed studies of individual counties 
or groups of counties, and with repeated urging of the desirability of 
conservation of forest, soils, wildlife. A recent publication of the State 
Sui'vey worthy of mention is Wealth from the State Beneath Us (1955). 

State Forester Charles C. Deam (1865-1951) studied for many 
decades Indiana's vegetation exceptionally exhaustively. His Flora of 
Indiana (1940) is truly monumental. 

Indiana University's School of Business has done considerable on 
economic resources of Indiana, notably its 14-volume Indiana's Ecoyiomic 
Resources arid Potential (1955, 1956). 

Indiana University's Department of Geography issued in 1966 a 
special publication, An Atlas of Southern Indiana, by R. C. Kingsbury 
and others, which contains many excellent maps, photographs and brief 
texts, grouped under "The Physical Landscape," "History and Historic 
Towns," "Urban Southern Indiana," "Rural Southern Indiana," "State 
Parks," "State Forests," "Other Features." Detailed maps are given 
of most of southern Indiana's larger cities, and of the state parks of 
central and southern Indiana. 

Literature Cited 

1. Leverett, Frank, and F. B. Taylor. 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana anil 
Michigan and tlie History of the Great Lakes. U.S.G.S. Monograph 15. 

2. Lindsey, A. A., ed. 196G. Natural Features of ln<liana. Indiana Academy 
of Science, Indianapolis. 

o. Ixjj^an, W. N., ed. 192 2. Handbook «»f Indiana (ieolojiy. Indiana Depart- 
ment of Conservation, Publ. 21. 

4. Pence, George, and Nellie Armstrong. 1933. Indiana's Iloundaries, Ter- 
ritory, State and County. Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis. 

5. Visher, S. S. 1922. Geography of Indiana. In : Logan, Handbook of Indiana 
Geology (3). 

G. . 1923. Keononiie Geography of Indiana. D. Appleton, N.Y. 

7. . 1928. Geography of American Notables. Indiana University, 


8. . 1944. (Climate of Indiana. Indiana University, Bloomington. 

9. . 1951. Indiana Scientists. Indiana Academy of Science, Indi- 

10. . 1954, 19G6. Climatic Atlas of the I nited States. Harvard 

University Press. 

A Century and a Half of Geology in Indiana 

Wilton N. Melhorn, Purdue University 

Fifty years ago, on December 8, 1916, in an address to the General 
Session of the Indiana Academy of Science, a former State Geologist of 
Indiana, Willis S. Blatchley, related the aprocryphal story that the Lord 
made the geology of Indiana simple so that it could be easily understood 
by the State Geologists elected by the people. 

Origin of this story commonly has been ascribed to Dr. David Starr 
Jordan, once Professor of Zoology and President of Indiana University, 
but probably the true origin will never be known. Perhaps as com- 
mentary on Hoosier politics and thought, the story contains elements 
of truth that persisted through subsequent decades. Certainly Indiana 
was unusual, if not unique, in requiring for nearly thirty years that the 
State Geologist and heads of other state scientific agencies stand for 
election at the polls on the same partisan basis as congressmen, coroners, 
and dog wardens. In a geological sense, however, the story is untrue. 
Indiana geology is not quite as simple nor Indiana geologists quite as 
incompetent or ignorant as the story suggests. 

The 1916 address by Blatchley (1) that contains the preceding story 
was subsequently printed in the Proceedings volume for 1916 under the 
title ''A Century of Geology in Indiana." It follows logically that in 
titling this paper the precedent set by Blatchley is followed. Such a 
title does not connote need for an exhaustive review of every person, 
place, and thing remotely connected with the progress of geologic inves- 
tigation in this state. Indeed, after thoroughly reviewing Blatchley's 
paper, and allowing for predictable personal prejudices developed from 
his experiences, vicissitudes, and frustrations of sixteen years in an 
elective state office, I find little of his story or analysis subject to 
correction or criticism. His eighty-eight page narrative of early geologic 
inquiry is relatively subjective, thorough, and factually unchallengable 
a half-century later. I unreservedly recommend his paper for a few 
hours of interesting, stimulating, and even amusing reading. 

Lacking any requirement for redigestion of a narrative already 
related so capably, the outline for this paper became relatively clear. 
First, a brief review of the "Naturalist" period, commencing with the 
"Owen survey" of 1839 and continuing until establishment of the 
Blatchley survey in 1895 when well-trained geologists in the modern 
sense of the word first appear in any real numbers on the Indiana 
scene. Second, an analysis of the Blatchley survey and its leader, who 
occupied the position of State Geologist from 1895 to 1910, a span 
longer than any other occupant of the post. Third, a review of suc- 
ceeding survey-type organizations commencing with that of Edward 
Barrett, the last of the geologist-politicians, and continued without 
interruption, though under different administrative titles and with vary- 
ing degrees of success, until the present time. Fourth, an area not 
considered by our earlier historian, a review of contributions of geolo- 
gists operating outside the framework of the state geological surveys, 


104 Indiana Academy of Science 

that is within the academic environment of our colleges and universities, 
as private individuals, or the Federal Government. It is necessary to 
interweave into this account such aspects of the early history as bear 
on the progress of geology and geologists in Indiana during the past 
five decades. History tends to he repetitive, is certainly cumulative, 
and there is much to learn from a recital of past events. The emphasis 
herein is on people, rather than published contributions; general agree- 
ment is possible on the total importance of individuals, but disputation 
is common about the lasting scientific merits of specific studies, inter- 
pretations, or publications. 

Geological surveys had been established in fifteen states by 1839, 
and although some were short-lived, some of those discontinued were 
revived when full realization of their practical as well as scientific 
value became apparent. Thus, it is easy to understand why the Indiana 
legislature and private citizens, perhaps as early as 1830 and certainly 
by 1835 began to appreciate the necessity for a geological and topo- 
graphical reconnaissance and mapping of the state. In an era of railroad 
and canal building and general appreciation of the need of an arterial 
highway system, mineral exploration seems to have assumed a relatively 
minor role, as can be observed from careful reading of the first enabling 
act of the legislature on February 6, 1837, providing for such a survey. 
It is interesting that although the title of this act is "An Act to provide 
for a Geological Survey of Indiana" no geological organization of the 
state ever had the exact words "Geological Survey" in its administrative 
title until 114 years later when the present Indiana Geological Survey 
came into existence in 1951. 

In casting about for "a person of talents, integrity, and suitable 
scientific acquirements as Geologist for the State of Indiana" as required 
by the authorization act, it was necessary only to go as far as the 
former Rappite colony at New Harmony, Indiana, in the person of Dr. 
David Dale Owen, commonly acclaimed as the most learned and most 
eminent of all Indiana geologists. Association of Owen, trained in 
medicine (as were most learned men of his day) at the Ohio Medical 
College in Cincinnati, with the New Harmony colony has been amply 
described in popular accounts of early Indiana history, in a more formal 
way by Fenton and Fenton (3), and again only recently in an excellent 
article by Lane (4). It suffices that Owen, in conducting the pioneer 
geological survey with the munificent sum of $3,500 for the biennium 
to cover salary and all field expenses, operating on horseback in 
malaria-infested, bridgeless terrain, and lacking adequate maps on which 
to base his work, did a monumental job of reconnaissance in a nearly 
virgin land. 

Based on discoveries during his two-year term of office, Owen 
published two brief reports in 1838 and 1839, of 38 and 54 pages 
respectively. Reprinted in 1853 and again in 1859, perhaps as a result 
of an abortive attempt by the newly-formed State Board of Agriculture 
to reestablish a survey under Dr. Ryland T. Brown, these reports con- 
stituted the total body of Indiana geological literature for a period of 
twenty years. 

The legislature liad in 1839 passed a new Act whose purpose appears 
to have been to continue the work commenced by Owen. However, the 

History of Science 105 

act was never implemented and neither Owen nor anyone else was 
appointed. It appears that a series of recurring financial crises in state 
government during the 1840's explains the lack of implementation rather 
than dissatisfaction with Owen's achievements. 

After a twenty-year lapse, and under constant prodding by the 
State Board of Agriculture, the legislature approved on March 5, 1859 
a new Act authorizing a geological study and appropriated $5,000 from 
the State Treasury for the purpose of "Geological Reconnaissance, col- 
lecting and analysis of specimens of minerals, ores, earths and stones." 
Accordingly, the State Board of Agriculture reappointed David Dale 
Owen as State Geologist, with directions to pursue a survey of the coal 
fields of the state as his first duty. After partly completing this survey 
and writing a brief summary report, he died of malaria in November, 
1860. Completion of the survey and final assembly and publication of 
the report was left to his brother Richard Owen, who had served as 
David Dale's chief field assistant. 

The report of 1859-1860, as compiled by Richard Owen, is more 
notable for its prose than geological content. Richard Owen appears 
to have been more poet and naturalist than geologist, and this 368 page 
report has geology interspersed with glowing commentary on worms, 
clams, water weeds, and piscatorial delights, all evidently flowing from 
Richard's pen rather than the field notes of his noted brother. 

Merrill (5) rather summarily dismissed Richard Owen as an in- 
competent. He commented on the 1859-1860 report as follows: "Like 
other of this author's writings it is prolix and uninteresting, difi^ering 
in this respect in a marked degree from those of David Dale." Yet this 
treatment seems unduly harsh. Richard Owen's training was probably 
neither better nor worse than most of his contemporaries, and for a 
number of years he appears to have enjoyed successful tenure as Pro- 
fessor of Geology at the University of Nashville (Tennessee) and In- 
diana University. In 1872, he was appointed first president of Purdue 
University, but because of difficulties with the trustees resigned his post 
prior to actual opening of the school in 1874. Judging from his portrait, 
Richard Owen was a lean, saturnine man and one subjectively feels that 
he may not have been the "man of amiability, simplicity, and integrity 
of purpose" that Merrill ascribes to his brother. His influence on the 
curriculum of the newly budded university may, however, be reflected 
in the courses required by the Natural History option during 1874-1875; 
first year (general) geology; third year, economic geology and paleon- 
tology; fourth year, mineralogy and fossil botany (paleobotany). Per- 
haps if this program, ambitious for its time, had been allowed to evolve, 
Purdue today could look backward on a long history of fruitful research 
and successful graduates in geology rather than the low status it has 
held in this area for many decades. 

Because of the Civil War and questions of social action and financial 
crises that followed, there is little record of geological activity in 
Indiana between 1862 and 1869. 

On March 5, 1869, again at the urging of the State Board of 
Agriculture, the legislature reestablished the post of State Geologist. 
Edward T. Cox of New Harmony, who had been chief chemical assistant 
or "chemical geologist" to David Dale Owen in Kentucky, Arkansas, 

106 Indiana Academy of Science 

and on the 1859-1860 Indiana survey was appointed to the post by 
Governor Baker. His tenure of ten years (1869-1879) was the longest 
in a series of relatively short-lived surveys conducted by state geologists, 
some appointed and some elected, lasting until 1895. These surveys were 
always underfinanced (always $5,000 or less per annum to cover 
salaries of the State Geologist and all field assistants, field expenses, 
equipment, geological and chemical assaying, museum acquisitions and 
maintenance) and more often than not were headed by non-geologists, 
although occupants of the post usually did have qualifications in engi- 
neering or a biological science. The requirement that the State 
Geologist issue an annual report of progress led to production of a 
lengthy series of nineteen published volumes of reports, the first 
appearing under Cox in 1870 and continued by his successors — John Col- 
lett, Maurice Thompson, and S. S. Gorby. 

As might be expected, field investigations tended to be hit-and-miss 
affairs, dictated more by political expediency, finances, and local inter- 
ests of field assistants and legislators rather than by any carefully 
planned program of intensive geological investigation. Geological con- 
tents of these volumes are a series of county reports, paleontological 
studies of varying degrees of excellence, mineral resource surveys (par- 
ticularly coal) and miscellaneous reports whose scientific value, even 
at the time of publication, is quite dubious. The county reports tend to 
be typified by inadequate geographic and geologic description (though 
not atypical of the time), inadequate maps, and interminable discussions 
of non-geologic considerations such as the incidence of "milk sickness," 
malaria, and so on. Such examples are understandable, because many 
field assistants of the period were naturalists more versed and qualified 
in other areas of natural history, or even men of medicine (perhaps in 
part explaining their preoccupation with malaria rather than geology). 
Although the lack of geological expertise by physicians such as Rufus 
Raymond, Ryland T. Brown, Moses N. Elrod, and Arthur John Phinney 
was acute, consider that they acted in most instances without salary 
or at best were provided only field expenses; therefore, we cannot be 
too critical of their product and should give them credit as public- 
spirited, forward-looking citizens. In many respects, the annual report 
papers on botany, ornithology, cave fauna and fishes appear to have 
more perpetual value than the geological reports. 

Nevertheless, some geologic reports in these early works stand up 
reasonably well under modern scrutiny. For example, John Collett's 
report on Warren County (2) contains valuable information despite a 
poor map; the geologic sections are reasonably accurate and some 
attempts were made at correlation. In fact, even today it is the only 
suitable general background reference on this county. In contrast, the 
1882 report on adjacent Fountain County by Ryland T. Brown is little 
more than a travelogue and was, in my opinion, almost worthless even 
at time of publication. In fairness to Dr. Brown, it must be recognized 
that he lacked Collett's background and the work was done in his 
declining years — he was 74 years old, and the total field work cost was 
$125! Such parsimony and inadequate treatment is indeed unfortunate; 
eighty-five years later we still lack adequate geological publication on 
Fountain County as a political entity. 

History of Science 107 

Additionally, a rare bit of humor or tartness glows from the pages 
of these ancient volumes, as witness the following quotation from page 
92 of Maurice Thompson's Sixteenth Annual Report of 1888 (6) con- 
cerning the occurrence of gold and precious stones in Indiana. 

". . . there is no true gem stone to be found, high or low, any- 
where within the limits of Indiana, and the only way by which an 
Indianan can remain in this State and obtain these beautiful and 
precious crystals is to work hard, earn the money and then buy 
them. A like statement is true touching the acquisition of gold and 
silver; the only method of obtaining these from the earth in this 
State is that of steadily and persistently following the plow. Every 
person who claims to have discovered in Indiana mines of precious 
metal or deposits of valuable gem-stones should be treated with the 
utmost caution. He is dangerous, if he is not ignorant, and if he 
is not crazy he soon may be, for that way madness lies." 
Further reading indicates that Maurice Thompson, engineer and 
successful novelist, was thoroughly disgruntled with what he called 
crafty, avaricious Indianans. Unfortunately, the human traits displayed 
in print by our early geologists no longer grace the white, sterile pages 
of modern geological literature here or elsewhere; and I, at least, think 
we are poorer for it. 

Blatchley Survey 1895-1910 

Willis S. Blatchley, often called the greatest all-purpose naturalist 
produced in Indiana, headed the first geological survey to produce any 
quantity of geological study of lasting value since the days of David 
Dale Owen. Though still an elected official — this hideous practice 
started in 1882 largely as the result of a Supreme Court decision grown 
out of political infighting between the Governor and a legislature domi- 
nated by the opposition party — having to quadrennially fight the battle 
of the ballot, and hampered by a niggardly budget that in 15 years of 
office never exceeded $7,000 per annum for all salaries and expenses, 
both field and museum, he was successful in surrounding himself with 
a host of qualified and productive assistants, all of whom eventually 
moved outward geographically and upward professionally to achieve 
distinction or success in our science. Names such as G. H. Ashley, 
T. C. Hopkins, E. M. Kindle, C. W. Shannon, C. E. Siebenthal, E. R. 
Cumings, and J. W. Beede are as well known to geologic practitioners 
as to geological historians. Thus sixteen annual reports and one bulletin 
issued by the Blatchley survey abound with source information that 
today is the starting point for advanced studies in stratigraphy, paleon- 
tology, and economic geology in Indiana. Only a few are mentioned 
here: Ashley, coal deposits (23rd Annual Report, 1899); Kindle, 
Devonian fossils and stratigraphy (25th Annual Report, 1901); Ashley 
and Kindle, the Lower Carboniferous of southern Indiana (27th Annual 
Report, 1902); Hopkins, Carboniferous sandstones of western Indiana 
(20th Annual Report, 1896); Hopkins and Siebenthal, the Bedford 
Oolitic Limestone (21st Annual Report, 1896); Kindle, stratigraphy and 
paleontology of the Niagara of northern Indiana (28th Annual Report, 
1903); and Beede and Cumings, Fauna of the Salem limestone (30th 
Annual Report, 1906). There are many others. 

108 Indiana Academy of Science 

Blatchley, a lean, sparse man, was noted for his forthrightness. 
The annual reports, his presidential address to the Indiana Academy in 
1904, and his subsequent writings reveal these things: first, that even 
though of necessity he w^as a political animal, he considered politicians 
niggardly and treated politics itself with contempt; second, a realization 
that growth of the mineral economy of the state could only be com- 
mensurate with an adequate investment of money in a well-staffed 
geological survey; and finally, his justifiable pride in the success that 
he, more ornithologist and zoologist than geologist, had in surrounding 
himself with a corps of capable and productive geologists, though 
unfortunately in later years they left Indiana to seek success and fame 

Much of Blatchley's success in hiring well-trained assistants must 
be attributed to the arrival of John Casper Branner as Professor of 
Geology at Indiana University in 1885 following the retirement of 
Richard Owen. Branner, a graduate of Cornell University, came to 
Indiana after lengthy experience abroad in Brazil and later with the 
Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Whether ascendancy of Dr. David Starr 
Jordan to the presidency of Indiana University in the same year as 
Branner's arrival is relative or coincident has not been ascertained, but 
a later fact is not controvertible: that when Jordan departed to assume 
the presidency of the newly-founded Stanford University in 1891, he 
took Branner along to head the geological department at the new 
institution. (It might be noted that Jordan likewise absconded with 
Joseph Swain, Professor of Mathematics at Indiana University, as well 
as several lesser luminaries of the Bloomington school, indicating that 
''faculty raiding" is not a twentieth century innovation.) Later Bran- 
ner was Vice-President of Stanford and was President from 1913 to 
1915 after Jordan's retirement. Branner produced Stanford's first 
geology graduate {twt mining engineer, as commonly stated) — Herbert 
Hoover, perhaps the most universally known, respected, and financially 
successful geologist of all time. 

Although Branner contributed little to research in Indiana geology, 
he was as successful in attracting graduates of other Indiana colleges 
to do graduate work under him as he was in teaching Hoover and 
others in later years. Only 45 years old when reaching Indiana Univer- 
sity, he appears to have possessed great vigor as well as talent. His 
lack of Indiana research is readily explained by the fact that he was 
an early practitioner of "moonlighting," the art of holding two jobs at 
the same time; for from 1887 until 1892, while teaching at Indiana 
University, he was also State Geologist of Arkansas. His common 
practice was to have his graduate students "cut their teeth" in the 
Paleozoic backwoods of rural Arkansas where Branner, as E. R. Cumings 
relates, almost literally kicked them off the train, forcing them to do 
geologic mapping on their own with little or no assistance from their 
mentor. It is not surprising that in view of this Spartan introduction 
to field geology their studies for Blatchley in later years were so 
thorough and accurate. 

From the time of Blatchley and Branner, the history of geologic 
research in Indiana is principally an almost inextricable mixture of 

History of Science 109 

the State Geologist's office and the geolog-y faculty of Indiana Uni- 
versity, for reasons that will be related. 

Barrett Survey 1911-1918 

Edward Barrett, last of the elected State Geologists, triumped over 
Blatchley at the polls and assumed office on January 1, 1911. By this 
time most of Blatchley's professional staff had left the state, and most 
publications of the Barrett survey consist of soils reports of various 
counties. The few major exceptions appear for the most part to be 
work contracted by Blatchley but not completed during his administra- 
tion. The last voluminous annual report, the 41st in the series dating 
back to 1870, was published in 1917. Barrett's two final annual reports, 
published in 1918 and 1919, are totally administrative in character as 
are most of the annual reports issued since that time. Research reports 
shifted to other publication series with reorganization of survey ad- 

The Indiana Geological Survey 1919-1966 

By World War I, it must have become apparent that continuation 
of state scientific agencies as electoral offices was quite absurd. Cumings 
has recalled that as early as 1915 he reached agreement with Governor 
Ralston to discontinue this practice, instead reinstituting the system 
whereby the State Geologist was an appointive officer with the incum- 
bent picked by a commission appointed by and responsible to the 
governor. For some unknown reasons, perhaps exigencies of war, the 
plan was not carried out until 1919 when Dr. William N. Logan was 
appointed to the office, a position he capably occupied until his retire- 
ment in 1935. 

At this point, we move into relatively modern times, and some 
disgression from my theme is necessary. With reorganization of the 
State Geologist's office into a less politically dominated setting, the 
incumbent State Geologist also was, by statute, a member of the 
faculty of the State University (i.e., Indiana University); furthermore, 
many other geology faculty of the university held non-paid appoint- 
ments with the survey in addition to their faculty duties. As a result, 
many of their results of geological research were published as numbered 
publications of the Division of Geology of the Department of Conserva- 
tion, the administrative successor to the previous Geological and Natural 
History Survey. This explains the previous statement about the inex- 
tricable blending of the State Geologist's office and the University 

In the last four decades, an increasing number of people have 
contributed to the advancement of knowledge of Indiana geology. No 
longer could the names of all active contributors be counted on the 
fingers of two hands, nor do the same names appear over and over in 
publications scattered across a score of years. In some instances, the 
principal contributions of new faces pertain to Indiana geology; in 
other instances by promotion of geology within and without the state 
by administrative leadership; and finally, by acquiring national or 
world-wide reknown as Indiana-based scientists without regard to 
their individual specialities or major preoccupation with the geology of 

110 Indiana Academy of Science 

Indiana itself. For obvious reasons, any critical analysis of the con- 
tributions of many workers is inappropriate; they still live, and though 
the importance of their published research and durability of the product 
is assured, analysis is best left to the geologist-historian of the year 
2016 when all, including the present writer, are only a part of the 
passing parade. 

By any standard, however, five individuals of the post-1920 era 
have attained personal recognition. Discussion of these men and their 
achievements is in order. They are William Newton Logan (1889-1941), 
Charles Frederick Deiss (1903-1959), Clyde Arnett Malott (1887-1950), 
Paris Buell Stockdale (1896-1962), and Jesse James Galloway (1882- 

Our recital continues with William N. Logan, appointed professor 
of economic geology at Indiana University in 1916 and named State 
Geologist in 1919 in the reinstituted appointive system. A native of 
Kentucky, educated at Kansas University and the University of Chicago, 
he had acquired broad experience in Mesozoic stratigraphy and verte- 
brate paleontology in the West. Subsequently, he spent 12 years as 
chairman of the geology department at Mississippi State College and 
as head of the Mississippi Geological Survey, where his principal inter- 
est was in studying the economic potential of clay minerals, marls, and 
groundwater of the Gulf Coastal Plain. 

As expected, most of Logan's own work in Indiana was published 
by the new Division of Geology. Additionally, although he apparently 
suffered under the same budgetary handicaps as his predecessors (in 
1935, the last year of his tenure, geological expenditures were only 
$9,600), he was singularly successful in promoting research and re- 
sultant publication of some of the greatest documentaries of Hoosier 
geology. Commencing with Kaolin in Indiana (1919), a paper reflecting 
continuation of an interest in clays acquired while in Missisippi, he 
thereafter devoted himself to a study of the subsurface strata, particu- 
larly in regard to development of and exploration for oil and gas in 
the state. Under his aegis a number of important research studies were 
implemented and published: Cumings and Schrock, geology of the 
Silurian rocks of Northern Indiana (1928), Stockdale, the Borden (Knob- 
stone) rocks of southern Indiana (1931), and Whitlatch, the Clay Re- 
sources of Indiana (1933). Any of these works stand on their own merit, 
but perhaps Logan's greatest achievement was successful compilation 
of the monumental 1120 page "Bible" of Indiana geology, Handbook of 
Indiana Geology (1922). For this volume, Logan wrote a 500 page 
section on Economic Geology, but it is accompanied by excellent sections 
on Geography, by S. S. Visher; Physiography, by C. A. Malott; and 
nomenclature and description of geological formations (stratigraphy) 
by E. R, Cumings. Certainly, no single other contribution to Indiana 
geology is its equal. 

Logan is characterized by Cumings as a kindly, well-bred, patient 
and good-humored man who reportedly always typed his own manu- 
scripts. After retiring from oflice because of ill health in 1935, the 
Division of Geology languished for a number of years, although research 

History of Science 111 

and publication on a limited scale was continued, principally in mineral 
resource studies, ground water, and petroleum. Probably the economic 
depression of the late 1930's and the advent of World War II are largely 
responsible for this relative hiatus. 

In 1945, Dr. Charles F. Deiss was appointed Professor of Geology 
at Indiana University and State Geologist and reorganization of the 
Division of Geology commenced in September of that year. In March, 
1946, Deiss recommended removal of responsibility for the administra- 
tive and essentially non-technical services of supervision of oil and gas 
activity in the state, a chore which apparently had eaten away much 
of the limited appropriations of earlier years; with this accomplished, 
it would be possible for the Geology Division to concentrate on work 
more closely related to geological problems. As a result, the Division 
of Oil and Gas was created on May 1, 1947 by H. B. 207, Chapter 277 
of the Acts of 1947, and by late 1947 the reorganization of the Division 
of Geology was nearly complete. In conclusion of severance from service 
functions, the Division of Geology moved from Indianapolis to Bloom- 
ington and reorganized into a number of separate branches, a structure 
it still essentially retains, although in 1951 the administrative title 
was changed to Indiana Geological Survey . . . the first time in history 
the survey became one in name as well as mission. 

Although he held a substantial reputation as paleontologist and 
Cambrian stratigrapher before coming to Indiana, reorganization and 
revitalization of the survey to a progressive and viable establishment 
was perhaps Deiss' greatest achievement. The work of the survey has 
been enhanced greatly by significant increases in appropriated funds, 
largely coming from a 1% severance tax on oil and gas production 
imposed by the state in 1948. For example, survey appropriations 
increased from $20,000 in 1946 to $114,000 in 1948. Blatchiey would be 
extremely pleased and think his arguments vindicated. 

Clyde A. Malott, a native Hoosier and graduate of Indiana Univer- 
sity, was an outstanding geomorphologist, an expert on caverns and 
underground drainage, and a remarkably perceptive Mississippian and 
Pennsylvanian stratigrapher. He perhaps was more devoted to study 
of the geology of his native state than any other man of recent times. 
Most of his free time v^as spent in research at his own expense, appar- 
ently investigating problems that were of personal interest to him 
without the strictures of contract study and other dictated research 
that plague us now. Some of his stratigraphic research, to be true, 
was an outgrowth of consultancy to oil companies, but the geomorphic 
studies were a labor of love. His geomorphic publications were mostly 
published in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science and 
general appreciation of his exposition and carefully documented ideas 
has occurred only since his death. Among his finer works are his ana- 
lytical and philosophical studies of erosion, the concept of base-level, 
and classification of valley forms, published as Indiana University 
studies, and his beautifully documented paper on the drainage of Lost 
River in Orange County, appearing in the Indiana Academy Proceedings 
for 1951. Shrock has stated that Malott's publications, views, and works 
might be called provincial, but so fundamentally and logically and so 

112 Indiana Academy of Science 

carefully fashioned they ultimately become classics. This writer concurs 
with this statement, although in some respects his private work, 
posthumusly published, on the stratigraphy of the Ste. Genevieve and 
Lower Chester rocks of Indiana, is perhaps his finest contribution to 
Indiana geology. 

Paris B. Stockdale, a native Hoosier and accomplished violinist as 
well as geologist, received his training at Indiana University, and his 
published doctoral thesis, a monographic study of the Borden strata, 
remains a classic investigation of this sequence of fine-grained, sparsely 
fossiliferous clastic and carbonate rocks that dominate the Lower 
Mississippian section of Indiana. Modeled on previous work by Charles 
Butts in the Appalachians, Stockdale conducted virtually an inch-by-inch 
study of the Borden rocks, recognizing facies and giving them names. 
Though we now recognize flaws in some of his interpretations, he laid 
the groundwork for appreciation of sedimentary facies everywhere; 
Charles Schuchert credited him as a prophet of stratigraphic changes 
to come. In later years, he continued study of Borden equivalents in 
Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee and published the detailed results in 
Special Paper 22 of the Geological Society of America. All subsequent 
studies of Borden or equivalent strata have their roots in Stockdale's 
pioneer study. In addition, he was able to prove the solution origin of 
stylolites that characterize the Mississippian limestones, showing that 
insoluble residues are in exact proportion to the degree of penetration 
of the stylolite and that composition of the residue is precisely the 
same as in soils overlying the Mississippian carbonates. 

J. J. Galloway, a native of Noble County, studied under E. R. 
Cumings at Indiana University, completing his dissertation on the 
stratigraphy and paleontology of the rocks of the Cincinnati Series in 
1913. After a brief stint as an instructor at Indiana University, he 
went to Columbia University in New York where he was Curator of 
Paleontology and Professor from 1916 to 1931. Thereafter he returned 
to Indiana University to spend the remainder of his professional career. 
Starting with a rigorous and systematic examination of fossil bryozoans, 
he progressed through foraminifera, then blastoids, and finally stromo- 
toporoids. Study of these latter, poorly-known phylogenetic orphans 
consumed most of his time after his retirement from active teaching in 
1953. It is regrettable that his lifetime was not triple the normal span, 
for if it had, he might have progressively worked his way through an 
equally exhaustive appraisal of all the invertebrate phyla. He was the 
first man to teach micropaleontology in America, and his book A Manual 
of Foraminifera, published in 1933, has remained a standard text and 
reference for over 30 years. His teaching standards were high and his 
demands on his students equally high. His flare for the dramatic, 
whether on scientific or social questions, was typically accompanied by 
a varied assortment of four-letter w^ords which tended to highlight 
rather than vulgarize his orations in the ears of the listeners. He 
excelled at chess and was an extremely good but unorthodox bridge 
player, verbally overpowering either partner or opponents if the caliber 
of their play did not meet the exacting standards he set for both 
scientific and social occasions. 

History of Science 113 

Colleges and Universities 

As demonstrated, the history of geologic investigation at Indiana 
University is intertwined with that of the various state geological 
surveys. Only three other Indiana schools — DePauw University, Earlham 
College, and Hanover College — have actively contributed research and 
publication to the advancement of Indiana geology. Other schools either 
have never emphasized geology in their curriculum and thus lacked 
professional geologists on their faculties, or are recent arrivals on the 
geologic scene. Emphasis at most schools has been strongly keyed to 
undergraduate education, their faculties heavily burdened with course 
instruction with correspondingly minor time and funds for wide-scale 
research. Nevertheless, their contribution to a total knowledge of In- 
diana geology has been substantial, even if of limited geographic or 
subjectual extent; in many respects their work represents the ideal 
combination of teaching and research. Among such contributors must be 
mentioned Ryland T. Brown, Ernest Rice Smith, and the late Charles L. 
Bieber of DePauw University; Joseph Moore, A. D. Hole and others at 
Earlham College; and Glenn Culbertson and Grant Wickwire at Hanover 
College. Geologic instruction remains a viable part of teaching at these 
schools, and further contributions from them is assured. 

Brief mention also should be made of the substantial contributions 
of Indiana State University in Physical Geography, a field so closely 
allied to if not an integral part of geology. The work in physiography 
of Charles R. Dryer, William A. McBeth, and F. J. Breeze, among others, 
is a valuable part of our scientific heritage. 

Miscellaneous Work 

Our predecessor historian, Blatchley, has described in detail the 
work accomplished during the period of 1869 to 1910 by individuals 
and organizations not connected with the various geological surveys 
of the state. The U. S. Geological Survey has devoted perhaps less 
attention to most aspects of Indiana geology since 1910 than before 
that date, although the progenitor of the Federal survey had its origin 
in the early days of the New Harmony colony. After 1910, numerous 
volumes of the different report series of the U. S. Geological Survey 
contain articles that deal with some aspect of Indiana geology as part 
of a regional study of coal, building stone, ground water or other eco- 
nomic mineral commodity. One specific contribution is such an im- 
portant source item as to merit citation. Monograph 53, published in 
1915, deals with the Pleistocene deposits of Indiana and Michigan and 
the history of the Great Lakes and is particularly important to our 
story. Not only does much of the report deal with the topography and 
glacial history of Indiana, as described by Frank Leverett, but the 
junior author, Frank B. Taylor, was a native and long-time resident of 
Fort Wayne. Taylor's chronological framework and interpretation of 
the evolutional history of the Great Lakes is, with appropriate modifi- 
cations, used today. 

Other publications by other authors grace the pages of professional 
journals and organizational reports at a pace equal to the knowledge 
explosion of the last half century. For example, an average of four to 

114 Indiana Academy of Science 

five geological or geologically related articles have appeared in the 
annual proceedings of this Academy each year for the past thirty years, 
yet our geological inquiry has scarcely more than scratched the surface 
of the unknown. Would that I could name all who have contributed. 
Most of those I have named are now gone, and new ones have taken 
their places. 

The Next Half-Century 

It is tempting to peer into the future and ask the question, whither 
Indiana geology and Indiana geologists ? Changing times bring changing 
needs, and change is not difficult if the proper foundations are estab- 
lished and fundamental observations completed. In Indiana, unfor- 
tunately, we are not as prepared to cope with changing needs as we 
ought to be because the fundamental studies are not yet completed. 

The completion in 1963 of the cooperative topographic mapping 
program of the state has been the first step towards establishing a 
proper foundation for future geologic studies. This set of over 750 
topographic quadrangle maps provides an adequate base for geologic 
mapping, and detailed geologic mapping must be accomplished before 
geology can attain its highest goal — maximum service to mankind. 
The true value and objectives of geologic research were recognized long 
ago by Maurice Thompson (7) who said: 

"Geology is but a dry and useless science, fit only for the crooning 
of the hermit, specialist, and the dusty-brained theorist, if it can 
not afford practical aid to the masses of the people. Of what use 
is all this study of the rocks if it be but to satisfy curiosity or to 
furnish links in idle theories ? 

The highest aim of every science should be the permanent better- 
ment of human life. Geology is not without this aim, and it has 
contributed and will continue to contribute to the store-house of 
practical human benefits by informing the people upon subjects 
that lie close to their material prosperity, while at the same time 
it has never, and it never must, let go the other strand of its 
usefulness which attaches to the purely scientific study of the 
Earth's contents." 

It has often been said that geology ignores political and geographic 
boundaries, and this is indeed true. Thus in recent times artificial 
limits have been ignored and research has tended to be devoted to 
intense analysis of discrete geologic units, mineral commodities, or other 
rigidly structured areas of investigation. In the future, however, it is 
probable that the attention of many geologists will be diverted from 
the traditional search for minerals or petroleum into other applications 
of geology more germane to late 20th century needs — urban planning 
and zoning, water and air pollution, structural design, transportation, 
public health, and water resources. To meet these changing needs, 
geological considerations no longer can ignore political and geographic 
boundaries abhorred before. Thus we return, full circle, to recognition 
of the need for comprehensive, detailed geologic mapping of individual 
quadrangles, counties, and regions of the state. This must be done 
without reference to an immediate monetary return, and it may 

History of Science 115 

never be possible to be able to calculate, in the traditional sense, exactly 
what the dollar return is per dollar invested; certainly it will require 
greater numbers of geologists and a greater sum of money than has 
been invested in the entire previous century and a half of Indiana 
geology that we have just reviewed, Thompson's and Blatchley's predic- 
tions and anticipations have come true, at least in part; it would be 
pleasant to look backwards from the vantage point of a half century 
hence and see if the writer's predictions and anticipations are validated. 

Literature Cited 

1. Blatchley, W. S. 1917. A Century of Geology in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. for 1916, p. 89-177. 

2. Collett, John. 1874. Geology of Warren County. Geol. Survey of Indiana, 
Ann. Rept. 6: 192-259. 

3. Fenton, C. L. and Fenton, M. A. 1952. Immigrant Innovator. In: Giants 
of Geology. Doubleday and Co.: 165-178. 

4. Lane, N. Gary. 1966. New Harmony and pioneer geology. Geotimes 11: 

5. Merrill, George P. 1906. Contributions to the History of American Geology. 
U. S. National Museum Rept. for 1904 : 189-734. 

6. Thompson, Maurice. 1889. Gold, Silver and Precious Stones. Indiana Dept. 
Geol. Nat. Hist., Ann. Rept. 16: 87-92. 

7. Thompson, Maurice. 1892. Indiana Building Stone. Indiana Dept. Geol, 
Nat. Hist., Ann. Rept. 17: 19-55. 

Mathematics in Indiana, 1816 to 1966, from the Rule of 
Three to the Electronic Computer 

Will E. Edington, DePauw University 

To get a proper perspective of Indiana during the first half of 
the nineteenth century one must realize that Indiana Territory, composed 
of what is now Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, was organized in 1800, 
with a population of 6,550, not counting Indians. In 1809 Indiana Terri- 
tory was divided and Illinois Territory was set up. The capital of 
Indiana Territory was the old French settlement of Vincennes. In 
1806 the Territorial Legislature established Vincennes University which 
opened in 1810 as a preparatory grammar school. It made some 
progress but finally was closed in 1823. Corydon became the capital of 
the State in 1813. Following the admission of Indiana Territory as a 
State in 1816 and the New Purchase Treaty with the Indians in 1818, 
the population of the State increased from 64,000 in 1816 to 147,000 in 
1820, 348,000 in 1830, 685,866 in 1840 and 988,416 in 1850, Indiana 
ranking seventh in population among all the States. However, its largest 
city was New Albany, in 1850, and Indianapolis, the capital since 1825, 
was second with a population of 8,091. 

The Constitution of 1816 provided for the Indiana State Seminary 
and a seminary in each county but provided no adequate means for 
their support. The county seminary was supposed to furnish the edu- 
cation between the district schools and Indiana State Seminary, which 
was established and located in Bloomington in 1820 and opened May 
1, 1824, with ten students and one professor who taught Latin and 
Greek. In May, 1827, John H. Harney (1806-1868) was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. In 1828 the Legislature 
changed the name of the Seminary to Indiana College and the school 
was reorganized with the Rev. Andrew Wylie as President. Harney 
left Indiana College in 1832 to become the first Professor of Mathe- 
matics at Hanover College which had been established by the Presby- 
terians in January, 1827, with six students and the Rev. John Finley 
Crowe as instructor. 

The rapid increase in population led to the organization of twenty- 
five counties between 1821 and 1828. However, the establishment of a 
county seminary did not necessarily follow the organization of a 
county. Probably the extreme case was the establishment of a county 
seminary in Marion in 1850, twenty-nine years after Grant County 
was organized. By 1850 a total of fifty-three counties had county 
seminaries, generally located in the county seats. During this fifty 
years approximately seventy-five private and sectarian academies, insti- 
tutes and seminaries were incorporated and some of these became col- 
leges: Hanover, 1827; Wabash, 1832; Franklin, 1834; Indiana Asbury 
(DePauw), 1837; Concordia, 1839; Earlham, 1847; Notre Dame, 1849. 
Where the district schools were good, the county seminaries provided 
work about equivalent to a high school. For that period many of the 
private and sectarian schools were very good. 


History of Science 117 

The offerings of the better schools were made to meet the needs of 
the times. College students were trained for public life, with emphasis 
on rhetoric, oratory, languages, business mathematics, engineering, law, 
and in some schools, the ministry. Science, with laboratory work as we 
know it, was unknown. The arithmetic of business, carpentry, masonry, 
and farming, and trigonometry for surveying, were taught not only in 
the seminaries and academies but also in the colleges. Indiana College 
offered courses in engineering in 1832. In the district schools, where they 
existed, the four fundamental operations of arithmetic were taught and 
the Rule of Three, that is, the solving of the simple proportion like 

a X a c 

- = - or - = -, and sometimes more complex problems with five or 

b d b X 

seven known parts. Often fractions were not taught. 

In the better academies and seminaries algebra and plane geometry 
were taught, and the colleges taught trigonometry, analytic geometry, 
some calculus, and physics, then called Natural Philosophy, sufficient 
for an understanding of engineering and elementary astronomy. In 
1840, at Indiana University, the Freshman took algebra, plane geometry 
and trigonometry. In his second year he took surveying and analytic 
geometry in the first semester, and in the second semester differential 
and integral calculus. His Junior year was devoted to descriptive 
geometry, mechanics, statics and dynamics. In the second semester of 
his Senior year he took astronomy. Indiana Asbury, the principal rival 
of Indiana University, offered virtually the same program. Hanover and 
Wabash followed the same pattern, but offered no calculus, devoting 
the Junior year to Natural Philosophy. Astronomy was always a Senior 
subject for one semester at least. The textbooks were generally of 
English origin or translations of French textbooks. 

Before drawing any conclusions, one should know that at the open- 
ing of the nineteenth century requirements for admission to a college 
in the United State were practically nonexistent. Harvard, founded in 
1636, took its first step in 1803 by requiring a knowledge of arithmetic 
as far as the Rule of Three. In 1816 Harvard added the knowledge of a 
little algebra as a requirement, and it did not drop arithmetic from its 
Freshman course until 1837. At both Dartmouth and Yale, in 1850, the 
Freshman took plane geometry and completed algebra. In his second 
year he took trigonometry, surveying, mensuration, analytic geometry 
and calculus. Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in his Junior year 
completed his mathematical training. 

In the Indiana colleges the bona fide annual college enrolments 
were small and fluctuated widely. Prior to 1850 the attendance at 
Indiana University ranged from 38 in 1841 to 115 in 1846 and averaged 
63. At Hanover, the college enrolment from 1833 to 1850 inclusive 
averaged 58 with variations from 101 in 1835 to 8 in 1845, with 79 in 
1850. Indiana Asbury (DePauw) enrolments varied from 35 in 1839 to 
126 in 1848 and averaged 90. All the colleges taught preparatory 
students whose numbers frequently exceeded the regular college en- 

There were no professional mathematicians in Indiana before 1850. 
There were many excellent and dedicated teachers, many of them 

118 Indiana Academy of Science 

ordained preachers, and some dedicated workers for better education. 
Among- these were Caleb Mills (1808-1879), Julia L. Dumont (1794- 
1857), Robert Dale Owen (1801-1877), William C. Larrabee (1802- 
1859), John I. Morrison (1806-1882), Barnabas C. Hobbs (1815-1892), 
Samuel K. Hoshour (1803-1883), Ryland T. Brown (1807-1890), Rufus 
Patch (1819- ), Cyrus Nutt (1814-1875), William Haughton (1803- 

), and Silas T. Bowen ( ). 

There were no Departments of Mathematics because the college 
staff seldom exceeded a half dozen in number including the President. 
Up to 1850 the most prominent teachers of mathematics were: Hanover, 
John H. Harney (1806-1868), Thomas W. Hynes (1815-1905), Samuel 
H. Thomson (1813-1882) ; Indiana University, John H. Harney, Ebenezer 
N. Elliott, James F. Dodds (1807-1886), Jacob Ammen (1807-1894), 
Alfred Ryors (1812-1858) ; Indiana Asbury, Matthew Simpson (1811- 
1884), William C. Larrabee (1802-1859); Franklin College, John B, 
Tisdale ( -1847), John S. Hougham (1821-1894); Wabash College, 

John Steele Thomson (1804-1843), William Twining (1805-1884). 

The general weaknesses of educational efforts in Indiana in this 
period were lack of adequate financial support for free schools, lack 
of any central authority and supervision, lack of feeder secondary 
schools for the colleges, and active sectarian intolerance. 

Because of general illiteracy, incompetency of teachers, sectarian 
rivalry, and the fact that sixty per cent of the children were receiving 
no formal schooling at all, enlightened leaders Caleb Mills, Robert 
Dale Owen, John I. Morrison, Ovid Butler, Henry Ward Beecher, James 
R. M. Bryant, Edwin R. May, Ryland T. Brown, and others, sponsored 
a bill, in 1847, in the Legislature, calling for free schools supported by 
general taxation. Before acting on such a bill, the Legislature called 
for a State-wide election, held in August, 1848, which resulted in a 
favorable vote for free schools. The Legislature, in 1849, enacted a 
bill calling for taxation to support public schools. This bill also re- 
ceived a favorable vote in a State-wide election in 1849. This was 
followed by the Constitutional Convention of 1851 in which taxation 
for the support of free public schools was approved with the township 
as the school unit. The public schools were also to be under the super- 
vision of a State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Following the adoption of the new Constitution, the county seminary 
buildings were sold and the money used for public schools. High schools 
were set up in many communities. However, the enemies of free schools 
were active, and in 1853 a suit was brought in Greencastle Township, 
Putnam County, for an injunction to prevent the collection of taxes 
for township schools, which was granted, carried to the Supreme Court 
and there sustained in 1854. A similar suit brought in the city of La- 
fayette in 1855 against the city was likewise sustained by the Supreme 
Court. Both suits were based on constitutionality. The result was chaos 
in the public schools during the next ten years. 

In Indianapolis the high school was closed from 1858 to 1864, and 
the primary schools were open only 21 or 22 weeks a year during part 
of that period. All public schools in Terre Haute were closed from 
1854 to 1860. New Albany closed its schools from 1858 to 1860 and 

History of Science 119 

again from 1861 to 1864, the school rooms being rented to teachers 
for private schools. The Muncie schools, between 1853 and 1867, were 
closed for four years and open on an average of 67 days a year for 
the remaining ten years. Numerous private schools were again organized 
to meet the needs. 

Despite the chaotic condition, some progress was made. The Indi- 
ana State Teachers' Association was organized in Indianapolis on 
Christmas Day, 1854. The Indiana State Normal School in Terre Haute 
was opened for students in 1870, and Purdue University, a land grant 
institution, held its first classes from March to June, 1874, with John 
S. Hougham (1821-1894) in charge. 

In 1867 the Legislature again enacted a school law that empowered 
townships and cities to impose taxes for public school support that 
was not challenged in court until 1885 and was then found to be 
constitutional by the Supreme Court. 

In the meantime public schools were organized in townships, towns 
and cities so that by 1874 seventy-eight of the 149 cities and incor- 
porated towns had High Schools. In 1873 Indiana University was em- 
powered to set certain standards to be met by high schools for their 
graduates to be admitted to the University without examination, and 
fifteen city high schools immediately received recognition as commis- 
sioned high schools. Purdue was granted this same power in 1875. 

By 1850 Indiana University and several colleges had sufficient en- 
rolments to justify the employment of instructors with superior train- 
ing in mathematics, physics and engineering. At Indiana University 
Elisha Ballantine (1809-1886) taught mathematics from 1854 to 1856. 
He was succeeded by Daniel Kirkwood (1814-1895) who retired in 1886 
with an international reputation as an astronomer. Samuel H. Thomson 
(1813-1882) served at Hanover from 1844 to 1877 and was succeeded 
by Frank Lyford Morse (1829- ) who taught from 1876 to 1900. 
At Indiana Asbury, Charles G. Downey (1819-1857) succeeded William 
C. Larrabee in 1852 when the latter became the first State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction. Following Downey's death in 1857, 
Cyrus Nutt (1814-1875) taught mathematics until he was made Presi- 
dent of Indiana University in 1860. He was succeeded by John W. Locke 
(1822-1896) who had been President of Brookville College. In 1872 
Locke was succeeded by Patterson McNutt (1833-1886), former Presi- 
dent of Baker University, who served until 1883. At Wabash John 
Lyle Campbell (1827-1904), one of John I. Morrison's pupils, began his 
distinguished career in 1849, teaching mathematics until 1876 and then 
physics and astronomy until his death. Jacob Norris took over the 
mathematics teaching in 1876 and continued until 1891. Rebecca J. 
Thompson ( ) began teaching at Franklin College in 1872 and 

taught until 1910. William B. Morgan (1830-1904) taught mathematics 
intermittently at Earlham College from 1862 to 1868 and then taught 
in Indianapolis High School, Spiceland Academy and the University of 
Michigan until 1874 when be became the first Professor of Mathematics 
at Purdue. He resigned after one year because he did not approve of a 
Department of Military Training. He returned to Earlham to teach 
chemistry and after spending seven years at Penn College he again 

120 Indiana Academy of Science 

returned to Earlham in 1883 to teach mathematics until his retirement 
in 1898. At Northwestern Christian College, now Butler, George W. 
Hoss (1829-1906) was Professor of Mathematics from 1856 to 1864 
when he became State Superintendent of Public Instruction. In the 
1870's William M. Thrasher was Professor of Mathematics at Butler. 
William B. Morgan, at Purdue, was succeeded by David G. Herron who 
served until 1883. Moses Cobb Stevens (1827-1910), who came to Purdue 
in 1880 as librarian and registrar, taught mathematics from 1883 to 
1902. In 1873 Henry Baker Brown founded the Northern Indiana 
Normal School and Business Institute which in 1907 became A^alparaiso 
University, and from 1873 to 1911 its mathematics was in charge of 
Martin Eugene Bogarte (1855-1911) who was primarily interested in 

Once the problem of financial support for public schools was solved, 
the State experienced a tremendous educational development. The 
number of commissioned high schools increased from 34 in 1882 to 107 
in 1890, and the colleges likewise made corresponding progress. The 
rivalry, now more friendly, between Indiana University and DePauw 
University was brought to a climax by two remarkable men, David 
Starr Jordan (1851-1931) and John P. D. John (1843-1916). Jordan was 
a zoologist and John a mathematician. Both were educational leaders. 
Jordan, a native of New York, came to Indiana in 1874 as a teacher in 
Indianapolis High School. The following year he became Professor of 
Biology at Butler University. In 1879 he accepted a professorship in 
zoology at Indiana University and six years later became President of 
the University. John, born in Brookville, Indiana, received his education 
at Brookville College. Before coming to DePauw in 1882, he had been 
President of both Brookville College and Moores Hill College. At De- 
Pauw he taught mathematics and astronomy until 1889, when he was 
made President of the University. Both Jordan and John helped to 
found the Indiana Academy of Science in December, 1885. Jordan was 
the first President of the Academy and John the third. Both men 
developed graduate study in their respective schools and surrounded 
themselves with able instructors. No formal Graduate Schools were set 
up, but between 1883 and 1893 Indiana University conferred 14 Ph.D. 
degrees and DePauw six Ph.D. degrees, none in mathematics. Neither 
university conferred any more Ph.D. degrees until Indiana University 
began again in 1908. 

Some research papers in mathematics were published by Indiana 
men before 1900. To the best of my knowledge the earliest research 
paper by an Indiana native was published by William Ephraim Heal 
(1856-1925) in 1879 in Volume 6 of the Analyst, the only mathematical 
periodical being published until the American Journal of Mathematics 
appeared in 1878. Heal received his education in the Marion, Indiana, 
Normal School and he never was professionally associated with any 
college or university. Mathematical research was his avocation, and he 
published a number of research papers in American journals and one 
in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society on Number 
Theory and advanced Theory of Equations. He became a member of 
the London Mathematical Society in May, 1892. He was undoubtedly 
the outstanding Indiana mathemetician before 1900. He was one of 

History of Science 121 

the first four Indiana men elected to the New York Mathematical 
Society in April, 1891. This Society became the American Mathematical 
Society in 1894. The other three members were: Henry T. Eddy 
(1844-1921), President of Rose Polytechnic Institute; Clarence A. 
Waldo (1852-1926), then at Rose Polytechnic, who came to DePauw in 
September, 1891, as Head of the Department of Mathematics, and later 
became Head of the Department of Mathematics at Purdue from 1895 
to 1908; and Joseph Swain (1857-1927), the Professor of Mathematics 
at Indiana University and later its President from 1893 to 1902. Later 
in 1891, five other Indiana men were elected to the Society: Robert J. 
Aley (1863-1935) and Rufus L. Green (1862-1932), professors of 
mathematics at Indiana University, Aley from 1891 to 1909 and Green 
from 1885 to 1893; Moses Cobb Stevens (1827-1910), Professor of 
Mathematics at Purdue from 1883 to 1902; Arthur Stafford Hathaway 
(1855-1934), Professor of Mathematics at Rose Polytechnic from 1891 
to 1920; and Alexander Knisely (1851-1931), of Columbia City, Indiana, 
at that time County Superintendent of Whitley County Schools, a 
graduate of Valparaiso University, and later a business man, who was 
deeply interested in mathematics. Of these men. Heal, Eddy and Hath- 
away were outstanding' research men. Eddy and Hathaway were in 
the first group (1903) of starred mathematicians. Heal became a pro- 
fessional auditor but spent the last fifteen years of his life in U.S. 
Government Service in Washington, D.C. Aley wrote several research 
articles and later many articles on education, reviews, etc. Pie was 
elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction in 1909 but resigned 
in November, 1910, to become President of the University of Maine. 
He later returned to Indiana as President of Butler University from 
1921 to 1931. 

It is of interest to note that Rufus L. Green went to Stanford 
University in 1893 at the same time that Joseph Swain returned to 
Indiana University to become President. Also of interest is the fact 
that Emerson E. White, President of Purdue from 1876 to 1883, was 
author of a ComjDlete Arithmetic, first published in 1870, which he 
kept revised, with a New Complete Arithmetic in 1883 that found wide 
use in the primary schools. 

On a national basis the period from 1870 to 1900 is of considerable 
interest. Three universities, Johns Hopkins (1876), Clark (1889), and 
Chicago (1892), were founded with the idea of emphasizing graduate 
study and research. The first earned Ph.D. in mathematics given by an 
American university was awarded by Harvard to W. E. Byerly in 1873. 
By 1900 the number of Ph.D.'s in mathematics conferred in the United 
States was: Johns Hopkins, 32; Yale, 18; Clark, 12; Chicago, 11; 
Harvard, 9; Columbia, 8. No other university conferred as many as 
eight. The large number of doctorates given by Johns Hopkins was due 
to the fact that its President, Daniel Coit Oilman, in 1877 called the in- 
ternationally known English mathematician, John Jacob Sylvester, who 
came and lectured at Johns Hopkins until 1883. Besides helping to 
found the American Journal of Mathematics in 1878 Sylvester exerted 
a tremendous influence over American mathematicians. Two other im- 
portant influences were the Mathematical Congress held during the 
Chicago Columbian Exposition in 1893 and the addition of the out- 

122 Indiana Academy of Science 

standing German mathematicians, Oscar Bolza and Heinrich Maschke, 
to the University of Chicago's Mathematics Department in 1892. 
Thirteen Americans presented research papers at the Congress, one of 
whom was Henry T. Eddy, President of Rose Polytechnic. 

By 1890 both Indiana and DePauw Universities reached their peak 
for the time as true universities. Their collegiate enrolments were: 
Indiana University, 339; DePauw, 418. However, when David Starr 
Jordan left Indiana University in 1891 to become President of the 
newly founded Stanford University, taking with him a number of 
Indiana's finest scientists, Indiana University suffered an educational 
relapse. But DePauw's prospects looked so bright in 1891 that Clarence 
A. Waldo left Rose Polytechnic and Joseph P. Naylor (1853-1938) left 
Indiana University to come to DePauw as heads of the mathematics and 
physics departments respectively. However, the great financial de- 
pression of 1893 wrecked President John's hopes at DePauw and led 
to his resignation in 1895. 

Following the commissioning of the high schools by the universities 
and colleges of the state, the mathematics taught in the high schools 
by 1900 uniformly consisted of at least one year of required algebra 
and one year of required plane geometry, and in the better schools a 
semester each of advanced algebra and solid geometry. Commercial 
arithmetic was offered for those desiring more mathematics. Most of 
the colleges, by this time, had already ceased giving preparatory work 
and offered, more or less uniformly, college algebra, trigonometry and 
plane analytic geometry in the freshman year and dilTerential and 
integral calculus in the sophomore year. The ideas of majors and 
electives had been developed under Jordan at Indiana University and 
also at DePauw. Accordingly, elective courses in ordinary differential 
equations, theory of equations and mechanics were offered. DePauw 
had offered a course in quaternions as early as 1880. The better colleges 
in time offered courses in vectors, partial differential equations, solid 
analytic geometry, projective geometry, theory of investment, functions 
of a complex variable, and other courses leading to the Master's degree. 
Indiana University conferred its first declared Master's degree in 
mathematics in 1888 on Francis P. Leavenworth, but Joseph Swain had 
received a Master's degree in 1885. The organization of a Section of 
Mathematics in the State Teachers' Association in 1891 makes evident 
the important role that mathematics had attained in public school 

Consequently the history of mathematics from 1900 on is con- 
cerned mostly with the organization of mathematical societies, both 
state and national, the development of graduate schools, and the raising 
of standards required for teaching in the public schools. 

The half century between 1890 and 1940 witnessed the work of 
many great teachers of mathematics but (in Indiana) of relatively few 
researchers. World War I and the depression of the 1930's took their 
toll in imposing heavy teaching loads and depressing salaries. Follow- 
ing is a list, by no means complete, of deceased college teachers who 
left outstanding records. Following each name is given the years of 
birth and death, if known, and the years of teaching service rendered 

History of Science 


at the given institution. Future history of science in Indiana demands 
biographical study of many of these teachers (see Figure 1). 

FIGURE 1. Meeting- of the Indiana Section of the Mathematical Asso- 
ciation of America at Indiana University, May 8, 9, 1925. 1. Aley 2. Rothrack 
3. Bennett 4. Hadamard 5. Knox 6. Branson 7. Graves 8. Shock 9. Hanna 
10. ? 11. William 12. Banes 18. Johnson 14. Edington 15. Robins 16. Lutz 
17. Long 18. Dotterer 19. Hodge 20. Grant 21. Davisson 22. Hardman 
23. Mason 24. Hadley 25. Doan 26. ? 27. ? 28. Wells 29. Wolfe 30. Waits 
31. Barr 32. Edwards 33. Davis 34. Marshall 35. Hennel 36. Berry 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Ball State: 


Hanover : 

Ind. State: 
Indiana U; 

Notre Dame: 

Purdue U: 

James H. Baxter (1874-1926), (1918-1926) 

Elijah N. Johnson (1865-1934), (1904-1934) 

Wilbur Vincent Brown (1860-1928), (1885-1928) 

Robert L. Sackett (1867-1946), (1891-1907) 
Laurence Hadley (1876-1946), (1902-1918) 
William O. Mendenhall (1879- ), (1907-1918) 
Elmer D. Grant (1873-1935), (1920-1935) 

Rebecca J. Thompson ( ), (1872-1910) 

Frederick H. Hodge (1870-1951), (1910-1919) 

Daniel A. Lehman (1860-1942), (1906-1942) 

Reuben S. Lawrence (1858-1919), (1900-1906, 1914-1919) 
Paul Prentice Boyd (1877- ), (1906-1912) 
Herbert A. Meyer (1905-1963), (1929-1943) 

Mrs. Lizzie S. Byers ( ), (1890-1893) 

Oscar Lynn Kelso (1855-1930), (1894-1924) 
Frank R. Higgins (1869-1936), (1896-1936) 
James H. Baxter (1874-1926), (1905-1918) 

John A. Miller (1859-1946), (1896-1906) 
Robert J. Aley (1863-1935), (1891-1909) 
David A. Rothrock (1864-1949), (1892-1938) 
Schuyler C. Davisson (1866-1960), (1890-1938) 
Ulysses S. Hanna (1865-1940), (1895-1936) 
Agnes E. Wells (1876-1959), (1918-1944) 
Cora B. Hennel (1886-1947), (1908-1947) 
Kenneth P. Williams (1887-1958), (1909-1958) 

John E. Dotterer (1888-1964), (1920-1959) 

Jose A. Caparo (1888-1954), (1908-1946) 
Daniel Hull (1870- ), (1921- ) 
E.J. Maurus (1872-1941), (1897-1939) 

Moses Cobb Stevens (1827-1910), (1883-1902) 
ErastusTest (1836-1917), (1894-1910) 
Thomas Greene Alford (1852-1919), (1892-1917) 
Clarence A. W^aldo (1852-1926), (1895-1908) 
Robert L. Sackett (1867-1946), (1907-1915) 
Alfred Monroe Kenyon (1869-1921), (1898-1921) 
Jacob Westlund (1867-1947), (1900-1917) 
William Hunt Bates (1870-1944), (1903-1919) 
William Marshall (1869-1956), (1908-1941) 
William A. Zehring (1876-1931), (1905-1931) 
Clifton T. Hazard (1885-1963), (1913-1955) 
Thomas E. Mason (1883-1939), (1914-1939) 
Laurence Hadley (187(5-1946), (1918-1946) 
Frederick H. Hodge (1870-1951), (1919-1940) 

History of Science 125 

Rose Poly: Arthur Stafford Hathaway (1855-1934), (1891-1920) 

Valparaiso: Martin Eugene Bogarte (1855-1911), (1873-1911) 

Wabash: James H. Osborne (1857- ), (1881-1916) 

Duane Studley ( ), (1891-1900) 

Jasper A. Cragwall (1867-1937), (1901-1929) 
George E. Carscallen (1881-1960), (1920-1957) 

William Lowe Bryan became President of Indiana University in 
1902 and organized the Graduate School in 1904. However, no Ph.D. 
was granted before 1908. In 1912, Cora B. Hennel received the first 
Ph.D. in mathematics, her thesis being directed by Robert D. Car- 
michael who came to Indiana University in 1911 and remained four 
years. He also directed the thesis work of Thomas E. Mason, who re- 
ceived the Ph.D. in 1914. With the return of Kenneth P. Williams to 
Indiana after having received his Ph.D. at Princeton in 1913, the De- 
partment granted one Ph.D. in 1917 and two in 1918. No more were 
granted until after the coming of Harold T. Davis in 1923. Davis, like 
Williams, was an excellent research man, being starred in 1937. Before 
he left Indiana in 1937, the Department granted nine more doctorates. 
No more were conferred until 1946. Following the retirement of Davis- 
son in 1938, Williams became Head of the Department. 

In December, 1915, the Mathematical Association of America was 
organized in Columbus, Ohio. Its primary purpose was not to emphasize 
research but to be concerned with collegiate mathematics. It took over 
the publication of the Americmi Mathematical Monthly which had been 
founded in 1894 by Benjamin F. Finkel of Drury College. It began with 
1,045 charter members, of whom 29 were from Indiana. Besides the 
annual meeting on a national basis, it has 27 Sections. The Indiana 
Section was organized in 1916 but did not become active with annual 
meetings until 1924. As of October 1, 1965, the Association had 15,998 
members, of whom 364 were in Indiana. The American Mathematical 
Society, the research organization, on the same date had 10,923 mem- 
bers, of whom 227 were in the State. 

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics was organized 
in 1920 as an association for teachers in grammar schools, high schools 
and junior colleges, as a Department of the National Education As- 
sociation. It publishes the Mathematics Teacher, the Arithmetic Teacher 
and the Mathematics Studeyit Journal. In 1964, it had 36,600 members, 
of whom 956 w^ere in Indiana. L. H. Whitcraft, Ball State, and Mrs. 
Marie S. Wilcox, Thomas Howe High School, Indianapolis, have served 
as vice-presidents and Mrs. Wilcox was President in 1954-1955. An- 
other organization. The Central Association of Science and Mathematics 
Teachers, is meeting in Indianapolis in November, 1966, and is con- 
cerned with both science and mathematics. 

In 1907 the Legislature made the high schools a legal part of the 
public school system. The Indiana State Normal School immediately 
developed a four-year college course leading to the A.B, degree. It gave 
its first degrees in 1908. In 1918 Ball State Normal School was estab- 
lished by the State. Both Indiana State and Ball State became Colleges 

126 Indiana Academy of Science 

in 1929 and State Universities in 1965. Both are empowered to give 
doctorates in certain fields and jointly with Indiana University and 
Purdue in other fields. Indiana State has regularly given Masters' 
degrees since 1929 and Ball State since 1934. Educational standards 
are now such that a Master's degree is required for a teacher to be- 
come eligible for certain employment and salary benefits. 

Following the death of President Stone of Purdue, Edward C. 
Elliott became President in 1922 and in 1924 set up a new Committee on 
Graduate Study with instructions to study each and every Department 
in the University with regard to its capability as to staff, library and 
other facilities for giving the Ph.D. degree. This Committee's recom- 
mendations were adopted by the Faculty and led to the establishing of 
a Graduate School in 1929 with a Dean and Graduate Council. In the 
meantime, however, the Committee supervised the graduate work and 
the University conferred the doctorate on Maurice Zucrow in 1928. 
Included in Zucrow's major field of study was a one year course, the 
Mathematics of Theoretical Physics, first offered at Purdue in 1925- 
1926 by the Mathematics Department and given in alternate years 
thereafter with semester courses in Vectors and Harmonic Analysis. 
Also the Department offered in 1926 a one year course in the Mathe- 
matical Theory of Statistics which was given every year. These courses 
were all taught by Will E. Edington who came to Purdue in 1922 and 
went to DePauw in 1930 as Head of the Mathematics Department. Prev- 
ious to 1925 the only graduate course offered by the Department was a 
one year course called Graduate Mathematics whose subject matter was 
adjusted to meet the needs of the students enrolled in it. This course 
was taught by Thomas E. Mason who came to Purdue in 1914. In 1930 
the Department employed Wilhelm Meier, a German, as a visiting 
lecturer for a year. The year 1931 saw Cornelius Lanczos join the De- 
partment. Lanczos, an internationally known mathematician and co- 
worker of Albert Einstein, was an excellent lecturer and researcher and 
remained at Purdue until 1946. He was the forerunner of a large number 
of foreign mathematicians who joined the Department during the past 
thirty years. However, the first doctorate in mathematics was not con- 
ferred until 1939 when Cleota G. Fry received her Ph.D. 

The period from 1940 to the present has witnessed tremendous 
developments in mathematics at Indiana University, Notre Dame and 
Purdue. For the first time the Departments of Mathematics were headed 
by outstanding research men: Karl Menger, of Vienna, at Notre Dame 
from 1937 to 1946; Tracy Y. Thomas at Indiana University from 1944 
to 1956, from then on Distinguished Service Professor; and William L. 
Ayres at Purdue from 1941 to 1946 when he became Dean of the School 
of Science until 1962. Menger, who directed Bernard J. Topel in 1938 
to Notre Dame's first Ph.D. in mathematics, was succeeded by Arnold 
E. Ross who remained at Notre Dame until 1963. Ross was succeeded 
by Thomas E. Stewart. At Indiana University T. Y. Thomas became a 
Distinguished Service Professor in 1956 and was succeeded as Chair- 
man by J. W. T. Youngs who resigned in 1964 to go to the University of 
California at Santa Cruz. Youngs was succeeded by Sudhish G. Ghurye, 
a native of Bombay, India, who received his Ph.D. at the University 
of North Carolina in 1952. 

History of Science 127 

At Purdue in the transition from a service department to almost 
a school in itself, the Mathematics Department underwent considerable 
confusion and finally, in 1962, was set up as the Division of Mathe- 
matical Sciences with three Departments: Mathematics, Statistics, and 
Computer Sciences. During this transition period Ralph Hull served as 
Chairman of the Department from 1948 to 1955, Arthur Rosenthal 
(acting) from 1955 to 1956, Carl F. Kossack from 1956 to 1959, and 
William R. Fuller (acting) from 1959 to 1961. Finally, Gerald R. Mac- 
Lane was made Head of the Division of Mathematical Sciences and 
Chairman of the Mathematics Department, Shanti S. Gupta, Chairman 
of the Statistics Department, and Samuel D. Conte, Chairman of the 
Computer Sciences Department. Dean Ayres resigned in 1962 to go to 
Southern Methodist University as Vice President and Provost. 

To get some conception of the expansion in mathematical studies 
at Purdue, according to the School of Science Bulletin for 1966-1967, 
the staff of the Division of Mathematical Sciences consists of 116 
members with some professional rank, 16 instructors, 120 graduate 
teaching assistants, 51 graduate research assistants, 9 graduate teach- 
ing associates, and 37 Graduate Fellows. In 1931-32 the Mathematics 
Department consisted of 26 members. Now Purdue alone has a greater 
number of mathematics teachers than all of the universities and col- 
leges of the State combined had in 1931. At present a ten story building 
is being erected on the Purdue campus to be devoted exclusively to 
the Mathematical Sciences, with office space for 500 staff members in- 
cluding teaching assistants. It will cost almost $4,000,000 and will house 
the University's computer center with at present one IBM 7094 and two 
IBM 1401's. Purdue has four Regional Campuses, located in Indianapolis, 
Fort Wayne, Calumet-Hammond and Barker Memorial Center in Mich- 
igan City. Indiana University has Regional Campuses in Indianapolis, 
Fort Wayne, Kokomo, Gary-East Chicago, South Bend-Mishawaka and 
Jeffersonville. Indiana State has a Regional Campus in Evansville. 

Numerous research men in mathematics have served various pe- 
riods of time in Indiana universities. Indiana University has its 
Vaclav Hlavaty, Eberhard Hopf, Tracy Y. Thomas, Emil Artin, J. W. T. 
Youngs, Clifford Truesdell, Murray Rosenblatt, Louis Auslander, Sey- 
mour Sherman, George Whaples, Ernest Snapper, A. H. Wallace, H. F. 
Bohnenblust, S. V. Barter, Walter Gautschi, and S. G. Ghurye. Notre 
Dame has its Karl Menger, Ky Fan, Irving Glicksberg, Parko Bojanic, 
Wilhelm Stoll, Vladeta Vuckovic, Robert Weinstock, Paul Pepper, and 
Norbert Kuhlman. Purdue has its Cornelius Lanczos, W. L. Ayres, 
Lamberto Cesari, Casper Goffman, A. C. Schaeffer, Donald Greenspan, 
J. H. B. Kemperman, Harley Flanders, C. R. Putnam, G. J. Rieger, 
J. R. Isbell, Philip Dwinger, C. J. Neugebauer, G. L. Krabbe, Arthur H. 
Copeland, Jacob Korevaar, Ivan Niven, Leonard Gillman, Melvin Hen- 
riksen, Michael Golomb, W. H. Fleming, Meyer Jerison, G. R. MacLane, 
Samuel D. Conte, R. F. Williams, Daniel W^aterman, and others. Be- 
cause of the keen competition between universities themselves and also 
with various industries and the Government who employ large numbers 
of mathematicians, a game of "Musical Chairs" is played by many re- 
search professors who are in demand. 

128 Indiana Academy of Science 

During the five year period 1961-1965, Indiana University conferred 
38 Ph.D.s in mathematics, Notre Dame 27, and Purdue 44. In the 
recent survey made by the American Council of Education of 106 uni- 
versities in the United States granting ten or more Ph.D.s annually as 
to the quality of the graduate faculty and the effectiveness of the 
graduate program in 29 disciplines, it ranked, in mathematics, Purdue 
23rd, Indiana University 25th, and Notre Dame was rated adequate. 
To show the tremendous development of graduate study in the United 
States a total of 16,000 Ph.D.s were granted in 1966 as compared to 
2,800 in 1934. 

The "new math" that is permeating the mathematics taught from 
the kindergarten to the Ph.D. has grown out of the integration that is 
resulting from mathematical research. Many seemingly distinct branches 
of mathematics are found to be just that: branches. Certain mathe- 
matical concepts that hitherto have had restricted meanings have been 
generalized and found to have wide application in uniting and simplify- 
ing former concepts. This generalization and simplification is being 
applied to all mathematics. One of the leaders in this work involving 
the public schools has been the Ball State Mathematics Department. In 
1955 M. E. Shanks, of Purdue, and Charles F. Brumnel, then at Ball 
State, began work on a revision of 8th grade arithmetic, Freshman 
High School Algebra and Sophomore Plane Geometry. Later Robert 
Eicholz, of Ball State, worked with Shanks and Brumfiel on what became 
known as the Ball State Program, sponsored by Ball State and the 
National Science Foundation. It is one of a number of such programs. 
The material was tested in the Ball State Laboratory Training School 
and in a number of schools in Eastern Indiana and has been completed 
for all the public school grades. 

The author regrets that the space allotted him will not permit the 
enumeration and discussion of the various Seminars, Summer Insti- 
tutes, Meetings of the Mathematical Association of America, Radio 
Broadcast Courses, Computers, Mathematics in Industry, Mathematics 
in the Social Sciences and the Biological Sciences, etc., most of which 
has followed World War II. However, it is a hope that the colleges and 
universities of the State will seriously consider the History of Mathe- 
matics in their Graduate Programs, for the "fields are white to harvest" 
and many Master's theses should be written before it is too late to 
acquire authentic information. 

Physics: Its Development in Indiana 

Hugh F. Henry, DePauw University 

As is all too painfully apparent to the physicist, his subject con- 
cerns a wide variety of topics, and many of them have such a tre- 
mendous practical importance that they become the routine province of 
the engineer, the maintenance mechanic, or even other scientists, with 
the original contribution of physics and the physicist becoming lost in 
the shuffle. For example, Wabash, Indiana, is reputedly the first town 
in the country to have installed electric street lighting, and Indiana 
was an early center of automobile development and manufacture. Yet, 
there was apparently little recognition of the physics with which these 
two major industries were vitally concerned. 

This continuing anonimity of the physicist or, perhaps, the non- 
recognition of the importance of the subject to various activities, is 
indicated even today by the major industrial and research-oriented 
Indiana company which, in its analytical work, regularly uses an 
electron microscope, does various types of spectroscopy from the ultra- 
violet to the infra-red, makes X-Ray diffraction studies, obtains nu- 
clear magnetic resonance and electron-spin resonance data, and is cur- 
rently investigating possible applications of lasers. Yet, it does not 
believe it employs a single full-fledged physicist! 

Thus, it is not surprising that the principal history of physics as 
a recognized subject in Indiana (as in the United States and the rest 
of the world generally) lies in its educational institutions. This aspect 
of the history of physics in the state presents three rather distinct 
eras with the dates of about 1890 and 1930 being major "break" points. 

The first students attending Indiana's colleges had a clear choice 
of subjects to take — they took the prescribed curriculum or they didn't 
attend school, and the various college catalogs show that even the first 
curricula gave Natural Philosophy an important place. DePauw's catalog 
of 1842 detailed what was included under this topic as Mechanics, 
Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Acoustics, Optics, Electricity, 
Magnetism, and Electromagnetism; very obviously, this was physics. 
Natural Philosophy courses were specifically listed in the catalogs of 
Hanover "from the first", Indiana University in 1831, Wabash College in 
1834, and DePauw (Indiana Asbury until 1884) in 1839. The term 
"Physics" was itself apparently first used in DePauw's catalog of 1854 
with Wabash using the term in 1865, Hanover in 1870, and Purdue from 
its founding in 1874. In these early catalog descriptions, the topics 
treated were frequently specified by reference to a specific text or texts, 
as "Deschanel's text" at Purdue. 

Natural Philosophy was itself generally considered a branch of 
the more general subject of Natural Science, and the topics now con- 
sidered as physics were grouped under one or more of these titles and 
that of the newcomer, Physics. Early professors were rather widely 
accomplished men who normally taught many topics. Thus, Natural 
Philosophy was taught by half of DePauw's first faculty. Rev. (later 


130 Indiana Academy of Science 

Bishop) Matthew Simpson, who was not only professor of Mathematics 
and Natural Science in 1838-1839 but was also president in his spare 
time. The 1843 catalog was the first one listing- a separate professor of 
Natural Science, Charles G. Downey. 

By about 1880, departmental designations using physics as at least 
a part of the title began to appear, as was initially the case at Purdue. 
However, a physics department as such was first established at Wabash 
in 1879, at DePauw in 1881, Hanover in 1885, Indiana State in 1887, and 
Butler in the 1890's. Such emergence of physics departments as separate 
entities apparently has depended upon the development of the school in 
size, curricular emphasis, and probably what can only be called politics. 
As two examples, Notre Dame, founded in 1842, did not establish a 
separate physics department until 1920, and Indiana State, in reducing 
the number of its departments in 1923, included physics under a Science 
Department from which it emerged in a subsequent reorganization. 

The establishment of physics as an undergraduate major at any 
school apparently depended upon a general curricular reorganization, a 
practice not completely unknown today. Such a change introducing 
disciplinary majors (and minors), with physics as one of the subjects 
concerned, took place at DePauw in 1890 when it was the largest school 
in the state. However, it was some 20 years later, in 1910, before 6 
students graduating therefrom were among the first baccalaureate 
physics majors in the state, Earlham awarding a similar degree in a 
program established in 1960. 

It was not until 1915 that Wabash established an undergraduate 
major with the first graduates in 1919, and Hanover did not establish 
such a majors program until 1925. On the other hand, physics as an 
undergraduate major was first mentioned at Butler University in 1914 
with the first major graduating in the early 1920s. Indiana Central 
College (founded in 1902) established a physics department in 1922, 
provided an undergraduate major in 1925, and graduated the first physics 
major in 1928. Notre Dame did not set up an undergraduate major until 
1937, and awarded its first baccalaureate physics major in 1941; these 
later dates are subsequent to the establishment of graduate courses at 
the school and the award of a master's degree in physics in 1936. 

The first program for earned {pro merit o) doctorates was established 
at DePauw in 1886, but none were apparently given in physics, unless 
the 1887 degree of John B. DeMotte, physics professor during 1882-1891, 
was in this subject. At this time and earlier, the Ph.D. was also fre- 
quently given as an honorary degree (without the pro merito desig- 
nation) by the various schools. By faculty vote, DePauw gave such an 
honorary degree to Prof. Joseph Tingley in 1871 as a ''surprise." The 
earned Ph.D. program was itself withdrawn in 1895, and it was in 1936 
that records first show the award of a master's degree in physics at 
that institution. 

The first program offering an earned graduate degree in physics at 
I.U. was apparently established prior to 1883, a master's degree being 
awarded that year to J. P. Naylor who subsequently became the long- 
time physics department head at DePauw. However, it was not until 1915 
that I.U.'s first physics doctorate was awarded. Both the recipient 

History of Science 131 

thereof and the recipient of a degree the next year had not only done 
their undergraduate and master's work at Indiana University but also 
stayed on to teach at their Alma Mater. 

Purdue's graduate program was established in 1908 with the first 
doctorate in physics awarded in 1934 on the topic of electron diffraction. 
Notre Dame established its master's program in 1934 (with a degree 
awarded in 1939) and its doctoral program in 1939 (with 5 candidates 
receiving degrees in 1942). Ball State lists the establishment of a gradu- 
ate program in education with physics major in 1941 with a degree 
first awarded that year; Rose Polytechnic Institute authorized a grad- 
uate program in physics in 1958, the same year an undergraduate major 
was established, and awarded its first master's degree in 1964, the same 
year Indiana State University awarded a master's degree in the graduate 
program established the preceding year. 

At the other end of the physics instruction spectrum was that of 
the secondary schools. In many public school systems, the earliest 
records indicate physics as a part of the curriculum for most of the city 
systems since about 1900; the earliest date established was that of 
1882 for Shortridge High School in Indianapolis. The topic was intro- 
duced in the Goshen schools in the early 1880s as a part of what would 
be now called a science survey course. It became a full semester course 
in 1895, and the report of the Goshen Public Schools for 1898-1899 
states that 'Thysics is studied throughout the junior year in the English 
course, and throughout the senior year in the Latin course." The re- 
mainder of the description names texts and the topics studied, which 
are certainly what we now call physics. Although data are not avail- 
able, it would appear that few high schools in the state today do not 
include some introduction to physics as a part of their curricula, some 
providing two years of the subject. 

During the rapid ferment of development of the subject of physics 
at the turn of the century, the college professors recognized the desira- 
bility of professional association, and the College Physics Teachers' 
Association of Indiana was organized, apparently in 1902. Although 
there is some indication that the date was 1906, a meeting announcement 
and program dated January, 1906, did not indicate that this meeting 
was an organizational one. That particular announcement, signed by 
Professor Kent of Wabash, the host school, named nine colleagues as 
having indicated their intention to attend. By 1922, the mailing list had 
grown to 22 individuals, including 2 from out-of-state and 2 high school 
teachers, plus the general address of "Professor of Physics" at 6 schools, 
including Notre Dame. Only at Purdue was more than one name listed 
(4 were listed there). The meeting at Purdue in April of that year, 
however, attracted 18 people, 5 from Indiana University, 3 from Val- 
paraiso, 2 from each of DePauw, Rose Polytechnic, and Indiana State, 
and single representatives from Franklin, Wabash, Indiana Central, and 
West Lafayette High School. 

This organization thus antedated by more than a quarter century 
the formation of the American Association of Physics Teachers in 1930. 
Its name fluctuated somewhat with the records showing such appelations 
as the College Physics Teachers' Club of Indiana, the Physics Teachers 

132 Indiana Academy of Science 

of Indiana Colleges and Normal Schools, and the Association of Indiana 
College Physics Teachers being bestowed thereon. In fairness, it appears 
that the organization, which held one or two meetings each year among 
the schools having major physics programs, received its various titles 
at the whim of the one calling the meeting each year and survived 
despite such name-calling. By about 1940, Hoosiers had apparently 
accepted the national organization, voting to apply for a charter in 
1938, and the records for the next 10 years begin to reflect joint meet- 
ings of the ''two" groups and the frequent use of the term Indiana 
Chapter of the American Physics Teachers. By about 1950, the current 
appelation of the Indiana Section of the American Association of Physics 
Teachers had been rather generally adopted and high school physics 
teachers had taken a more active part. 

In addition to organization of their own group, Indiana physicists 
have also been active in the Indiana Academy of Science, which was 
founded in 1885. At this organization meeting, J. P. Naylor, then at 
Indiana University but due to come to DePauw in 1891, gave a talk on 
"The Progress of Physics in Indiana." 

The fact that at least one of the problems of the physics teacher 
has not changed in 60 years is shown by one of the topics proposed 
for discussion at the 1906 meeting, which was "What are the funda- 
mentals upon which emphasis should be placed in an elementary course 
for students or in other words what should be the subject matter 
presented to students in elementary work?" Another topic was listed 
as "The propadeutics (sic) of moment of inertia." Another one of par- 
ticular interest in view of the then recently-announced explanation of 
the photoelectric effect was given as "Sound, light, etc., exhibit various 
interference phenomena. We conclude that sound, light, etc., are ex- 
amples of wave motion. Could someone put into precise form the missing 
premise required to render the above conclusion valid?" 

At succeeding meetings of the group, the topics discussed included 
not only those concerning the development of the phenomenological part 
of physics but also the problems and successes of physics teaching. It 
may be recalled that, for the professors in most of the schools, travel 
funds were not too generally available for meeting attendance and 
these annual, or semi-annual (between 1934 and 1944), meetings thus 
provided the main opportunity for many of the participants to rub 
elbows with their colleagues (no 1945 meeting was held because of 
war conditions). The meetings were also somewhat social in nature, a 
description of the 1921 meeting held at I.U. including the notation that 
"The visitors were met at Indianapolis by the Indiana Staff with eight 
cars, and taken for a drive to Bloomington by way of Brown County." 
Some 30 members attended this meeting, and 13 of them were accom- 
panied by their wives. 

An ever-present problem (and one receiving considerable attention 
and discussion at professional meetings today) was that of preparing 
physics teachers for the secondary schools. What would now be called 
a task force, if not originated by this group certainly heartily endorsed 
thereby, was headed by Prof. Lark-Horowitz of Purdue in 1941. Con- 
tinuing for at least 3 years, it attempted to persuade the state de- 

History of Science 133 

partment of education that among other things, high school teachers 
should have 20 semester hours of work in the subject. The efforts of 
this group, and similar ones in other subjects, were apparently successful 
in influencing the state licensing requirements listed in 1946. 

The organization continues to sponsor annual meetings in the spring, 
the location being at the invitation of one of the colleges and the 
program consisting of contributed and invited papers. 

In addition to the attraction of reasonably competent students with 
scientific abilities and interests, the development of physics as a schol- 
arly enterprise depends upon faculty, finances, and facilities, primarily 
the faculty, which itself depends on finances and, to a somewhat less 
extent, on facilities. 

Prior to about 1890, Indiana schools apparently provided adequate 
instruction in the subject, and little of what is now called research took 
place; essentially the same was true throughout the country. Probably 
the outstanding physicist of this period was Joseph Tingley, an 1846 De- 
Pauw graduate who stayed on as tutor until 1849 when he became Profes- 
sor of Natural Science, a position he held until 1879. He also held the 
title and duties of Vice-President after 1860 and was an accomplished 
musician, portrait painter, and photographer. He traveled widely through 
the state, giving demonstration lectures, principally in electricity, which 
included the telegraph as early as 1859 and amplified telephony con- 
necting Greencastle and Indianapolis in 1878. President Simpson, while 
feeling that the chair of natural science in many schools was the "source 
of skeptical speculation," rejoiced that this position at DePauw was 
held by such a devout Christian as Tingley who, in one of his lectures, 
is reported to have "demolished the theory of the Evolutionists, Darwin, 
and the rest"; in fact "Prof. Tingley 's Scriptural and Scientific enter- 
tainments" were self-confessedly suitable for "all lovers of THE GOOD, 
THE BEAUTIFUL and THE TRUE." However, his lecturing activities, 
which would today be thought to bring credit to the university, did cause 
absences and thus drew unfavorable attention from the trustees who, 
by 1878, were also apparently dissatisfied with the faculty in general, 
though not on theological or sectarian bases. Hence, in 1879, Prof. 
Tingley was among the half of the university faculty which was sum- 
marily dismissed. In 1883, the trustees voted that Science Hall, a class- 
room in the present East College, be henceforth identified as Joseph 
Tingley Hall; in current usage, this is the ladies powder room. 

The financial poverty of physics in the state at this time is indi- 
cated by the fact that an early (about 1860) DePauw student publication 
complained (or bragged) that DePauw equalled any midwestern school 
in successful teaching of the natural sciences, including experimental 
demonstrations, despite the fact that the entire outlay for natural science 
equipment had been only $1,500 for 27 years, while similar schools 
elsewhere were spending as much as $100,000; the mechanical and con- 
struction skill of Tingley and his predecessors, William C. Larrabee and 
Charles G. Downey, must have been much in evidence. 

A notable professional contemporary of Tingley was John L. Camp- 
bell who graduated from Wabash in 1848 and then taught natural 
science there during the half century, 1853-1903. His 1863 suggestion 

134 Indiana Academy of Science 

to Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institute that the 300th anniver- 
sary of Galileo's birth be commemorated, brought an invitation to give 
such an address on Feb. 15, 1864; this he could do because "a. friend 
here has generously offered to make up the deficit in my expenses above 
your usual appropriation w^ithout which I would have been compelled 
at present to decline." Similarly, his 1868 suggestion to Philadelphia's 
mayor that the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence 
be celebrated was probably not unrelated to the Philadelphia Exposition 
of 1876. He spent the years 1875-1877 in Philadelphia on leave of 
absence and was secretary of the U.S. Centennial Commission. He was 
also president of the Indiana Commission to the Chicago World's Fair 
of 1893. 

Parenthetically, it should be mentioned that a Notre Dame sym- 
posium in 1064 was one of the few taking place in the world, and 
almost the only one in the United States, where the 400th anniversary 
of Galileo's birth was celebrated. 

Physics apparently went to sleep in Indiana between about 1890 
and 1930; perhaps it only seemed that way as the status quo, presumably 
of classical physics at the undergraduate level, was maintained while 
the subject itself put on Seven League Boots with the development of 
many of the topics generally called Modern Physics. Thus, while X-rays, 
radioactivity, relativity, quantum mechanics, wave-particle duality, and 
the identification of atomic and nuclear particles were exciting the 
scientific world, there is little indication that Indiana did much more 
than recognize the fact; certainly, no major research activities were 
underway. At DePauw, the state's largest school which had authorized 
a Ph.D. program in 1886, the 1893 panic eventually destroyed President 
John P. D. John's first effort (in 1890) to enlarge expenditures for 
physics by authorizing a $600 budget (with $1000 for each of biology 
and chemistry) instead of the preceding budgets of some $50-$100; 
President John himself resigned in 1895. At about the same time, Presi- 
dent David Starr Jordan of Indiana University left for Stanford (in 
1891) and science, particularly biological sciences, no longer received 
his vigorous and effective support. The departure of these two able 
administrators affected the entire state, particularly in the apparent 
decline of graduate work. 

During this period, two individuals may be noted. One was Joseph 
P. Naylor, who left the headship of the physics department at Indiana 
University in 1891 to accept the same position at DePauw, telling some- 
one "he thought that DePauw had a greater future, — , and also had 
a better (base) ball team." A watchmaker by trade, he was an accom- 
plished machinist and, prior to retirement in 1925, he not only made 
much of the experimental apparatus used by his students but also con- 
structed precision tools and other devices, many of which may still be 
seen. He also had close ties with the U. S. Coast and Geodedic Survey. 

At Indiana University at the same time was Arthur L. Foley, who 
received his first physics appointment at that school in 1890 and was 
department head from 1897 until 1937, followed by his retirement in 
1938. His principal research field was acoustics, and he and his students 
apparently published some 90 papers, about 75 appearing in the 

History of Science 135 

Proceedivgs of the Indiana Academy alone. His introductory textbook, 
College Physics, was among- the most popular of the time, going- through 
several editions. During his tenure, the department's four principal 
professors were I. U. baccalaureate graduates, and two of them also 
received their Ph.D. degrees there. 

Rose Polytechnic Institute had an important place in Indiana's 
physics development at about the turn of the century. Thus, E. S. 
Johonnott, an RPI alumnus distinguished by starring in American Men 
of Science, served during 1899-1925, following C. L. Mees who came to 
RPI as a physicist in 1887 and then served as president during the 
quarter century, 1895-1920. Another starred physicist, T. C. Mendenhall, 
also sei-ved as RPI president during 1886-1889. A contemporary of these 
men and an engineer of international reputation, Thomas Gray, a Scots- 
man, certainly was not unrelated to physics as he had worked with 
Lord Kelvin for a number of years, and during his tenure at RPI 
(1888-1908) prepared the Smithsonian Tables published in 1896. 

At about this same time the name of Zahm had a double meaning 
as far as physics at Notre Dame was concerned; Father John Zahm 
served as professor of physics (and chemistry) from about 1873 to 1896 
and Albert Zahm, with a particular interest in aerodynamics, served on 
the faculty during 1885-1892. As a student in 1882, he built the state's 
first wind tunnel; in the late '80's he built and flew a man-carrying glider, 
and then presented a paper on the "Stability of Aeroplanes and Flying- 
Machines" at the first International Aeronautics Congress in 1893. 

Physics did not entirely neglect the distaff side either. What was 
probably the first wireless message sent in Indiana was the mile-long 
transmission from Notre Dame by Professor Jerome Green, and his 
physics class, to Sister M. Augustine Farmer of Saint Mary's College, 
and her physics class, in April, 1899. The receptor employed the induc- 
tion coil used to supply high voltage for the X-Ray ^'machine" obtained 
for Saint Mary's by Father John Zahm on a trip to Europe in 1896. 

During this period, physics at Purdue provided primarily a service 
function, and its resultant state is epitomized by the 1928 stafi' which 
consisted of five professors, only one with a Ph.D., and five graduate 
assistants. The library "consisted of one corner of a very small room 
that had a few shelves of textbooks for general physics. People were 
told that if they wanted to do research work they would have to do it at 
their own expense and on their own time." The equipment and supply 
budget for that year was $14,000 with which the undergraduate pro- 
gram was to be developed and research initiated in the revitalized 
(perhaps only vitalized) graduate program to which emphasis had been 
given in 1924. 

What might be called an awakening period for Indiana physics as 
a graduate subject began with the arrival of Vienna-born Professor 
Lark-Horowitz at Purdue in 1928. A theoreticist, he apparently pos- 
sessed keen insight into the basics of any problem confronting him 
and had the rare quality of encouraging his students and colleagues in 
their own efforts. Such encouragement was apparently not always 
gentle nor of the type by which we are advised to win friends and 
influence people — but they produced results and loyal colleagues. The 

130 Indiana Academy of Science 

1938 construction of a cyclotron and the development of such important 
research as the growing- of germanium crystals and their use as solid 
state devices, activities where Purdue was a major factor during World 
War II, while perhaps not directly the work of his own hands were 
certainly not completely unrelated to Dr. Lark-Horowitz's efforts. His 
interest in sciene teaching at both the college and the public school 
levels brought him a Distinguished Service Citation from the A.A.P.T. 
in 1935, he also having been appointed to the A.A.A.S. Committee on the 
Teaching of Science and Mathematics about this same time (he was 
committee chairman 1945-1950). His training of graduate students did 
not neglect the preparation and presentation of papers at professional 
societies; in the early days, many of these were given at the Indiana 
Academy meeting, as many as five being presented at that of 1934 alone. 

It is of interest that Purdue's pre-World War II research budgets, 
as was the case elsewhere, were extremely limited, and much sweat 
and inguenuity went into the graduate program. Thus, for example, the 
250 kV Van de Graaf generator, completed in 1937, cost "$825.62 plus 
the hard labor of two graduate students." Similarly, the total cost of 
the 1938 cyclotron was $9,030.90, which "was just the cost of the ma- 
terials and the machining of the pole tips — . All the labor was dis- 
counted; it was mostly graduate student labor anyhow." Inland Steel's 
first bid for the magnet steel alone was $2,762, but assistance from a 
metallurgy professor and a hitch-hiking trip to Gary by a graduate 
student brought the price down to the $1,598 of actual labor and ship- 
ping costs. Incidentally, by 1958, Purdue's equipment budget had 
apparently climbed to some $280,000. 

A. E. Haas, a renowned German theoreticist, spent his last years, 
1936-1941, in residence at Notre Dame, coming there at the time the 
school, in recognizing the importance of physics in a major institution, 
was initiating a major graduate program under the leadership of Rev. 
H. J. Bolger, C.S.C., who served as department head during 1937-1963 
and saw the specialization of Notre Dame in nuclear work with the 
construction of both open and pressurized van de Graaf machines. 

The arrival of Dr. A. C. G. Mitchell, son of the famous University 
of Virginia astronomer, to accept the position of physics department 
head in 1938 signalled the beginning of interest at Indiana University 
in the so-called Modern Physics, and this interest has continued despite 
his untimely death in 1963. He served on the council of the American 
Physical Society, 1943-1947, and was Associate Editor of the Physical 
Review, 1941-1947. He had served similarly for the Journal of Chemical 
Physics, 1932-1934. At the time of his death, he had completed his third 
term as president of the Midwestern Universities Research Association. 

World War II, the scientific accomplishments of which were so 
intimately bound up with physics, almost completely passed Indiana by 
as far as development of physics in the state was concerned. True, a 
major part of the growing of germanium crystals and their development 
as what are now known as solid state devices took place at Purdue, and 
some work on the properties of rubber was done at Notre Dame. Other- 
wise Indiana professors ended up at M.I.T., Chicago, Oak Ridge, Los 
Alamos, and other places where major research was underway. After 

History of Science 137 

the war, many of them returned to the state, and, although they re- 
tained their knowledge, the "hardware" with which they had worked 
did not come with them. 

At the undergraduate level, Indiana physics did not fare so badly, 
principally because of dedicated and effective professors. Of perhaps 
greatest national recognition was Professor 0. H. Smith who served 
DePauw during 1925-1952 when he retired, only to return in 1956 to 
serve as emeritus professor until 1964. He was one of that small group 
of excellent physics teachers in the Midwest and elsewhere who, work- 
ing frequently as one-man departments in liberal-arts colleges, so in- 
spired their students as they taught them that, prior to World War H 
certainly, their products formed a disproportionately large fraction of 
those who subsequently earned the Ph.D. in physics. Professor Smith 
was awarded the Oersted Medal by the A.A.P.T. in 1950 and was 
selected to receive the Gold Key award in 1959 by President L. A. 
DuBridge of California Institute of Technology as the professor having 
had the greatest effect upon his own subsequent distinguished career. 
(Actually, Professor Smith always had assistance, DePauw having 
doubled its department size in 1919 with the employment of Margery 

Another prominent physicist who has served Indiana was Duane 
Roller, physics professor at Wabash from 1944 to 1948. He edited the 
American Journal of Physics, the official publication of the A.A.P.T., 
from 1933-1949, and received the Oersted Medal in 1946 during his 
Wabash career. More recently, Lewis Salter, a Wabash faculty member, 
1953-1967, was one of nine recipients of the Danforth Foundation-pre- 
sented Harbison Award in 1966. 

Other colleges have also had their dedicated physicists, many of 
whom provided service over and beyond the call of duty. Thus, at 
Hanover, Professor Earl Martin (1928-1957) not only taught some 18 
hours per semester but was also building and grounds supervisor during 
the 1930-1940 period which saw tremendous advances for the school in 
physical equipment and college environment. His carefully kept notes 
as secretary of the Indiana Section of the American Association of 
Physics Teachers provides the flavor of those early days. 

Olaf Hovda greeted the first students entering Evansville in 1919 
and continued as head of the Physics Department until his death in 
1942. His work in what would now be called undergraduate research 
resulted in the construction of a miniature planetarium and a wind 
tunnel for model planes. 

Charles S. Morris, first professor of physics at Manchester, served 
from 1926 to 1961 and was responsible for several students continuing 
to physics graduate study. Similarly, physics at Butler University 
during 1924-1956 was the province of S. E. Elliott whose heavy teaching 
load was characteristic of many of the teachers in liberal arts colleges 
of this, and earlier, times. 

Primarily an educator, J. F. Mackell came to Indiana State as 
Assistant Professor of Physics in 1921 and 2 years later succeeded Prof. 
Robert Gillum who had served as department head for 37 years. At 
this time, physics and other sciences were merged in a Science Depart- 

138 Indiana Academy of Science 

ment of which Prof. Mackell became chairman in 1936, serving in that 
capacity until 1954. He published several papers on the general topic 
of science education, and in 1943, suggested an exchange of 1000 teacher- 
training students of the United States with a similar number from 
South America; this effort was a forerunner of UNESCO and similar 
post-war exchange programs. 

A Valparaiso University graduate of 1922 who remained as head 
of the physics department for the next 5 years, J. B. Hershman ob- 
tained his physics Ph.D. in 1932 at I.U. and 12 years later founded 
Valparaiso Technical Institute to train specialists in electronics and 
communications, thus putting his physics education to a very practical 
use. In the succeeding 12 years until his death in an automobile acci- 
dent in 1956, he had developed a physical plant capable of handling some 
500 students, had secured the cooperation of several industrial firms in 
Indiana and elsewhere in promoting the need for the training his insti- 
tute provided, and had become president of the National Council of 
Technical Schools. 

Among notable Indiana-born physicists have been H. C. Urey, Nobel 
laureate in 1934, who attended Earlham but did not graduate therefrom 
(actually Urey considered himself a chemist) and L. A. DuBridge, cur- 
rent president of California Institute of Technology. 

E. M. Purcell, a Nobel laureate of 1952, graduated from Purdue 
in 1933 and attributed his interest in physics to Prof. Lark-Horowitz who 
permitted him to do what is now considered undergraduate research in 
electron diffraction. Purdue also points with considerable pride to the 
fact that Dr. Julian S. Schwinger, Nobel laureate in 1965 and also 
winner of the Albert Einstein prize that year while at Harvard Uni- 
versity, served on the Purdue faculty in the years 1941-1946. 

Some 7 Indianans were starred in American Men of Science for 
physics research prior to 1943, the last year for this starring. Three 
of these and 8 other similarly starred physicists received their college 
education in the state, 4 at DePauw, three at Indiana University, and 
two each at Purdue and Rose Polytechnic. 

At the beginning of the educational process as far as formal physics 
is concerned are the secondary schools, and it is only recently, essentially 
since the debut of Sputnik in 1957 and even later, that much recognition 
of excellence in teaching or student accomplishment has been given. 
However, several Indiana high school students have been recognized 
for competence in physics by National Science Fair and Atomic Energy 
Awards, Westinghouse Talent Search awards, and major competitive 
scholarship awards at various colleges and universities. South Side 
High School of Fort Wayne and Bosse High School of Evansville re- 
ceived awards from the A.A.P.T. in 1966 for demonstrated excellence in 
physics teaching. Robert Bussard and Robert White of South Side were 
recognized by the A.A.P.T. Recognition Program in 1963. Woodrow 
Pemberton of Bosse High School in Evansville received similar recog- 
nition by the A.A.P.T. in 1965 as did Robert J. Sum of West Lafayette 
High School. E. W. Gross, a teacher at Indiana University High School, 
produced four Westinghouse award winners between 1952 and 1958, was 
coauthor of three junior science textbooks, and was physics editor of 
School Science and Mathematics at the time of his untimely death. 

History of Science 130 

Faculty members of various Indiana high schools have been honored 
by various scholarships and awards for continuing- service, such as 
those sponsored by the N.S.F. and the N.D.E.A. Also, longevity in 
teaching physics has not been solely the province of the colleges nor 
has been the accomplishments of the teacher. For example, Louis Hall 
did such extensive work with cloud chambers during his 28 years at 
South Side High of Fort Wayne that the Scientific American accepted 
an article thereon. Similarly, Eiffel Plasterer, of ''Bubbles Concerto" 
fame, taught at Huntington High for 25 years, David Wells taught 
Crawfordsville youngsters the subject for 36 years, and F. J. Jones, 
known as "Doc" to his students and "professor" to the entire community, 
served Greencastle High for 26 years prior to his retirement in 1952; 
in fact, his service almost exactly matched that of O. H. Smith at 
DePauw during the same period. 

In addition to other financial problems, it seems that physics has 
been traditionally crowded for space, relieved periodically by "new" 
facilities which, themselves, go through the same cycle of crowding. 
Purdue's experience is illustrative of this trend. Its first curriculum in 
1874 included physics, and the importance of laboratory work was em- 
phasized in the president's report of 1876; however, the only provision 
made therefor was sufficient space on the second floor of the laboratory 
building for 15 students during a two-hour period each day. Within 
the next couple of years, laboratory work practically ceased, then 
apparently gradually increased until the establishment of a more 
detailed electrical measurements laboratory in 1885 and the movement 
of mechanical engineering to a new building in 1886 with a consequent 
expansion of physics laboratory space in the basement of its building. 
By 1889, Electrical Engineering occupied its new building and physics 
received second-floor quarters in that building. Over-crowding continued 
with laboratory work expanding into the halls, the attic, and the base- 
ment of the new building. Then a structure identified as the PHYSICS 
building was completed in 1905, was enlarged in 1934 and 1937 to 
almost twice its floor space, and by 1958, had become a Biology Annex. 
The present physics building was completed in 1941, and although its 
space was about three times that formerly available, it too has become 
rather crowded even though special facilities have served to take care of 
some of the research overflow, especially that related to engineering 
which operates the reactor. 

At another institution, completion of Minshall Laboratory at De- 
Pauw in 1902 (with a restriction against the teaching of evolution 
therein) brought a very welcome expansion of facilities for the physi- 
cists as they left their few rooms in the basement of Middle College 
(now demolished) to take over half of the lower two floors of the new 
building from which they have since gradually expanded to the third floor 
also. However, these same facilities still in use in 1966 pending comple- 
tion of the science building now on the drawing boards, are somewhat 

On the other hand, at Hanover, the first laboratories were in the 
basement of Classic Hall; they expanded into several lecture rooms and 
classes in a science building which was destroyed by fire in 1919 to be 
replaced promptly by a new building which was in use until construction 

140 Indiana Academy of Science 

of Goodrich Hall immediately after World War II provided facilities 
which are still g-enerally adequate. 

If the regional branches of Purdue and of Indiana University be 
considered integral parts of their parents, there are currently some 42 
institutions of higher learning in the state of Indiana, this including 
theological seminaries, art schools, etc. Of these institutions, 22 provide 
programs leading to an undergraduate physics major. Doctorate pro- 
grams are available at Note Dame, Purdue, and Indiana Universities 
while Ball State, DePauw, Indiana State, and Rose Polytechnic Institute 
offer graduate programs leading to the master's degree. 

Today, physics research in a large number of topics is generally 
available at the three Ph.D. granting universities, both at their own 
sites and in cooperation with other universities and national laboratories, 
principally Argonne National Laboratory. In addition to the cyclotrons 
at Purdue and Indiana University and the van de Graaf generators at 
Purdue and Notre Dame as described, these schools have active programs 
in analyzing bubble chamber photographs taken elsewhere for elemen- 
tary particle study, and there are the usual spectroscopes and equipment 
items for electronic and solid state experimentation. Indiana's only re- 
search reactor, dedicated in 1961, is available at Purdue, and Valparaiso 
is one of the two undergraduate schools in the United States having 
a pulsed subcritical reactor which permits offering experimental reactor 
studies to its seniors. All of the 7 graduate-degree granting schools, as 
well as many of the colleges, including Wabash and Valparaiso, have 
computers which are generally used in conjunction with the mathematics 

The three Ph.D. granting schools list 112 physics staff members 
having ranks of instructor or above, with another 32 faculty members 
at the regional campuses. Another 29 physicists are at the four schools 
with master's programs. There are 53 physics teachers at the 15 other 
schools giving baccalaureate majors, and 42 others teach physics at the 
other institutions. Of this 236 total, 30 teach on a part time basis, 
principally at schools which do not offer a major. In the five years 
1960-1964, Indiana University, Notre Dame and Purdue awarded 30, 38, 
and 44 Ph.D. degrees in physics respectively, and, in 1965, there were 
336 full-time physics graduate students at Indiana schools; this figure 
includes 69 at Indiana University, 79 at Notre Dame, 162 at Purdue, 
and 26 at the other schools having graduate programs. 

However, the production of physics majors among undergraduates 
in the state apparently remains the forte of the schools emphasizing 
undergraduate instruction and these are several times as productive as 
the others. Thus, there are some 155 junior-senior majors among the 
approximately 65,000 undergraduates at the schools having graduate 
programs and about 125 in the some 20,000 students at the other colleges 
offering a physics major (about 10,000 students attend schools where 
such a major is not available). Similarly, some 90 majors are enrolled 
in the state-supported institutions which have undergraduate enrol- 
ments of about 55,000 and about 190 in the 30,000 undergraduates of 
the private schools. The enrolment figures are those of full-time stu- 
dents for fall, 1965, while the figures for majors refer to the year 

History of Science 141 

In 1964, Wabash was one of the five undergraduate schools of the 
nation selected by the A.A.P.T. Committee on Physics Faculties in 
Colleges to feature as "detailed case studies of institutions where the 
quality of physics teaching is outstanding." 

A rather sketchy study of industry has, even at this late date, 
shown a rather disappointing lack of recognition of the capabilities of 
physicists and their specialties with a consequent lack of employment 
opportunities. Thus, P. R. Mallory Co., an Indiana firm which is a major 
factor in electronic component manufacture, does much of its manu- 
facturing and product development in the state, employing some four 
or five physicists in its Indianapolis operations; yet its principal basic 
research operation is located in another state. There are some bright 
spots, however, as exemplified by Allison Division of General Motors 
Corporation which first specifically hired a physicist in 1950 and cur- 
rently employs 23 physicists, 2 at the doctorate level, 2 at the masters, 
and 19 with the baccalaureate. Similarly, Sarkes Tarzian, Inc., a com- 
paratively small but widely known specialty company, has employed one 
or more physicists for some 15 years. At the other end of the recog- 
nition scale is the major industrial and research-oriented company noted 
in the first paragraph. Maybe there are physicists masquerading under 
other names or others taking over the accomplishments of the physicists. 
Certainly, at this date, physics should be better appreciated in Indiana 
than in the days of World War II when the physicists so important to 
the war effort all too frequently had to gulp as they were deferred as 
"other scientists," or even, the crowning blow of all, as "chemists." 


The author would particularly like to acknowledge his indebtedness 
for this short history of physics to W. E. Edington, professor emeritus 
of mathematics at DePauw University, who not only directed him to 
many of the references used but also gave him the benefit of a long-time 
interest in Indiana science and its history. 

The History of Plant Taxonomy and Ecology in Indiana 

M. S. Markle, Earlham College 

Someone has said that when a scientist wants to recount the develop- 
ment of any phase of his subject, he goes back to Aristotle to get a 
running start. In tracing the development of plant taxonomy and 
ecology in Indiana, one cannot go back quite so far, but he can at least 
begin with the scientists who were a part of the ''boat-load of knowl- 
edge," which came via the Ohio River to the intellectual settlement at 
New Harmony on the Wabash River in January 1826 — one hundred and 
forty years ago. New Harmony became a rendezvous for scientists who 
were attracted by the free-thinking, intellectual atmosphere. Among 
them were William McClure, Thomas Say, Charles Alexander Leseur, 
Prince Maximilian of Neuwied, Andre Michaux, Thomas Nuttall and 
Constantine Raffinesque. Of these, Raffinesque was the most picturesque. 
He associated himself as closely with the New Harmony experiment as 
his nomadic nature would permit. He was born in Constantinople in 
1784 to parents of mixed ancestry — French, Turkish, German and 
Grecian. He had a perpetually itching foot, which led him to explore 
eastern America from the coast to the Wabash. Dressed in a flowing, 
dirty, yellow Nankeen jacket with capacious pockets, filled with zoologi- 
cal and botanical specimens, he roamed the forest primeval. "He became 
a monomaniac on the subject of new species," says Dr. David Stan- 
Jordan (3), but he did little comparison of his collections, resulting in 
many duplications, so that his reputation suffered greatly and he died 
in poverty and low repute as a scientist. He died in Philadelphia in 
1840, alone and unloved. His landlord wanted to sell his body to a 
medical school to pay his debts; but he was buried by stealth in a 
graveyard lost in the development of Philadelphia. More recently his 
value as a pioneer taxonomist has come to be recognized. 

One can imagine the excitement of a botanist with a wide experi- 
ence in Europe, free to roam the primeval forests of America. In Europe, 
with its mountains — the Pyrennes, Alps and Caucusus — extending east 
and west, when the Ice Age came, the plants were blocked in their 
southern retreat; hence many species were lost. In America plants 
were able to retreat southward before the slowly-advancing ice and to 
return northward w4ien the ice receded, which is one reason for the 
much richer American flora. Here a single woodland area may contain 
more species of woody plants than exist in all of Europe. 

Even in 1816, when Indiana became a state, the primitive wilder- 
ness had begun to disappear, because forests were regarded as the 
principal barrier to the establishment of a stable civilization. The land 
was of greater value than the trees which grew upon it. My father, who 
was born in 1845, recalled his experience as a young man, when large 
oak, walnut, tulip-tree and maple logs were rolled into great piles and 
burned, with the assistance of beverages of local origin. Now, even 
though land-values have greatly increased, such fine trees would have 
greater value than the land, unless it was land desirable for a housing- 


History of Science 143 

By the time plant ecologists tried to map the distribution in the 
state of oak-hickory and beech-maple forests, prairie, etc., the original 
boundaries were almost completely obliterated. It is interesting that 
one source of information is the records of early land-surveys. When 
Indiana was first surveyed, the counties were divided into townships 
each divided into mile-square areas. The corners were indicated by 
blazed tree-trunks. The blazed trees have long since disappeared, but 
their names were recorded. The location, name and diameter of 214,000 
"witness trees," belonging to eighty species and generic groups, were 
recorded in surveyors' journals (7). 

In many ways Indiana was a favorable area for study. It was a 
meeting-place of various floras. Southern Indiana had many plants 
from the south, such as the bald cypresses of Hovey Lake; western 
Indiana was an outlier of the western prairies; fine, unspoiled dunes on 
Lake Michigan were some of the best lakeside dunes to be found any- 
where; central Indiana included fine representatives of oak-hickory and 
beech-maple forest. 

Working northward from the Ohio River and eastward from the 
Wabash, outward from Lakes Michigan and Erie, with work in the 
central part of the state facilitated by the National Road, settlements 
became stable and schools were established, including a number of 
colleges which became centers of scientific activity, nourishing many 
who later contributed significantly to plant taxonomy and ecology in 
Indiana. Among the early workers were the Coulter brothers, John M., 
associated with Hanover College, where he graduated in 1870 and later 
with Wabash College, Indiana University and the University of Chicago, 
and Stanley, also associated with Hanover College, where he graduated 
in 1877 and then spent most of his life at Purdue University. While 
he was a teacher at Hanover College, John M. Coulter established the 
Botanical Bulletin, which, beginning with the second volume, became 
the Botanical Gazette, which followed him finally to the new University 
of Chicago, where it was taken over by the University of Chicago Press 
and has been through the years a much-respected journal. He was the 
first head of the Department of Botany in the new university and 
attracted as his associate Dr. Charles R. Barnes, also a Hanover 
alumnus, and Henry C. Cowles, a graduate of Oberlin, founder of plant 
ecology in America. Coulter, Barnes and Cowles were the authors of 
the so-called Chicago Textbook of Botany. 

Dr. Coulter recalled the work of early scientists at New Harmony 
(1). Then, and for a long time afterward, men were not interested in 
one field of science alone; their active, exploring minds and the ready 
availability of new material enabled one person to become an authority 
on almost all the sciences. For example. Dr. David Dennis of Earlham 
College, who died in 1916, taught successively or simultaneously botany, 
zoology, chemistry, bacteriology, physics and geology. He jocularly 
remarked that he occupied not a chair, but a settee. Gradually, how- 
ever, scientists were able to devote themselves primarily to one field. 
The new and revolutionary principle of evolution greatly stimulated 
taxonomy. Instead of its being merely a cataloguing of species in very 
artificial groups, the task became the discovery of relationships and 
the arrangement of species on the basis of descent. The colleges became 

144 Indiana Academy of Science 

centers of botanical investigation, though there have always been some 
workers who were not associated with any institution. 

Dr. Coulter retained throughout his life a deep interest in the 
Indiana Academy and its affairs. He was one of the founding fathers of 
the Academy, and on three different occasions was invited to return to 
the Academy to recount the early development of botany, in which he 
had so large a part. These occasions were: the observance in 1909 of 
the twenty- fifth anniversary of the founding of the Academy; the cele- 
bration of the centennial of Indiana's statehood in 1916; and again in 
1924 for the observance of the fortieth anniversary of the Academy. 
He spoke of the difficulty of selecting individual botanists for special 
mention and suggested that if his address were published, there should 
be appended a full biography of Indiana botanists. This was done and 
the list consists of 300 titles by 125 authors (1). Dr. Coulter himself 
contributed 30 papers, almost exclusively on plant taxonomy. 

Although in the earliest years of botany in Indiana, taxonomy oc- 
cupied the center of the stage, the early botanists began to record the 
conditions under which plants grew and the occurrence of plants in 
communities with reference to environment, but there was often little 
meaning to their observations. As Dr. John M. Coulter remarked, 
"ecology was without form and void" (1). 

When the University of Chicago was established, Dr. Coulter was 
asked to assemble a staff for the Department of Botany. Among those 
whom he brought in was Dr. Henry C. Cowles, who had begun his 
graduate study at Chicago in geography. He was not an Indiana man, 
but the researches which led him to the publication of The Ecological 
Relations of the Vegetation of the Sand Dnnes of Lake Michigan in 
1899 and The Plant Societies of Chicago aiid Vicinity in 1901 were done 
largely in Indiana. At that time the Indiana dunes were largely un- 
spoiled. The South Shore Electric Line had stations every few miles, 
which could be used to get quick access to the dunes and to the lakes, 
swamps and bogs which occurred among them. One area which was 
particularly useful was at Miller, which is now a part of the City of 
Gary. Such areas, including both moving and stabilized dunes, provided 
the material upon which the science of plant ecology was founded. 
Here succession was rapid and all stages could be observed in a small 
area. Cowles acknowledged the influence of Warming, of Copenhagen, 
for his work on ecology and on the sand dunes of Denmark; but so far 
as American botany was concerned, there had been no organized presen- 
tation of the subject of plant ecology until that of Cowles. He was the 
first to express adequately the concepts of succession and climax. The 
principles were so vital and so fundamentally important that they 
formed the basis of a new science and stimulated research on the part 
of many botanists, not only at Chicago, but elsewhere. For an excellent 
discussion of the contributions of Cowles, see the article on Plant 
Communities in Natural Features of Indiana, by Petty and Jackson, 
two present-day ecologists in Indiana (5). 

I suppose all of us think that the period when we did our graduate 
work was at the flowering-time in the lives of our professors. The 
writer was at the University of Chicago from 1910 to 1915, when 

History of Science 145 

Cowles was at the height of his powers. No teacher brought his students 
more directly to nature. He was a master in the field and led his 
students on trips lasting from one day to weeks. He was at his genial 
best around campfires in the evening. It is given to few men to found 
a new science and to live to see it well established. 

In a paper of this sort it is difficult to know how to present the 
story of the history of plant taxonomy and ecology beyond the early 
years, particularly in view of much of the material already having 
been presented in the book, Natural Features of Indiana, and in view 
of material which is being presented by others in this volume. I have 
chosen to do it by institutions and the men in those institutions, rather 
than chronologically in the state as a whole, and to discuss in some 
detail those bontanists w^ho have made substantial contributions in the 
past and leave for some future historian the evaluation of most present 
day workers in both taxonomy and ecology. 

At DePauw University from 1891 to 1895, before going to Columbia 
University, was the early taxonomist, Dr. Lucien M. Underwood. As a 
part of his report (8) as chairman of the botanical division of the 
Indiana State Biological Survey, he wrote: "There has been a seeming 
fear on the part of some that work in systematic botany would prove 
an injury if attempted with a course in botanical study, and that any- 
thing short of work in cytology was undignified in a botanical labora- 
tory." To bring this statement up to date, one might substitute ''molecu- 
lar biology" for ''cytology." 

In recent years there have been two particularly active workers in 
plant taxonomy at DePauw, Dr. Truman G. Yuncker and Dr. Winona H. 
Welch. Dr. Yuncker was there from 1919 until his death in 1964. He is 
well known for his long-continued research on Cuscuta, which was the 
subject of his dissertation for the Ph.D. under Trelease at the University 
of Illinois. He was also interested in the Piperaceae, on which he 
published numerous papers. Both these interests led him to travel 
widely, especially in the tropics, and resulted in the addition of numerous 
specimens to the herbarium. A list of his titles reaches 130 (9), not 
including a number of papers published posthumously. He was much 
interested in building up the departmental herbarium and was its curator 
from 1919 to 1964. It now contains approximately 125,000 sheets and 
has been named the Truman G. Yuncker Herbarium. He was much inter- 
ested in the Academy and was its president in 1939. 

Dr. Winona H. Welch, an alumna of DePauw, returned to the 
University as a teacher in 1930. She and Dr. Yuncker made a fine team, 
both working in taxonomy, but in difi^erent fields. She has become a 
world-authority on the Bryophytes, particularly the mosses, a field in 
which she continues to work. In 1957, under the auspices of the Indiana 
Department of Conservation, she published Mosses of Indiana, an illus- 
trated manual, with 478 pages and 254 figures. She has long been 
active in the Academy and was its very efficient secretary for a number 
of years and president in 1948. 

At Butler University there has been a strong Department of Botany, 
particularly with the coming of Dr. Ray C. Friesner in 1929. Until his 
untimely death in 1952, he published paper after paper, often using the 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Butler University Botanical Series, which he founded, as well as the 
Proceedings of the Academy. He vigorously pushed the work of adding 
to the University herbarium, of which he was curator, and which is 
now named in his honor. He was much devoted to the interests of the 
Academy and was its Secretary from 1926 to 1935 and its President in 
1936. In his presidential address (2) he discussed the effect of the 
Ice Age on Indiana plants. He was a man of great energy and executive 
ability and attractive personality. 

UAV (\ I^^iMI'^SXIOM, left, and ('HAKM':S T. DI'^AM in 1941. 

During the period when Dr. Friesner was at Butler University, two 
other men were actively at work there on plant ecology. Trained at 
Butler and a teacher there from 1925 to 1931 was Dr. Stanley A. Cain, 
who went on to Indiana University, thence to Cranbrook Institute. He 
has become well known as an ecologist and conservationist and is now 
Assistant Secretary of the Interior. 

Dr. John E. Potzger came late in life to the study of botany. In 
1925, at the age of 39, he took Dr. Friesner's course in general botany, 
to satisfy the requirements for graduation from Butler University. The 
effect was electric, and changed his whole career. His attainment of 
the Ph.D. in botany at Indiana University was still seven years away, 
but he pursued his work with the enthusiasm of youth — an enthusiasm 
that was to characterize his whole scientific life. After the completion of 
his work at Indiana, he returned to Butler where, after the death of 
Dr. Friesner, he became head of the department. He became interested 
in the then new phase of botany, the science of pollen analysis, which 
threw much light on post-glacial plant succession. He was must inter- 
ested in the Ecological Society of America and was its president in 
1953. He worked in Canada at the Mount Tremblant Field Station of 

History of Science 147 

the University of Montreal. He discovered the Cabin Creek raised bog 
near Farmland, Indiana, which he and his students studied intensively. 
He died in 1955, at the height of his powers. The December, 1956, issue 
of the Butler University Botanical Studies, which is dedicated to him, 
lists ninety-six titles of his scientific papers (6). 

At Butler now is Mrs. Fay Kenoyer Daily, who is active in the 
study of algae, particularly the Charophytes. Also interested in the tax- 
onomy of the algae, particularly the blue-greens, is Mr. William A. 
Daily, who is with the Eli Lilly Company and has been active on the 
committee which administers the John S. Wright Fund. He was secre- 
tary of the Academy for several years and president of the Academy 
in 1958. From 1925 to 1950 Dr. Mervin Palmer was at Butler. His work 
is on the freshwater algae, particularly those associated with public 
water supplies. Dr. John E. Pelton joined the Butler staff in 1950 and 
contributes to the Plant Taxonomy section. 

At Indiana University Dr. Paul Weatherwax, who has been a mem- 
ber of the Botany staff there since 1915, has become an authority on 
corn, having studied it from the standpoint of taxonomy and morphology, 
its relation to man in its origin and domestication, as well as its kinship 
with the closely-related genera, Tripsacum and Euchlaena. For many 
years he was closely associated with Dr. Charles C. Deam in the prepara- 
tion of publications on the trees, shrubs, and grasses of the state and 
the comprehensive state flora. He illustrated the book on grasses. 

Also at Indiana, the work of Dr. Charles Heiser was early centered 
around the taxonomy of Helianthiis and related genera. Using modern 
techniques of biometrics, cytology and genetics, he and his students have 
worked on the origin, history and taxonomic status of cultivated plants, 
especially the Solanaceae. 

At Purdue University from 1887 to 1926, botany was dominated by 
Dr. Stanley Coulter, who was Dean of the School of Science from 1905 
to 1926 and was affectionately known to thousands of students as 
"Dean Coulter." His was a long, active and useful life and he did much 
for botany in Indiana. He was a charter member of the Academy, in 
which he was active for 55 years. He was president in 1896 and for 
many years the necrologist. He published in 1899 a Catalog of the 
Plants of Indiana and was the author of numerous pamphlets and articles. 
He was much interested in trees and was on the State Board of Foresters 
from 1902 to 1916, on the state conservation commission for four years, 
president of the Indiana Audubon Society for four years and active in 
many other capacities. 

Dr. Ralph M. Kriebel joined the Academy in 1933 and was for 
several years active in the plant taxonomy group, serving as its chair- 
man in 1938 and the chairman of the botany section in 1940. He early 
attracted the attention of Charles C. Deam and they became fast friends. 
He built up one of the largest private collections of herbarium speci- 
mens in Indiana. It is now a part of the herbarium of Purdue Univer- 
sity, which is known as the Ralph M. Kriebel Memorial Herbarium. He 
was on the Purdue University Extension Service from 1943 until his 
untimely death in 1946. His infectious enthusiasm for teaching and 
preaching all forms of conservation arose from a genuine love of nature. 

148 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Alton A. Lindsey has been at Purdue University since 1947. 
Previously he was a member of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition as a 
biologist. He has become well known as a teacher, research worker and 
editor, with primary interest in ecology. He is a member of the 
scientific advisory boards of several conservation organizations. He 
deserves much credit for his editing of the 1966 Sesquicentennial Volume 
of the Academy, Natural Features of Indiana and for the writing of 
the excellent introduction to that volume. He is the incoming president 
of the Academy. 

Dr. J. A. Nieuwland worked at Notre Dame University from 1904 
until his death in 1936. He was primarily a chemist and is best known 
for his pioneer work on synthetic rubber, but he was also interested 
in plant taxonomy. He founded the American Midland Naturalist and 
was president of the Academy in 1934. The herbarium at the University 
of Notre Dame bears his name. 

Also at Notre Dame was Dr. Theodor K. Just, from 1929-1946, when 
he left to go to the Chicago Museum of Natural History where he 
became chief curator of botany. At Notre Dame he became editor of 
the American Midland Naturalist after the death of Father Nieuwland. 
He was president of the Academy in 1943 and died in 1960. 

At Earlham College all the science was taught at first by David W. 
Dennis and Joseph Moore. Gradually through the years Dr. Dennis 
was able to relinquish other duties and confine his attention to biology. 
He was a charter member of the Academy and its president in 1899-1900. 
Around the turn of the century he ranged the state, preaching to 
county teacher's associations the gospel of field work, in a day when 
such activity was almost totally neglected. The author heard him on 
one of these occasions, came to Earlham and later became the inheritor 
of this tradition for field work, both from Dr. Dennis and from Dr. 
Cowles under whom he worked at Chicago. He was president of the 
Academy in 1945. His research has largely been on the ecology of peat 
bogs, but he considers his main contribution to plant taxonomy and 
ecology to have been work with students, particularly field trips to the 
Smoky Mountains, Florida and the Rockies over a period of 30 years 
or more. Upon his retirement in 1954 this tradition was passed on to 
Carrolle A. Markle, who with her students continues to work on the 
flora of Indiana, particularly Wayne County. 

There have been many botanists at other colleges and universities, 
and persons not directly connected with any of the colleges or univer- 
sities of the state who have made important contributions to plant 
taxonomy and ecology. An early scientist was Dr. John T. Plummer of 
Richmond. He was born in 1807 and was a graduate of Yale University 
and a practicing physician. He was a keen observer of nature and 
wrote catalogues of the fossils, the mammals and the plants of Wayne 
County. The oldest specimen known from the county is that of the 
Seneca snakeroot, Polygala Senega, now in the Purdue herbarium. A 
full account of his life and work is to be found in the Proceedings (4). 

Two business men, who had little interest in botany until their 
retirement, made significant contributions to Indiana taxonomy. J. O. 
Cottingham, of Indianapolis, took up the study of the fleshy fungi. He 
often brought dried specimens to the meetings of the plant taxonomy 

History of Science 149 

group. In 1947 appeared the first of a series of eight reports on 
"Higher Fungi of Marion County." It was he who first proposed that 
the plant taxonomy group, which had been meeting unofficially and 
informally, be made a regular division of the Academy. He was a 
friend of Charles C. Deam. After his death in 1962, at the age of 
ninety, his collections became a part of the herbarium at DePauw 

Charles M. Ek, of Kokomo, after his retirement revived his interest 
in botany which he studied in undergraduate days at Indiana University. 
He was a friend of Deam, Friesner and Potzger and often accompanied 
them on field trips. 

No person has contributed more to the study of plant taxonomy in 
Indiana than Charles C. Deam, of Bluffton, Indiana. He developed an 
early interest in botany, which he did not regard as a hobby, but as a 
profession. He was a bora collector; with the help of Mrs. Deam he 
assembled an herbarium of some 60,000 sheets, an arboretum, and a 
large botanical library. He is said to have visited every herbarium east 
of the Mississippi. While not directly connected with any educational 
institution, he gave assistance to teachers in many institutions. He had 
a Model T Ford in the early days, which he outfitted for camping, 
long before the advent of modern luxury outfits. Thus he was able 
to stop wherever and whenever night caught him and resume activity 
early next morning. With his crony, E. B. Williamson, also of Bluffton, 
a bank president, an iris-grower and a student of dragonflies, he roamed 
the state. He visited every county and every one of the 1016 townships. 
He kept meticulous records of his trips, which he marked with red ink 
on topographic maps. 

Dr. Deam gave particular attention to the oaks and described a 
number of hybrids. The Deam oak, a hybrid between the chinquapin 
and white oak, is on a plot of ground which he bought and gave to the 
state. Most of his herbarium was sold to Indiana University for a 
nominal sum before he died, and the rest went to the University upon 
his death, as well as his botanical library. 

I think it must have been in 1941, when an informal group of plant 
taxonomists met at Quaker Haven, a camp-ground of the Society of 
Friends on Dewart Lake in Kosciusko County. The next morning after 
our arrival Deam came to breakfast bleary-eyed and dispirited. He 
said: "Well, boys, you can't count on me today. I didn't sleep a wink 
last night. I'll trail along, but don't expect anything from me." He 
soon forgot his physical infirmaties in the excitement of field study. 
No one in the group showed more interest or zeal, waded more deeply 
into the swamps, nor came up with more specimens than he did. 

He was much interested in the Academy. He joined in 1900 and his 
first paper was presented in 1904, entitled "Additions to the Flora of 
Indiana." He continued to make additions to the flora throughout his 
long life of 88 years. He was president of the Academy in 1923. Because 
of his interest in trees, he was in the Indiana State Department of 
Forestry, in one capacity or another, from 1909-1940. 

Although he was the author of numerous listings of plants of the 
state, the work of his lifetime appears in the form of four books: Trees 
of Indiarm, Shrubs of Itidiana, Grasses of Indiana, and Flora of Indiana, 

150 Indiana Academy of Science 

all of which are authoritative books of reference on the subjects that 
they cover. For some time after the publication of the Flora of Indiana, 
an Academy committee consisting of the late Doctors Friesner, Yuncker 
and Kriebel cooperated with Dr. Deam in keeping information in regard 
to the flora of the state. No doubt a similar committee should be en- 
gaged in this task at present. Only thus can we keep green the memory 
of one of our greatest taxonomic botanists. 

Literature Cited 

1. Coulter, John M. 1917. A Century of Botany in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 26: 236-240. 

2. Friesner, Ray C. 19o7. Indiana as a Critical Botanical Area. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 46:28-45. 

3. Jordon, David Starr. 1888. An Eccentric Naturalist. In: Scieisee Sketches. 

A. C. McClurg-, Chicago. 

4. King, Lawrence J. and M. S. Markle. 1954. Dr. John T. Pkimmer (1807- 
1865) Pioneer Scientist. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 6a: 255260. 

5. Petty, Robert O. and Marion T. Jackson. 1966. Plant Communities. In: 
Natural Features of Indiana, pp 264-296. 

6. Potzger, John E. 195 6. Bibliography of Scientific Papers. Butler. Univ. 
Bot. Studies XIII (1) : 6-11. 

7_ . 1956. The Forest Primeval of Indiana as Recorded in the 

U. S. Land Surveys. Butler Univ. Bot. Studies XIII (1) :95-109. 

8. Underwood, Lucien M. 1894. Report of the State Biological Survey. Proc. 
Ind. Acad. Sci. 3: 16. 

9. Welch, Winona H. 1964. Truman George Yuncker. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 

A History of Soil Science in Indiana 

T. M. Bush NELL, Purdue University 

This paper tries to draw a picture of the ideas and knowledge of 
people, within a very broad, inclusive concept of the subject, the region 
and the times. 

In general, HISTORY consists of past events about which a historian 
tells a story based upon information which is available, and selected to 
reflect his impressions. Actual historical facts were in the past so the 
story depends upon oral, pictorical and /or written evidences, and, at 
best, fails to be full and exact because sources of information may be 
biased or even non-existent. 

SCIENCE is defined as organized knowledge, and knowledge is vital 
only in the human brain where it aflPects the thinking and actions of 
men. It may be passed on, directly or indirectly, from generation to 
generation. Words in written material are just inert symbols of "canned" 
knowledge which may become active only in the mind of a reader — often 
with meanings different from those of the writers. 

From prehistoric times SOIL has been "the earth's surface which 
grows plants" and was considered mainly as a factor in farming. That 
is still true, but there have been many modern additions and variations 
in the concept of "soils." 

For convenience this discussion recognizes three general periods 
based largely upon the amounts and kinds of sources of information. 
First, there was the pioneer time up to about 1850. Then came an 
intermediate period up to about 1900. From 1900 to the present was a 
time of vast expansion, with current indications of a beginning of a 
great new era. 

Pioneer Period 

Obviously the beginings of "soil science" antedated the 1816 state- 
hood of Indiana. However, no attempt will be made to evaluate evidence 
from mound builders or even from practices of Indian inhabitants, who 
chose sites for their gardens, villages and trails according to the nature 
of the ground. 

In practice the ideas of "ground, land or soil" were much the same 
and soil knowledge was scattered through agricultural lore and records. 

Pioneers were infiltrating the Indiana territory long before the 1795 
treaty when Indians first ceded land in southeastern Indiana. By 1809 
the US government had acquired title to lands below a line passing 
roughly from Fort Recovery, Ohio, past Greensburg to Brownstown and 
thence northwest near Rockville. 

No doubt the early settlers learned something from the Indians and 
also brought knowledge from their previous homes which made up the 
body of their information, which they combined with their own observa- 
tions of local conditions. In those days most of the people were on or 
close to the land and probably all were more or less familiar with the 
prevailing ideas of what made land, or soil, good, fair or poor for their 



Indiana Academy of Science 

uses. Information about the soil knowledge of the early days may be 
found in the writings of individuals, in books or periodicals, and in the 
field notes of the General Land Office. 

The GLO field notes record observations along every section line so 
were a systematic sampling of all the land. They give a view of the 


Figure 1. illustrates tlie credo of tills paper tliat soil science is deri\ed from 
patterns and profiles of soils in Nature, from experiment fields and from labora- 
tories ; and that the knowledge resides in living minds, being transmitted direct 
from mind to mind or indirectly through written records. 

History of Science 153 

thinking- and the vocabularies of the times and contained much valuable 
information, but are not as good as they mig'ht have been because of 
some serious flaws. For instance, the primary, paid job of surveyors 
was to run lines, and land description was incidental. Their qualifications 
for soil classifications were fortuitous and varied, as shown by their 
notes which rang-e from almost nothing- to some very good observations. 
The GLO administration did not g-uide the field work with uniform 
terminology, definitions of land classes, or inspection of results. Com- 
parisons of land notes do not consistently show the similarities or 
differences in the soil character. The records of tree species are rather 
reliable and vegetation generally was considered a good indication of the 
kind of soil. 

The GLO notes of T4N, R7E, made in 1806 used these terms: 

Topography — flat, level, low flat, rolling, hilly, bottom. 

Quality — 1st, 2nd, 3rd rate; fair, rich, good, wet. 

Vegetation — beech, oak, poplar, sugar, gum, ash, hickory, sycamore, 
elm, spicewood, brush. 

These words were used in many diff'erent combinations, although 
some features were associated more frequently. 

The field notes for T4N, R5E, which is near the township g-iven 
above, have about the same descriptive words with some additional terms 
such as — steep, high hills, ridges, knobs; second bottom; thin; good for 
rye, oats, Irish potatoes; vegetation, pine, chestnut, cherry, dogwood, 
hackberry, briars and whortleberry. 

People used to think there was something the matter with land which 
did not grow trees and used the term "barrens" in southern Indiana 
where growth was sparse. However, field notes also recorded ''barrens" 
in Tippecanoe county as well as "prairie" where the soils all are of 
good quality. In the Kankakee basin the lands described as "first, 
second or third rate" are quite diff'erent from those with the same 
ratings in other parts of the state. 

It is also true that, in the dense forests of large parts of the state, 
the surveyors could not see more than a few yards from their traverse 
lines, so actually observed only a small part of the total land area and 
missed some features. However, the GLO information must have been 
helpful in many cases although settlers sometimes just seemed to 
wander on until they found some place which suited them. In those 
days they wanted well-drained land with water available from springs 
or streams. Woodland was preferred because of the need for material 
for houses, fences and firewood. Later on, settlers were attracted by 
tales from the frontiersmen, reports by promoters and speculators, and 
by the writings of travelers who often described a rosy future for the 
new lands which actually had the hard realities of the wilderness at 
that time. 

Most early settlers in Indiana were born and raised in more eastern 
regions and were part of, and acquainted with, the civilization which 
had developed during 200 years of English-speaking occupation of the 
east. It is fair to assume that they shared the knowledge of the day 
which could be considered "soil science." However, at any time there 

154 Indiana Academy of Science 

is a definite connection between knowledge and education. The educated 
people have a lot of knowledge or sources of information which the 
illiterates could not share, although the unschooled might learn much 
from experiences which the schoolmen did not have. This sort of class 
difference caused some learned people to try to educate others, which 
was appreciated by some illiterates, while others scorned the "book 
larnin" and resented the attitude of superiority by some educated people. 

It is a matter of conjecture what percentage of the people actually 
are more or less acquainted with the "going" soil science of any period, 
but certainly part of the relatively few educated persons of pioneer 
times were not especially interested in soils, and a large percentage 
of the farmers had relatively little schooling, which limited their ability 
to read and understand anything like soil chemistry, etc. 

A fairly large amount of soil ideas may be found in the books and 
periodicals of the early days. A limited sampling of that material shows 
that there was considerable repetition of several kinds of statements. 
There were numerous reports of personal experiences on home farms 
with various crops, types of management, drainage, etc. There was 
considerable argument about difl'erent theories, or about ways of doing- 
things. There were discussions of the proper kinds of schools and 
schooling for agriculturists. Usually they favored a sort of boarding 
school on a large farm where the students did the work under the 
supervision of the farmer. One writer advocated having a science 
instructor from one of the "learned professions, law, theology or medi- 
cine," with medicine being preferred because a doctor should know a 
little more chemistry. The cash expenses, profits and benefits for both 
students and school were estimated. 

Drainage was discussed in considerable detail as to kinds of soils, 
the kinds and costs of drains and the benefits obtained. Some articles 
were essays or lectures on the chemistry of soils, fertilizers, soil classifi- 
cation, etc. 

Actually it is probable that years of research could yield a fairly 
complete, detailed story of the evolution of many facets of soil science. 
For instance, there was the growth of the list of elements recognized in 
soils: their quantities, their derivations and transformations; their roles 
in soil fertility or toxicity; their parts in soil formation and correlations 
with other factors of the landscapes, etc. The different men who con- 
ti'ibuted to soil science might be cited and their discoveries, mistakes 
and controversies would be a part of the record. However, the time 
and space available will not allow any such treatment, and the knowl- 
edge in the early forms is of little use now, although the pioneer 
scientists certainly deserve credit for their work which led to more and 
more advances. 

In lieu of attempting the impossible task of analyzing all of the 
available past information, a few illustrations of concrete statements 
are cited and reports are given of the views of various people on the 
state of knowledge of their days. Obviously these illustrations may not 
be a fair sample; the chronology may be imperfect; and quotations out 
of context may not give a true picture of the beliefs of the authors, 
but this still seems to be the best way to handle this historical explora- 

History of Science 


tion. Some facets mentioned will be classification, chemistry, character- 
istics, management, lyceums, proposals, etc. 

An early outline of kinds of soils by de Gasparin was roughly: — 
I. Organic 

Acid (by litmus test) 
11. Mineral 

Siliferous — saline, vitriolic 

Siliceous — (no fizz with acid) 

Lime and magnesia carbonates — chalks, clays, marls, loams. 

There were comments, the meanings of which are not clear, that 
there are no "faultless descriptions" and "analyses are not good guides." 

A somewhat similar scheme states that there are 4 kinds of earths 
— siliceous, aluminous, calcareous and humus. If the soil were shaken 
up with water the siliceous would settle out first; if acid were added 
to the remainder it would remove the calcareous part. The quality of 
soils was related to the proportions of components as follows: — 

Quality Parts of components 

Sil Al Cal Humus 













Few atoms 

A "Geonomical table" — nature of earths. 

1. Siliceous — predominantly 
Si Al 
Si Ca 
Si Al Ca 
Si Ca Al 

3. Calcareous — predominantly 
Ca Si 
Ca Al 
Ca Si Al 
Ca Al Si 

2. Aluminous — predominantly 
Al Si 
Al Ca 
Al Si Ca 
Al Ca Si 

4. Humus — predominantly 
H Si 
H Al 
H Si Al 
H Al Si 

This table looks like an exercise in logic rather than an arrange- 
ment of observed kinds of soils. 

Also there were lists of kinds of soils according to a complete range 
of textures from the finest clays to sands and coarser sizes. Colors 
were used in another listing of soils, and topography, geography, etc., 
were given to help groupings for dift"erent kinds of crops, land uses and 
practices. Thus it appears that early students of soils had something 
like almost all of the modern facets of the field. 

Clays were described as "greasy, unctuous, may be kneaded, glisten, 
hold water on the surface, make water muddy, settle slowly, cold, soft 
when wet; when dry, hard, lumpy, crack, hard to break, no luster, soft 

156 Indiana Academy of Science 

dust, absorb water, stick to tongue, workable only a short time, obdurate, 
ticklish to manage; occurs in deep masses, on flats, and esturies." 

Sands, when wet, are firm, harsh, grating-, plow easily, work easily; 
when dry, are soft, yielding, blow; good for bulbs; warm; in deep masses. 

Soil means to the geologist the upper crust with a substratum of 
subsoil; to a botanist it is what supports plants; to people, what they 
walk on; in agriculture, it is the plow depth. One diagram showed that 
the plow depth might include only the natural surface soil, or it might 
mix natural surface and subsoil. Subsoils were known to affect the 
overlying surface soils. 

Descriptive terms include stiff, heavy vs. light; free; deep or thin; 
hungry; grateful; kindly, sick, sharp, deaf (with too much vegetable 
matter), soft, spongy (carried on bosom of plow), porous, close, retenta- 
tive, fine, easy, smooth, etc. Yellow and gray mean clayey; gray means 
moors; black means deaf and inert; browns mean sharp, grateful, 
kindly; red = prolific. Subsoils, or part not plowed, are party colored 
and may injure soils above. 

People were aware of relationships to climate such as vertical zona- 
tion and lattitudes; that mould does not accumulate in the tropics; that 
soils vary with the underlying rocks. They considered the "diluvium" 
as "Noahian deluge" deposits over bed rock. They wrote of soil forma- 
tion by decomposition of rocks, admixture of organic matter and the 
chemical action of air, rain, frost and wind. 

They considered soils as mixtures and made mechanical analyses 
by sedimentation. They knew that soil was usually from 60% to 95% 
silica and thought it had no direct influence on plants although some 
believed that silex helped to "glaze" the straw of grain plants. They 
knew the silicates of potash and soda; that alumina was part of clay 
and it had no direct chemical effect; that iron protoxide affected colors 
and was injurious to plants; that iron peroxide was found in soils; that 
essential elements from soils found in ashes of plants included magnesia, 
potash, sodium, sulphur, chlorine, phosphorous, carbon and nitrogen. 
They knew that lime left soil in solution as a bicarbinate. Water prob- 
lems were recognized. "Stagnant" water affected fertility and tilth; 
brought subaquatic plants; trees get hard bark and parasites; roads 
get soft; ditches are splashy; air is damp; ice damage in winter; have 
insects in summer. They saw need to determine the source of water 
and knew about capillary attraction. They studied artificial drainage 
by wedge, plug or mole; by furrows in fields; by small drains In grass; 
by boring down to porous substrata; by use of turf, stones, larch tubes 
and burned tile. 

In Europe there were some beginnings of schooling for agriculture 
and people had some acquaintance with the work of Liebig, Davy, etc. 
Some proposed subjects were meterology, electricity, hydrostatics, hy- 
draulics, weather, botany, vegetable physiology, geology, subsoils, drain- 
age, climate, chemistry and mechanics. 

Writers often disagreed strongly with the views of others. We 
find assertions that "agriculture is a science" in the Cultivator, a publi- 
cation of the New York State Agricultural Society, in 1838. The 
announced purpose of the society was "to improve soils and mind." It 
was said that about 5000 farmers out of a total of 250,000 had access 

History of Science 157 

to agricultural papers. That paper reached Indiana, as is shown by 
contributions by Solon Robinson, "King of the Squatters in Lake 

Another publication stated that Indiana University, in 1838, did not 
have courses "suited to the needs of Hoosier farm boys." They taught 
"mental and moral philosophy, belles lettres, languages, natural philos- 
ophy, mathematics, civil engineering and law." 

In 1830 a reference stated that "soil assumed the rank of exact 
science recently . . . based on experience and observation . . . and use 
of Baconian method." Also, "soil is a compound and very complex 
species of matter of infinite variety." 

There were numerous other illustrations of the thinking, in which 
there was no real break in development as they passed into the second 

Intermediate Period (cir. 1850 to 1900) 

The status of knowledge varied from place to place and views of 
pioneer times persisted locally along with the beginnings of some newer 
ideas. Strong contradictions were made. 

In 1845 a speaker in Laporte County had stated "Formerly to read 
and write, and maybe to add and multiply was deemed sufficient educa- 
tion for the sons of farmers , . . but now another spirit has awakened — 
farmer believe that the mind of man was not given to him for naught. 
. . . The rocky paths of Geology and Mineralogy have many a traveler 
among the sons of agriculturists . . . they will reach the very arcana 
of Nature and be enabled to bring her vast resources to bear on the 
cultivation of the earth . . . these discoveries . . . are being understood 
by the enlightened farmer. Already, in many places, with the aid of 
science, perfection has been attained ... to drive from competition all 
who adhere and follow the old exploded notions of our forefathers. 
These results are almost entirely traceable to the efforts of our agricul- 
tural societies." A Farmers' Encyclopedia said "All the old scores of 
our once wise but now ignorant forefathers are now cancelled and a 
new account opened with the public and posted up to the latest dates." 

However in 1857 one writer said "there is no such thing as a 
Science of agriculture," which might be related to experience in sending 
5 pounds of soil with $5 to New York to get De Burgs No. 1, or 
Jenkins Grand Restorative, or Smith supercelestial rejuvenator. Another 
writer agreed that Agricultural Science was "quackery and humbug" 
but did think that farmers do "need to know . . . and should have many 
observers, schools, chemistry labs, and experiments . . . and gradually 
evolve a science." 

The gap between farming and urban people was reflected in printed 
items as "sweet Mary, sigh not for the city where vice and folly dwell" 
and words of a youth "when we see the city boys with their white 
hands and unsoiled linen calling us hayseeds and country jakes it makes 
us cast our eyes down on our coarse boots and pantaloons and rough 
coats, yet ... we are the most independent, no matter what they say. 
Indiana is proud of her farmer boys. She keeps up such an institution 
as grand old Purdue" for us. 

158 Indiana Academy of Science 

The strong- flavor of emotion and idealism in early writings gave 
way to a trend towards more down-to-earth, practical and concrete 

In 1851 the Indiana State Board of Agriculture was established 
with enough financial and public support for it to function, although 
earlier efforts had failed. The SBA annual reports tell a revealing story 
of events from then until about 1898. 

County and other local agricultural societies were organized all 
over the state. State fairs, as well as county fairs, were held at which 
agricultural produce, stock and equipment were exhibited. Soils did not 
get much attention. Sometimes there were simple descriptions of the 
soils on which prize winning crops were grown. County society reports 
described their local soils in terms of native vegetation and productive 
quality, A Carroll County report said that Agriculture has improved by 
science over farming by rote, and will improve more. In Clay County 
they advocated a survey of agricultural and mineral resources. 

The first agricultural college was established in Michigan in 1857. 
Geology had been included in SBA reports but was separated in the 
1860s. However, Richard Owen said that soils should be collected and 
analyzed. Earlier Prof. Emison had advocated that soil samples be 
collected from every county, with notes on the drainage, slope, exposure, 
extent of drift, mineral manures, peat, marls, limestone subsoils, culti- 
vation statistics and agricultural regions. Farmers were to send in the 
samples mixed from all parts of a field and tell whether it was virgin 
or unmanured; and give the land elevation. There were to be soil 
analyses to tell the physical and chemical nature of the soils. This 
proposal was not implemented. 

The availability of information is shown by the report of the Shelby 
county society that their library contained the following: — Indiana 
Farmer, the Cultivator, the Plow, the Horticulturist (NY), Prairie 
Farmer (111), Penn Farm Jouimal, Dollar Farmer (Ky), Loom and 
Anvil, Ohio Agriculturist, Western Horticulture Review (Ohio), Journal 
of Agricultiire (Mass), American Farmer (Md), Farmers Companion, 
Farmers Instructor, Practical Farmer, Treatise on Agriculture, Farmers 
Dictionary , Aliens Agricultural Chemistry, Morrels American Shepard, 
Johnstons Agricultural Che7nistry, Nortons Agricultural Chernistry, The 
Principles of Science applied to Domestic and Mechanic Arts, Manufac- 
tures and Agriculture, Farmers EncyclopedAa of Agriculture, Colemans 
European Agriculture, Stephens Farmers Guide, and other books on 
livestock, fruits, etc. In 1853 that county society had 67 members and 
the president said that about % of the land was too wet and unimproved; 
that poor transportation for farm products was limiting progress; that 
there was "too much turbulent interest in party politics and the re- 
maining hindrance to the attainment of development of the agricultural 
capacity of the county is the want of intelligence and system in the 
conduct of farming operations, and this mainly the result of the de- 
graded view of their occupation by farmers generally." 

The SBA reports contained many essays and speeches by educated 
men on many topics with more or less soil information. They discussed 
plowing and drainage to "restore land" and cited cases of land "wearing 

HiSTOKY OF Science 159 

out." Meterological records by months were g-iven for 1852 to 1857. 
The SBA sent Congress a resolution in favor of the Morrill act. 

In 18G7 the report mentions recognition that "diluvium" is a func- 
tion of continental glaciation. The Department of Geology and Natural 
Resources was split off of the Agricultural field, but in 1880 the State 
Geologist said that soil was the greatest natural resource and pleaded 
for money for soil surveys. 

The SBA reports tell of many ideas and demands for an agricul- 
tural school which finally resulted in the founding of PUrdue Univer- 
sity. Even after the land grant money was authorized, some wanted to 
use it for the common schools, or to save it for the future, or to make 
a branch of Indiana University, or to divide it between lU and the 
several denominational schools. 

The beginning of Purdue was slow and vacillating. About 1872 the 
SBA report showed "the agricultural college" as a fortress-like building 
which never was built. In 1874 the plan was for three terms each year 
with courses in agriculture, chemistry, geography, geology, meterology, 
analysis of soil, land drainage, irrigation, mechanical cultivation of the 
soil, origin of soils, manures and artificial fertilizers, farm operations, 
astronomy, mental philosophy, moral philosophy, languages and engi- 
neering subjects. 

Besides the teaching, Purdue developed research which helped sup- 
port better instruction, and published the results in bulletins and 
circulars. About one fourth of some 80 publications before 1900 had 
something to do with soils and had titles such as fertilizers, chemistry, 
experiments with various crops, improvement of unproductive black 
soil, etc. 

For years the SBA reports contained reports from Purdue officials 
and professors as if the college was more or less responsible to the 
Board. Also there was no "extension" as such, but the Farmers Insti- 
tutes led by Professor Latta were very active and helped form a strong 
bond between Purdue and the rural community. (Incidentally over half 
of the population was classed as "rural" until about 1900) The local 
meetings had programs in which the soil part was largely reworking of 
questions of drainage, fertilizers, cultivation and exhaustion, but in 
general there was more and more interest in other phases of rural life, 
with speakers giving their individual ideas and experiences. Imper- 
fections in knowledge of the times are suggested by remarks about 
"Miasmic vapors exhaling from the swamps give ague, diarrhoea and 
typhoid" and "fallow hurts soil." Also there was discussion of plowing 
along hillsides to prevent washing, with recognition of soil erosion and 
ways of combatting it long before the modern conservation movement. 
Schooling became almost universal so that the farming population could 
read and use the published information. 

Modern Period. 1900 to Present. 

The events in this period are largely in continuation of ideas which 
originated long ago, but which take on a new look, or get new emphasis, 
or a few new offshoots. In spite of great progress the role of soils in 
agriculture is less than its role and increased importance in other fields 

IGO Indiana Academy op Science 

of interest. In agriculture the relative interest in soils may be inferred 
from the fact that about 30 out of 670 Purdue bulletins and 18 out of 
390 circulars issued after 1900 have to do with soils, and they mostly 
dealing with fertilizing crops. 

Work in technical soil science is indicated by the research reported 
in Ph.D. theses since 1943. Of these, 24 are concerned with fertility, 
15 with clays, 8 with water, 22 with chemistry, 2 with loess, 9 with 
physics, 4 with profiles, 2 with microorganisms, 1 with roads, 2 with 
erosion. Some M.S. and B.S. theses dealt with soil types and bacteria, 
soil types and iron and manganese, antagonistic microorganism in 
muck, potash and phosphorus in forest soils, genesis of 7 soil types, 
and culture affecting soil physical conditions. There also have been 
considerable numbers of technical papers in soil journals. 

In 1901, the U.S. Bureau of Soil started soil survey in Indiana with 
a soil map of Posey county, and covered 10 counties by 1908, when the 
Indiana State Geologist continued somewhat similar work until Federal 
and state cooperation began and continued until 1919. Thereafter, there 
was cooperation between Purdue AES and various Federal agencies up 
to the present with shifting relationships. During this period most 
Indiana counties have been mapped once and some more than once, and 
many individual farms have been mapped and planned separately. 

The basic concept of Soil Survey is that fairly distinct "kinds" of 
soils can be recognized, described and outlined on maps, and that they 
can be "classified" which merely means arranging groupings of the 
kinds according to their characteristics. There are many ways of doing 
this but first kind must be "identified." That is a mental operation by 
soil students who judge how to break the continuous spectrum of Nature 
up into segments. Some say that there is no such thing as a "species" 
in the flora or fauna, and the idea is applicable in the PEDA — a collec- 
tive name for soil types. The "units" depend upon definitions and with 
more and more knowledge the definitions become more and more precise 
and the idea of a type more limited until, if carried to the ultimate, 
it would go back to just one point in the spectrum. To be useful the 
whole process must be stopped at a stage where the units may be 
recognized and used in correlations or applications, although there may 
be ranges within the species, soil areas may contain inclusions of 
minor types. 

Soil types are given individual names usually related to the locality 
where first established, and they are grouped several ways. Most com- 
mon, distinct types have had local or popular names such as "sugar 
land, slashland, bogus, or gumbo" etc. The soil survey names may be 
considered "technical," but there have been efforts to create a "scientific" 
classification and nomenclature something like that of Botany and 
Zoology. In all cases the results depend upon the definitions of the 
smallest units, and the characteristics selected to group them into 
higher categories. Some guiding theory is needed like evolution in 
Biology, and "genesis" has been used by some soil scientists. 

In soil science it has been believed that each unit is a function of 
its parentage, environment and age, or of its parent material, climate, 
native vegetation, water regime and time — which is one of the ways 
the idea is stated. In any event, the natural soil is the "skin of the 

History of Science IGl 

earth" with each kind occuring in more or less separate microlandscapes, 
each of which is an individual g-eodetic location. 

Soil type areas are concrete, three dimensional bodies, each char- 
acterized by its surface pattern (land form and area outline) and its 
profile, with the number, thickness and arrangement of its layers. Each 
layer, or horizon, is defined by its color, texture, consistence, structure, 
and physical, chemical and biotic nature. The complete nature of a soil 
is embodied in its morphology and setting of each area in reference 
to the rest of Nature — as a function of the past; in dynamic equilibrium 
at present, and as a basis for future interactions. 

Knowledge of different kinds of soils which can be recognized fa- 
cilitates all work in which soils are factors. Anything learned about 
an area of one kind can be used more or less in other areas of the same 
kind, or on related kinds, if the facts relating them are significant in 
the interactions. For instance, diflferent soils with similar drainage 
characteristics can be considered together in drainage plans. The 
general principle applies through a series of relationships ranging from 
simple bearing power to complexities of land valuation. 

Modern soil science has developed highly specialized fields in which 
the workers know more and more about narrower facets, with so much 
total information that one scientist who knows about most of his own 
area may know little about the facts and theories of another branch. 
The whole group may have an enormous amount of information — not all 
digested and coordinated as needed by teachers. Research people often 
are more interested in the fringe of the unknown, than in the established 

Within agriculture the fertility people still study the uses of the 
standard ingredients such as lime, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potash in 
all kinds of forms and combinations on all kinds of soils, under all kinds 
of conditions, crops, placement, etc. They also study many other ele- 
ments which may be involved in plant nutrition or plant composition. 
They use radio-active tracers to work out the exact mechanisms of 
what happens in the soils. 

Soil physicists study the complications of water movement, structure 
consistence, tilth, etc. Sometimes the study is strictly fundamental with 
the use of soil material being incidental, or it may be in connection with 
machinery for working the soil, etc. 

Basic information about the physical and chemical properties of 
soils is used outside of agriculture in engineering, as with roads, air 
strips, building foundations, dams, etc. Purdue has had Ph.D. theses in 
engineering on photointerpretation, ground water, partly frozen soil, 
clay consolidation, soil variability, chert and shale, earth dams, sandy 
soil, water and organic matter. 

Starting on the basis of soil erosion, under the leadership of Hugh 
Bennett, the Federal government has developed the Conservation service, 
now with very broad and extensive field of activities. They began in 
1929 with regional erosion experiment stations; they had demonstration 
projects worked with CCC camps; set up conservation districts; brought 
in flood control; war production work; forestry; soil classification and 
correlation; small watershed work; watershed protection; farm home 
administration; fish and wildlife; historic base for acreage allotment; 

162 Indiana Academy of Science 

Soil Bank; cropland conversion; long time land use adjustment; rural 
renewal; and income producing- recreation. In most of these activities 
soil maps and use capability of various soils are used. 

In recent years the SCS and other agencies have been active in 
"Land Judging," the elements of which are much the same as the 
methods of the Soil Survey in sizing up the soils and interpreting the 
observed characteristics in terms of soil morphology, classification, 
adaptation, and needs. By this study rather large numbers of youths 
and adults have learned much of the technicalities of soil observation, 
and the total of reasonably expert people has increased, although it still 
is a small percentage of the population. 

Recently soil science has been used in local, state and national 
planning and zoning. It has helped determine whether septic tanks could 
be used in housing developments. It has aided land valuation and assess- 
ment, farm management, water supply, geography, ecology and terrain 

Indiana Soil Survey helped pioneer the use of aerial photos in soil 
mapping and for interpretation of soil conditions, and helped engineers 
here, and in certain projects in other countries, in using such techniques. 

Recent studies at Purdue have made important contributions to 
soil chemistry from the standpoint of fei-tility, and the role of clay 
minerals, which are to soils something like protoplasm is to living 

The scope of information now included in or related to Soil Science 
may be judged by the following. The International Soil Science Society 
and the Soil Science Society of America have sections on soil physics, 
chemistry, bacteriology, fertility, genesis and classification, forest soils, 
conservation, management, technology and climatology. One soil textbook 
lists topics like genesis, profiles, components, volume, organic matter, 
water, air, clay, humus, nutrients, fertility, physical properties, colloids, 
organisms, vapor losses, liquid losses, erosion, air temperature, parent 
materials, formation, classification, sui-vey, reaction, lime, nitrogen, 
phosphorus, potash and morphology. 

The 1957 yearbook of agriculture mentions fertility, physical prop- 
erties, plant growth, moisture, chemistry, P,K,S,Fe, Zn, Ba, Cu, Mn, 
organic matter, toxins, living organisms, nutrients, lime, practices of 
fertilization, manure, composts, peats, sewage, green manures, cover, 
crop quality, economics, tillage, alkali, erosion by wind or water, weed 
control, diseases, irrigation, drainage, classification, surveys, maps, 
cropping systems, management in climatic or crop regions, pastures, 
ranges, grasses, legumes, tobacco, rice, field crops, gardens, lawns, 
vegetables, orchards, forests and windbreaks. In the interactions of all 
these things the soils are important factors. 

Pedology has been a term for Soil Science for over 50 years, but 
even now few of the public and only part of scientists know it. A book 
on history of science does not even mention soil science or Pedology 
which indicates that even professionals may be unaware of the subject, 
although all people depend upon soils for subsistence. Another encyclo- 
pedia of science and technology does discuss soils in relation to certain 
engineering and agricultural matters, such as those listed above. 

History of Science 163 

Soil Science certainly is interrelated with almost all other facets 
of Nature such as geology, geomorphology, climate, biology, ecology, 
topography, and historical factors of landscapes. At any given site the 
soil characteristics probably sum up and integrate all of the com- 
ponents better than any other one factor. That is, the soil body is a 
function of the particular materials, environment, circumstances and 
time of development up to the present. Progress in one field affects 
the others. 

Under human usage the soil environment, such as drainage condi- 
tions, often has been changed so changes in the soil bodies are under 
way, but the rate of change is slow compared with the lifetimes of 
men so many of the features of soils in their natural condition persist 
for a relatively long time. Of course, ''accelerated erosion" may remove 
the natural topsoil very rapidly so that the current plowdepth is a 
modified subsoil or substratum now going through a new cycle of devel- 
opment. Som.e other treatments, such as heavy fertilization may gradu- 
ally change the productivity with out much visible change in appearance. 

Continuing study is constantly adding knowledge in the field of 
soil science. Ideas, accepted as true now, are subject to modifications 
although some basic facts are more permanent. Soil Science is unfinished 
business, and the current events of today become the history of to- 

History of Zoology in Indiana 

MuRVEL R. Garner, Earlham College 


In any present consideration of a century and a half of zoology in 
Indiana we must recognize, first of all, the splendid work of earlier 

In 1916, at the centennial program of the Indiana Academy, Barton 
Warren Evermann (4), then living in California, gave a very compre- 
hensive account of zoology and zoologists in Indiana to that date. He 
covered, especially well, (a) the record of the early zoologists, par- 
ticularly those from Kentucky and from New Harmony, and, (b) the 
great throng of students and colleagues of David Starr Jordan, of which 
he, himself, was one of the last. Further reference will be made to 
Evermann's account. 

In 1935, on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding 
of the Academy, Will E. Edington (2) made a further historical resume. 
Most likely several of us heard and will recall this summary, as well 
as the reminiscences and biographical notes which he gave during the 
years in which he was responsible for the memorials for deceased 

In 1949, Theodore W. Torrey (7) prepared a history of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology at Indiana University. The paper deals especially well 
with the period of David Starr Jordan. (Note: It would be most useful 
if other Zoology Departments would prepare corresponding accounts.) 

In 1951, Stephen S. Visher (8) compiled a directory of Indiana 

Evermann's Centennial History 

Since it is improbable that any of us heard Evermann's paper, or 
that many of us have read it, a brief summary follows: 

The Paris Documents, 1718, state that "from the summit of the 
hill at Ouiatenon nothing is visible to the eye but prairies full of 

Thomas Hutchins, in 1778, mentions bufl'aloes as being innumerable 
northwest of the Ohio River. (This clearly covered Indiana.) 

John James Audubon, in April 1809, floated down the Ohio River. 
He recorded that "buffaloes roamed over the prairies of Indiana and 
Illinois." He undoubtedly collected birds in Indiana. 

Alexander Wilson, the ornithologist, in March, 1810, floated down 
the Ohio from Pittsburgh to Louisville, met Audubon there and, like- 
wise, must have collected in Indiana. 

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, a teacher of Natural History at 
Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, 1818-1821, collected 
and described a number of fishes and molluscs from Indiana. 

The New Harmony Community, from 1815 on, attracted a surprising 
number of men of letters, including zoologists and natural historians, 
the most important of whom was Thomas Say, who has been called 
"the Father of American Entomology," "the Father of American Conch- 


History of Science 165 

ology," and "the Father of American Zoology." Say lived at New 
Harmony from 1825 to 1884. The third volume of his three volume 
American Entomology was completed there. During these years he 
described more than a thousand species of insects, some four hundred 
of which are mentioned specifically as having been found in Indiana. 
Say's greatest work was, of course, his American Conchology of which 
five volumes were published before his death in 1834. 

Charles Alexander Le Sueur, great French naturalist and world 
traveller, came to New Harmony in 1825, remaining in this country 
until 1838. He described many new animal species, including nearly a 
hundred fishes. It appears that he projected a large work on American 
Ichthyology but it failed to materialize. 

Rufus Haymond, a physician at Brookville, in 1869 published lists 
of mammals in Franklin County, giving thirty-two species with notes 
on habits and abundance. He also listed the birds of Franklin County, 
enumerating one hundred sixty-three species. (Dr. Haymond was a 
teacher and boyhood friend of Amos Butler who will be discussed later.) 

John Collett, in 1873, in a report on the Geology of Lawrence 
County, called attention to the animal life in caves of southern Indiana. 
He utilized the aid of A. S. Packard and Edmund Drinker Cope, nation- 
ally known zoologists of the time, for the identification of his eyeless 
fishes, crustaceans and crickets. 

Dr. George D, Levette listed, in 1876, nineteen species of univalves 
and nine species of turtles from northern Indiana lakes, in a report on 
the depths and temperatures of these lakes. 

Undoubtedly, David Starr Jordan was responsible for the greatest 
impetus even given to zoological investigation in Indiana. He came to 
Indianapolis in 1874, as a teacher of natural history in the high school. 
His earliest serious work was his famous story of the "Johnny Darters," 
written jointly with Herbert Copeland. 

The work of Dr. Jordan as an ichthyologist and an administrator 
is so well known and so well recorded that it needs little elaboration 
here. He served in the Indianapolis High School, Northwestern Christian 
University (now Butler University), Indiana University, earlier as 
professor, later as president, and Stanford University, as president. Much 
of his monumental contribution to American Ichthyology was made here. 
Evermann lists, among his students, many whom we recognize as great 
contributors to Indiana zoology: Herbert Copeland, Alembert W. Bray- 
ton, Charles H. Gilbert, Joseph Swain, Seth Eugene Meek, Carl H. 
Eigenmann, Elizabeth Hughes, Charles L. Edwards, Morton W. Fordice, 
Barton Warren Evermann, David Kopp Goss, Bert Fesler, Willis S. 
Blatchley, Charles S. Bollman, William L. Bray, William J. Moenkhaus. 

Two items of Evermann's report deserve further mention, one for 
emphasis, the other for correction. 

First, Rafinesque wrote in 1832, while in or near Indiana, "I shall 
soon come out with my avowed principles about genera and species, 
partly announced in 1814. . . . The truth is that species, and perhaps 
genera also, are forming in organized beings by gradual deviations of 
shapes, forms and organs, taking place in the lapse of time. There is a 
tendency to deviations and mutations through plants and animals by 
gradual steps at remote irregular periods. This is a part of the great 

166 Indiana Academy of Science 

universal law of perpetual mutability in everything. . . . Every variety 
is a deviation which becomes a species as soon as it is permanent by 
reproduction." This is a remarkably discerning concept of evolution 
antedating Darwin's Origin of Species by nearly forty years. 

Second, Evermann fell into the error of referring to Raymond's 
list of mammals in Franklin County (1869), recording thirty-two species, 
as the first faunal list of mammals for Indiana. 

Actually, Maximilian of Wied wrote on the mammals at New Har- 
mony about 1841. Also, Dr. John T. Plummer of Richmond published, in 
1844, a "catalog" of forty-three species of mammals. 

Dr. Plummer was an active student of natural history in the middle 
years of the nineteenth century, then his work almost completely 
dropped from sight. He was "rediscovered" by Lawrence King (5), 
while a student at Earlham College. It appears that Dr. Plummer was 
a versatile writer, having published more than one hundred fifty papers 
on botany, zoology, geology, medicine, philosophy and religion. 

Other Historical Records 

Following Evermann's centennial review of zoology in Indiana, an- 
other historical account was given by Edington (2) in 1935 on the 
occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Academy, 
in an address "There Were Giants in those Days." Edington used his 
characteristic skill in weaving personal notes concerning Indiana's early 
scientists into an interesting story of the development of Hoosier science. 
On this occasion there were several charter members of the Academy 

In 1949, Torrey's paper "Biology and its Makers at Indiana Uni- 
versity'^ (7) reviewed the earlier contributions by members of the 
department and described further, the work of some who came later. 

Will Scott was one of these. He first came to Indiana as a student 
at the university's Biological Station. He became an instructor in 1908, 
a professor in 1921. He was director of the Biological Station from 
1920 until his death in 1937. Himself a great teacher and limnologist, 
he led the aquatic field program in the pattern laid down by Jordan, 
Eigenmann and Evermann of earlier years. Many former students and 
associates still remember the warmth and the friendship of Will Scott. 

Following the death of Dr. Scott, the station, successively under 
the direction of William E. Ricker, David Frey and Shelby Gerking, 
continues as one of the world's great freshwater biological stations. 

Other persons mentioned by Torrey will be considered later. 

Other Zoologists 

Several of Indiana's outstanding zoologists were still living when 
the above papers were prepared, but have died since. 

Amos Butler (1860-1937), frequently referred to as the actual 
founder of the Indiana Academy, stands out as one of Indiana's most 
versatile naturalists. He was a lover of birds and mammals — and men. 
His "Birds of Indiana" (1) is now regarded as a classic and a collectors' 
item. In addition to being a natural scientist, Dr. Butler was a social 

History of Science 1G7 

scientist of the front rank. For many years he was secretary of the 
State Board of Charities. He was an expert on penology and prison 
conditions, on mental health and on anthropology. 

A. B. Ulrey (1860-1929) was born near North Manchester. He 
graduated from Indiana University in 1892, then studied at Woods Hole. 
He was a student and a contemporary of David Starr Jordan. He taught 
at Manchester College from 1894 to 1899, establishing the Biology 
department in the highest standards of research and scholarship. From 
1901 to 1929 he taught at UCLA. He was a specialist in marine fish 
and echinoderms. 

Howard E. Enders (1877-1958) was another great teacher of the 
generation just past. He was Head of the Department of Biological 
Sciences at Purdue following Stanley Coulter, and he was also Dean 
of the School of Science. Trained as a parasitologist, he did considerable 
research in tropical America, where he also led groups of students for 
study. We also recall him as a pioneer in the development of the 
present day concept of General Biology as an elementary college course. 

Marcus Ward Lyon, Jr. (1875-1942) was an example of a first class 
scientist not primarily connected with a university. A mammalogist and 
a pathologist, he was associated for many years with the U. S. National 
Museum in various capacities, concluding as assistant curator. In 1919 
he joined the South Bend Clinic as pathologist. However he continued 
his interest in mammals. His presidential address to this Academy in 
1933 on the origins of Indiana's mammals became the basis of a larger 
publication on Indiana mammals (6) which is now a collectors' item. 

Alden H. Hadley (1876-1951) was another in the line of Indiana 
ornithologists. Born in Morgan County, he studied for a time at Earlham 
College under David Worth Dennis, but moved to Florida because of ill 
health, and graduated from Stetson University. He became associated 
with the National Audubon Society almost from its beginning. He 
served as its Director of Education for many years. He returned to 
Mooresville in 1941 and worked with the State Department of Conser- 
vation until his death from an auto accident in 1951, giving literally 
thousands of lectures on natural history and conservation, to schools 
and other interested groups. The Indianapolis Star reported "In the 
death of Alden Hadley the robins and cardinals have lost a great friend, 
as have many friends who knew this keen and gentle naturalist." 

Samuel Elliott Perkins, III (1878-1941) was a distinguished lawyer 
who made ornithology an avocation. He was a product of the Indian- 
apolis schools and Wabash College. He was an honorary member of 
the Nature Study Club of Indiana and for six years was its president. 
He was a member of several ornithological organizations. He was an 
ardent bird bander and a promoter of bird banding in the early days 
of that program. He is to be remembered as one of the great throng 
of naturalists and lovers of the out of doors for which Indiana has been 

Benjamin H. Grave (1878-1949) was born at Monrovia, Indiana. He 
had his education at Friends Academy at Plainfield, Earlham College 
and Johns Hopkins University (Ph.D. in 1910). His teaching career was 
spent mainly at Knox College, Wabash College and DePauw University. 

168 Indiana Academy of Science 

He did extensive research in embryology and physiology. His students 
remember him as a teacher possessed of intense enthusiasm. An unusu- 
ally large number went on for graduate work. 

Frank R. Elliott (1888-1965) was one of the few spider specialists 
of Indiana. He was born at Spartanburg in Randolph County. He 
attended college at Earlham and did his graduate work at Ohio State. 
He taught at Earlham and at Valparaiso where, for many years, he 
headed the Department of Biology. He worked extensively on the 
ecology of spiders. In 1952 he contributed an important paper before 
the Academy on the history of Araneology of Indiana (3). 

Alfred C. Kinsey (1894-1956) is best remembered as a student of 
human sexual behavior. Actually he was a student of evolution. He 
first studied it as manifested in insects, especially gall wasps. 

Ira T. Wilson (1895-1951) was born at Jonesboro. He was trained 
at Indiana University, one of Will Scott's students in limnology. He 
was a pioneer student of lake sedimentation and made important con- 
tributions to the interpretation of post glacial climatic successions. He 
was closely associated with Dr. Potzger of Butler University. His entire 
teaching career was at Heidelberg University in Ohio. 

Zoology Today in Indiana 

It is the responsibility of any treatise that purports to be a 
"history," to deal primarily wtih events and people of the past. For 
present purposes the people normally would be those who are not now 

Certain observations grow out of a summary of a history of zoology 
in Indiana. 1) The earlier zoologists were concerned chiefly with the 
"survey" approach, listing species, with notes on ecology and distribu- 
tion. 2) The animal groups most fully covered have been fishes, birds 
and mammals. 

To these observations, there might be added certain others on 
impressions concerning the present. 

3) Gradually, other areas of zoology are receiving considerable 
attention. Examples include the emphasis on a) Genetics at Indiana 
University under the leadership of Fernandus Payne, Herman Muller 
and Tracy Sonneborn; b) Molecular Biology, research and course work, 
at Purdue, Earlham, Wabash, Goshen and, no doubt, other schools; 
c) Parasitology, at Purdue and Notre Dame. 

4) In addition to the universities and colleges as centers for re- 
search and teaching of zoology, several local areas are being preserved 
for future study. The system of state parks of which Indiana is justly 
proud can be expected to serve as permanent sites for primitive biologi- 
cal habitats. The proposed Dunes National Park which has just had 
Congressional clearance gives promise of becoming a priceless addition 
to research facilities. 

Small areas include: the Biological Station of Indiana University 
previously cited; the David Worth Dennis Biological Station of Earlham 
College on Dewart Lake in Kosciusko County, a center for undergraduate 
instruction and research in Limnology; the lakes inside the state-owned 

History of Science 169 

areas, as Shock Lake, Chain-o-Lakes, Hovey Lake, and many reservoirs; 
small primitive areas scattered over the state, such as the Mary Gray 
Bird Sanctuary near Connersville, the Allee Memorial Woods near 
Bloomingdale, of Wabash College, the Cring Woods near Portland, of 
Earlham College, Sedgwick Rock near Richmond, of Earlham College, 
the Hayes Regional Arboretum, of Richmond, and many other small 
areas set aside through the efforts of local conservation groups such as 
"Acres" of Fort Wayne. (No doubt many others of these exist. A more 
complete list of such areas would be usefuL) 

5) Indiana has contributed a significant number of zoologists who 
were born and trained within the state, to other parts of the country. 
However, Indiana's yield of eminent people compared with that of 
nearby state has been analyzed by Visher (9) and found to be distinctly 
below that of neighboring states, especially Ohio and Illinois. He believes 
that the shortcoming is due in considerable part to the smaller per- 
centage of Indiana's people who are interested in scholarly achievement; 
that there is presently an excessive amount of interest in high school 
athletics, local politics and local prestige; that financial support of 
Indiana's universities and colleges has been less generous than that in 
nearby states. He further believes that an active program of encourag- 
ing young people in increased respect for scholarly endeavors should be 

Visher's interpretation is a most sobering one. There may be other 
more subtle factors, but present members of the Academy should feel 
the responsibility to make Indiana's place in the discipline of zoology 
a more distinctive one. 

As I approach the conclusion of this paper, I am made aware of 
the limitation imposed by its title, namely, the account of the accumula- 
tion of the body of knowledge which is Indiana Zoology. I know that 
surely the records of many workers worthy of inclusion have been 
omitted. Such omissions may have been due to my ignorance of their 
contributions or mistaken judgment on my part. 

I am also concerned for three categories of zoologists which should 
be held in cherished memory. They are: 

1) Great teachers in Indiana universities and colleges, who stimu- 
lated students to significant research, without having the opportunity 
for such research themselves. 

2) Zoologists native to, and trained in Indiana, but whose productive 
careers have been outside the state, "Indiana's gift to the country." 

3) Contributors to the current efforts of the Committee on Biologi- 
cal Survey in the field of zoology. These people are working actively to 
round out the knowledge of Indiana's animal life. They include, often, 
younger workers, even graduate and undergraduate students. 

4) Contributors to areas of experimental zoology which have been 
slighted somewhat in this paper. 

It is my hope that we may continue to make a matter of permanent 
record the work of these and others. Thus, again, we may hope to 
improve our status in relation to that of our sister states. 

170 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Butler, Amos. 1898. Birds of Indiana. Ind. Dept. Geol. and Nat. Re- 
sources 22: 515-1187, 

2. Edington, Will E. 1935. There were giants in those days, Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 44: 22-38. 

3. Elliott, Frank R. 1953. Tlie araiieology of Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
62: 299-317. 

4. Evermann, Barton Warren. 1916. A century of zoolog-y in Indiana, 181G- 
1916. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 26: 189-224. 

5. King, Lawrence J. and M. S. Markle. 1954. Dr. John T. Plumnier (1807- 
1865) pioneer scientist of Richmond, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 63: 

6. Lyon, Marcus Ward, Jr. 1936. Mammals of Indiana. Amer. Midi. Nat. 17: 

7. Torrey, Theodore W. 1949. Zoology and its makers at Indiana University. 
Bios 20 (2) : 67-99. 

8. Visher, Stephen S. 1951. Indiaiin scientiKt.s, a liiographioal directory. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 218 pp. 

9. Visher, Stephen S. 1962. Indiana's yield of eminent people compared with 
that of nearby states. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 72; 240-242. 

A Note on the Academy's John Shepard Wright 
Memorial Library 

Bernard Malin, Eli Lilly and Company 

In the President's letter this year to fellow members of the Indiana 
Academy of Science, there is a paragraph that I would like to quote. 
"How many of you have visited the Academy's John Shepard Wright 
Memorial Library in the Indiana State Library or made use of 
its resources? Did you know it receives some 800 titles from 75 
countries; that it contains over 7,200 volumes of scientific and 
technical serials published by archives like ours, by scientific de- 
partments of universities here and abroad, by departments of science 
of foreign governments and certain private research agencies and 
scientific institutions (and these volumes include practically no sub- 
scription journals) ? On April 1st of this year, the Lilly Endowment, 
Inc. will make available $10,000 to fill in the files, bind materials 
and purchase certain needed titles in this library of ours . . ." 

How many of you have actually used or even visited the library? 
How many have sat down before a stack of new journals and heard 
the sharp crackle as the pages are opened, one by one ? Or listened to 
the pages, vibrant with potential life? A book is a book, but a book 
becomes a book only when it is opened and used. We should not allow 
our library to become a collection of dormant information. It is said 
that a house becomes alive when it is used; there is nothing so forloiTi 
and empty as an abandoned house — or a lonely library. 

How many of you have walked between stacks of books in the 
library? How many have felt the presence of unknown individuals 
imprinted on countless pages waiting to introduce themselves through 
their words and their thoughts ? Even though there are many languages 
in our library Science truly has a universal language, the language of 
thought. But if a thought is expressed and not seen, what happens to 
that thought? Does it remain in a Never-Never Land of what-might- 
have-been, lost and forgotten? It must be revived if only for a quick 
glance and a brief consideration. 

Our Library is not just a warehouse full of books and journals 
that have been painstakingly catalogued, classified, listed, or bound. It 
is a monthly newspaper that, stripped of its wrapper, reveals on its 
pages news and information of the world of Science. This is a place to 
exchange ideas, a place to meet man and his thoughts. 

Make it a habit, not a duty, to visit and enjoy our Library. Open 
the book or journal and bring its thoughts to the Land of What Is and 
What Might Be. 



Chairman: Emily J. Blasingham, Loyola University 
George K. Neumann, Indiana University, was elected chairman for 1967 

Brief Sketch of the Racial History of 
Selected Etlmic Groups of Siberia 

Ben R. Huelsman, Indiana University 

Soviet and American anthropologists share a number of related 
research problems. One of these is the continuing search for possible 
ancestral populations for the aboriginal mongoloid populations of native 
North America and Siberia. Most physical anthropologists accept as 
an article of faith the belief that the Palaeo-Amerind arrived in the 
New World by way of Siberia. Unfortunately skeletal remains of the 
Palaeo-Amerind have proved to be most elusive. Soviet physical anthro- 
pologists and archaeologists are equally concerned with discovering 
racial clues as to the identity of the most ancient forms of man in 
Siberia, sometimes referred to as the pre-Tungus, Palaeo-Asiatic popu- 
lation of Siberia. The New World and Siberia share a number of 
common characteristics in terms of the problem of their respective 
original peopling. No higher forms of primates in a direct evolutionary 
line to Homo sapiens have been discovered in either area. Secondly, all 
the most ancient skeletal remains from the New World and from 
northeastern Siberia are mongoloid, Homo sajneiis and Upper Pleistocene 
in age. Some exciting new Pleistocene skeletal finds from mainland 
China have been reported since 1949 but await further description, 
analysis and publication of results outside that country. Very tenta- 
tively, it would seem that the ultimate ancestral populations to both 
the first New World and Siberian mongoloids must be sought in the 
Pleistocene of mainland China. This paper supports the hypothesis 
that when such a Chinese Pleistocene population is available for 
description and analysis, that it will consist of large, rugged relief 
generalized monogoloid crania very similar to the famous Old Man 
of Choukoutien, skull No. 101, described by the late Franz Weiden- 
reich (7). 

This paper supports the position that the Old Man of Choukoutien, 
despite the generalized resemblance to Upper Palaeolithic Europoid 
populations noted by so many writers, already exhibited mongoloid facial 
specializations as advanced by Weidenreich. Assuming that in Late 
Palaeolithic times a group of generalized mongoloids resembling to some 
extent the Old Man of Choukoutien existed as bands of continental 
hunters, it is further postulated that some of these more generalized 
mongoloids, perhaps in pursuit of game, wandered from their more 
southerly and warmer areas of origin in eastern Asia to the taiga and 
tundra areas of northeastern Siberia. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

A recent Soviet geological map shows the glaciation of northeastern 
Siberia from approximately Yakutsk to the Chukchi peninsula during 
Pleistocene times. It is possible that many of these generalized mongo- 
loids migrated over Bering Strait, contributing genes to the earliest 
known Palaeo-Amerinds. Others, despite tailored clothing adapted for 
the new Arctic ecology, stayed behind and those who did not succumb 
to the rigors of climate became trapped in unglaciated pockets, such as 
the area along the Middle Kolyma River. This ordeal may have lasted 
as long as some 10,000 years, some 400 to 500 generations, and is 
sufficient time for mutations and selection. The severe climate, partial 
isolation and the selective nature of the Arctic environment probably 
kept the mongoloid population of northeastern Siberia greatly reduced, 
enabling genetic drift to operate, as is well-known, in small groups. A 
detailed analysis of how such factors may have operated to produce 
the modern Tungus, Chukchi and possibly other living and facially 
specialized mongoloid ethnic groups of Siberia is contained in the 
work of Coon, Garn and Birdsell (2). 

One of the largest, most exhaustively described and best-known 
pre-historic populations of southern Siberia is the so-called Neolithic 
Baikal type A, described as early as 1930 by G. F. Debetz in Russkii 
Antropologicheskii Zhurnal and later by A. P. Okladnikov and M. G. 
Levin. The slight differences of opinion among these authors as to the 
interpretation of these finds exceeds the scope of this paper. Basically 
the opinion of Debetz and archaeologist A. P. Okladnikov are similar, 
in that both see in this prehistoric mongoloid population a direct 
genetic link to the living Evenk (Tungus) of northeastern Siberia. 
This Neolithic mongoloid population is characterized by low-vaultedness 
and extremely sloping foreheads and represents a direction away from 
the more generalized possible ancestral group, the Old Man of 

i^^- %. 

Figure 1. 




ommmmtff^ orut^ou^H^s msiKniA m tmb smu «f nc n^Kmnvii 

Figure 3. 

Choukoutien and his contemporaries in Upper Pleistocene East Asia. 
In Fig. 1 the ethnic groups of 17th century Siberia are shown. This map 
represents the ethnological present, that is the distribution of non- 
Russian peoples of northeastern Siberia at the time of the first Russian 
penetration into the area. The Central Asiatic physical type found 
mainly among the then small group of Yakuts, represents a very recent 
intrustion of Turkic-speaking cattle-breeders who may have arrived in 
northeastern Siberia as late as the era of Ghenghis Khan. Most of 
the Evenks and the ancient continental hunters, the Yukagirs, are of 
the Baikal physical type. It is believed that as recently as the seven- 
teenth century of our era that the interior of the Chukchi peninsula 
was inhabited by the Yukagir, bearers of the Baikal physical type. 
In Fig. 2 it can be seen that the Yakut have expanded enormously in 
absolute numbers and in the very widespread territory they occupied 
by the end of the nineteenth century, while the once widely distributed 
Yukagir have all but disappeared by the turn of the 20th century, 
various population estimates placing them at somewhere between 400 
and perhaps a 1,000 survivors. Most American anthropologists attempt- 
ing to map aboriginal Siberia for purposes of comparison with native 
North America fail to specify the time period involved and further 
confuse their audiences by implying commonly held racial traits for 
what are really linguistic gi'oupings. 

It has been suggested that isolation, genetic drift and the adapta- 
tion of the generalized mongoloids to prolonged exposure to the severe 
cold of Upper Pleistocene Siberia may account for the so-called highly 
specialized morphology of the Evenks, and Lamuts and that this type 
was probably superimposed upon the possibly pre-Tungus Palaeo-Asiatic 
hunters. An instance of this process may be represented among the 
vanishing Yukagir, whose less-specialized mongoloid appearance has been 

176 Indiana Academy of Science 

commented upon by a variety of writers. This does not mean that the 
Yukag'ir can be derived from some imaginary ancient Europoid or 
proto-Europoid population in northeastern Siberia. Some years ago 
Birdsell proposed that an Amurian element may have been present in 
this area of the Old World and that it was suflficiently old to have 
entered into the racial composition of the earliest groups of American 
Indians migrating out of Asia in terminal or post-Pleistocene times 
across Bering Strait. It should be mentioned at this point that no 
evidence for a widespread distribution of ancient Caucasoids in eastern 
or northeastern Siberia exists based on the exhaustive and most recent 
investigations of Soviet anthropologists (1). 

That some non-mong-oloid racial component did exist in northwestern 
and southwestern Siberia in pre-historic times is undeniable, but the 
distribution of such ancient representatives of what the Soviets call 
the Great Europoid Race was limited to these areas and to the earliest 
stratigraphic levels investigated by Soviet archaeologists in the Kazakh 
and Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics. Europoid skeletal 
remains date from about 4000 B.C. and occur in association with the 
Afanasyev and Andronovo cultures of westernmost Siberia. 

G. F. Debetz has confirmed the presence of an ancient Cro-Magon- 
like Europoid population in the Minusinsk district and in the Altai 
Mountains during the Afanasyev and Andronovo periods of culture. 
A useful summary of the findings is contained in English in the 1948 
article by Debetz (3), long recognized as one of the outstanding physical 
anthropologists in the U.S.S.R. Evidently these prehistoric Europoids 
constituted the earliest known population in Central Asia, specifically 
the Kazakh and Kirghiz republics, and tended to be replaced by ex- 
panding mongoloids only at a much later date. A brief discussion in 
Russian and some illustrations of prehistoric Europoid crania from 
Kazakhstan can be found in Russian in a 1963 collection of articles 
published by the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (4). 

What apparently happened in northwestern and southwestern 
Siberia during Neolithic times is that the Europoids had reached the 
area between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisei River and somewhere 
in this vast area met the rapidly expanding groups of mongoloids. As a 
result in part of interbreeding between these representatives of different 
racial stock, the so-called Uralian physical type arose. Even today 
this type is found between the Ural Mountains and its eastern limit 
is the Yenisei River. Typical representative groups bearing this physical 
type include the Mansi, Khanty and to some extent the Sel'kups and 
Nentsy. Thus, there is some correlation between speakers of the 
Ugrian and Samoyedic languages and the Uralian physical type. The 
Kets, commonly referred to as the Yenisei Ostyaks because of their 
location, are thought to represent a language isolate, although many 
older, non-Soviet writers included them in with a so-called West 
Siberian branch of the Palaeo-Asiatic languages. There has been 
a long-standing discussion as to whether or not the Kets are "Ameri- 
canoid" because of their sometimes distinctively high nasal bridges, 
but this exceeds the scope of this paper. 

Anthropology 177 

In the indigenous population of the lower Amur River and Sakhalin 
Island two physical types can be distinguished, namely, the Baikal type, 
already mentioned above briefly, and another type known as the 
Amur-Sakhalin type. The Baikal type is found among the Negidals 
and Oroks, as well as among the Ul'ches, Nanays and Orochs, all 
speakers of Tungusic languages. The most comprehensive single pub- 
lished work available in English on the ethnogenesis of the peoples of 
Siberia is that of the late and reknowned M. G. Levin (5, 6). Except 
when otherwise indicated, this portion of the paper dealing with the 
Gilyak (Nivkh) as representative of the Amur-Sakhalin type is based 
on the work of M. G. Levin. To some extent this type can be found 
as a component among the Ul'ches and is part among the Orochs, along 
with the Baikal type. Levin regards the Nivkh or Gilyak as the 
early indigenous population of the territory they now inhabit and 
cites Soviet linguists who feel that Gilyak also is a language isolate. 
In terms of culture, Levin believes that the archaeological evidence as to 
the possible ethnogenesis of the Nivkh points to a great degree of 
continuity with the Neolithic culture of the Amur area. Levin further 
supports the position that the Gilyak do not resemble any Amerind 
groups of the Northwest Coast of North America either physically, 
linguistically or culturally. Levin does not reject the possibility of 
physical proximity between the Gilyak and the Aleut, but simply regards 
this hypothesis as remaining unconfirmed (6). 

Space limitations prevent an adequate discussion of the complex 
issue of the Chukchi, Koryak and Kamchadal (Itel'meni) of extreme 
northeast Siberia. It has been shown that the expansion of the Tungus 
(Evenk) languages and culture tended to coincide with the spread of 
the Baikal physical type to the Yukagir and the ancient Nivkh possibly 
occupied the Amur-Sakhalin area before this Tungusic expansion took 
place. The advent of the Turkic-speaking Yakut, and a few centuries 
later, the Russians, radically changed the racial picture of historical 

Literature Cited 

1. BiRDSBLL, J. B. 1949. The problem of the early peopling of the Americas a.s 
viewed from Asia, p. 98-1 IG. In. W. S. Laughlin, ed., Papers on the Pliysienl 
Anthropology of the Atneriejin Indiiin. Viking Fund, New Yorlc. 

2. Coon, C. S., S. M. Garn, and J. B. Birdsell. 1950. Raoe.s: A 8tutly of the 
Problems of Raee Formation in Man. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher. 
153 p. 

3. Debetz, G. F. 1952. Palaeoanthropology of the U.S.S.R. Southwestern J. 
Anthropol. 8:52-68. 

4. GiNSBURG, V. V. 1963. Materials for the anthropology of the ancient popula- 
tions of Northern Kazakhstan. Sbornik Muzeya Anthropol. i Ethnogr. 21:297- 
338 (in Russian). 

5. Levin, M. G. 1950. Anthropological types of Siberia and the Far East. 
Sovetskaia Ethnogr. No. 2:53-64 (in Russian). 

6. Levin, M. G. 1963. Kthnie Origins of the Peoples of N.E. Asia. University 
of Toronto Press. 

7. Wbidenreich, Franz. 1949. On the earliest representatives of modei'n man- 
kind recovered from the soil of east Asia. In Anthropolog-ical Papers of 
Franz Weidenreich. Viking Fund, New York. 


Chairman: Morris Wagner, University of Notre Dame 

Joseph S. Ingraham, Indiana University Medical Center, was 
elected chairman for 1967 


Visualization of Antibody-binding Sites on the Larva of Trichinella spiralis 
using the Ferritin-conjugated Antibody Technique. Dickson D. Des- 
POMMIER, Masahiro Kajima, and Bernard S. Wostmann, The Lobund 
Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Notre Dame. 
— The purpose of this study was to determine the antigenic sites 
on the larva of Trichinella spiralis which stimulate the host to' produce 
humoral antibodies during the course of infection. The ferritin- 
conjugated antibody technique was used to visualize the antibody binding- 
sites on the larvae. 

Three rabbits were infected with 20,000 larvae given via stomach 
tube. Thirty days later, each rabbit received an additional 20,000 
larvae. Forty-five days after the first infection, all three infected 
rabbits plus one non-infected control rabbit were exsanguinated. Sera 
from the infected rabbits were pooled. Immune and non-immune serum 
samples were treated with ammonium sulfate to obtain the gamma 
globulin fraction. A portion of both gamma g-lobulin solutions were 
then conjugated with ferritin. Living- larvae were incubated in the 
gamma globulin solutions for 18 hours at 37" C. The larvae were then 
washed three times in sterile saline, fixed in osmium tetroxide, de- 
hydrated in a graded series of ethanol solutions, and embedded in an 
Epon-Araldite mixture. After sectioning and staining the larvae 
with lead citrate, the samples were viewed under the electron micro- 
scope. The results showed that only the cuticle of the larva was labled 
specifically with immune ferritin-conjugated gamma globulin. Non- 
immune ferritin-conjugated gamma globulin did not attach specifically 
to any site on the larva. No ferritin particles were seen in the gut 
tracts of larvae incubated in either immune or non-immune ferritin- 
conjugated gamma globulin. It is concluded from this study that the 
cuticle of the larva of T. siyiralis serves as an effective antigenic 
stimulus to the host during the course of infection. 

A Proposed Universal Biohazards Warning Symbol. C. L. Baldwin, 
Pitman-Moore Div., The Dow Chemical Company, Indianapolis. — While 
working for the National Cancer Institute, the Dow Biohazards R&D 
Team recognized a need for a signal to warn of biological hazards 
— "biohazards" — since these hazards are rarely obvious. In Novem- 
ber, 1965, the Dow Team conceived, and was authorized to supervise, a 
project to design a standard biological hazard warning symbol. The 
first phase of this study showed that scientists and safety groups 
agreed to the need for a biohazard warning symbol. The second phase 
established symbol design criteria, the design of candidate symbols, 
and the use of a professional opinion survey group to test candidate 


180 Indiana Academy of Science 

symbols. Design criteria included the requirements, among others, that 
the symbol be unique, and that it be easily remembered. Surveys in 
twenty-five cities allowed rational selection of a symbol embodying 
these characteristics. The third phase, following acceptance by the 
National Institutes of Health, will familiarize the public with the design 
and significance of the biohazards warning symbol. A Use Standard 
outlining rules for display of the symbol has been derived and will 
serve as the basis for widespread publicity among scientists and safety 
people; papers will be prepared for professional jounials and meetings. 
The general public will be reached through feature articles in the lay 

Oxygen Consumption in the Adult Male Rat. P. Leonard Knight, Jr. 
and Bernard S. Wostmann, Lobund Laboratory, Department of Micro- 
biology, University of Notre Dame. — Oxygen consumption of adult germ- 
free and conventionalized male rats was determined in a plastic metab- 
olism chamber using a mixture of 22% 0^ and 78% Nj as an air supply. 
The 8" X 8" x 8" plastic unit contained soda lime as a CO- absorbent. 
The change of presure in the chamber, as the animal consumed O2 and 
as indicated by the difference in level of Brodie's fluid in a U tube 
connection, was counteracted by buretting mineral oil into the system. 
The cubic centimeters of mineral oil corresponded to the amount of 
O2 consumed by the animal. 

Animals were transferred into the chamber, and V2 hour was 
allowed for adjustment to this new environment. Five or more deter- 
minations were made on at least 10 animals of each type. The germ- 
free male rat under these conditions consumed on the average 15.7 liters 
Oi;/Kg/day while its conventionalized counterpart utilized 18.1 liters 
Ol/ Kg/day — a 13% difference between the two groups. 

A Cinemicrographic Record on the Effect of an Antimitotic Substance 
Derived from Marine Algae on Animal Tissue-Cultured Cells. Theodore 
J. Starr, University of Notre Dame, Department of Microbiology, Lo- 
bund Laboratory. — A biologically active substance was extracted from 
benthic marine algae collected along the coast of Puerto Rico. When 
added to the growth medium of tissue-cultured cells in vitro, specific 
mitotic anomalies were observed in preparations stained with acridine 
orange fluorochrome. The cytological abnormalities were associated with 
the phenomena of amitosis, multiple cytokinesis, and micronucleation. 
Amitosis was associated with bundles of filaments as seen by electron 
microscopy. Multiple cytokinesis was associated with the formation of 
miniature cells and cell fragments. Micronucleation occurred in the ab- 
sence of cell division and the process appeared similar to that observed 
after treatment of tissue-cultured cell with colchicine. Events concerned 
with multiple cytokinesis and micronucleation were recorded by time- 
lapse phase microscopy. 

Effect of Whole-Body Irradiation on Intestinal Disaccharidases of Germ- 
free and Conventional Rats. B. S. Reddy and J. R. Pleasants, Lobund 
Laboratory, Dept. of Microbiology, University of Notre Dame. — Re- 
cent studies demonstrated an increase in intestinal disaccharidase ac- 
tivities in germfree (gf) rats and this was atti'ibuted partly to longer 

Bacteriology 181 

life span of epithelial cells in gf animals. To test this hypothesis, 
90 day old gf and conventional (conv) rats were irradiated with a 
whole-body dose of 1000 rads to arrest temporarily the production 
of intestinal epithelial cells by the crypts, and the disaccharidase 
activities determined in the intestinal homogenates for 10 days after- 
wards. The mortality rate in gf and conv rats was and 55% 
respectively within 10 days following irradiation. After irradiation of 
gf rats, maltase, invertase, trehalase, lactase and cellobiase activities 
rapidly decreased to 3-5% of controls at 5 days and then gradually 
increased to about 45% of controls at 10 days. In conv rats, these 
activities followed the same pattern, but the minimum values were 
reached at 3 days and then gradually increased to about 55% of controls 
at 10 days. These results supported the hypothesis that the longer 
life span of epithelial cells in gf rats was associated with an increase 
in disaccharidase activities. 

Besides a definite physiological and pathological effect and the 
reduction of digestive enzymes, there was a decrease in liver glycogen 
levels, presumably due to decreased food intake. These observations 
would indicate the possibility of presenting the food to the irradiated 
animals in an easily absorbable form such as low molecular water-soluble 
diet developed in our laboratory. 

Interferon Production in Gnotobiotic and Conventional Mice. Richard 
G. CoNSiDiNE and Theodore J. Starr, University of Notre Dame, De- 
partment of Microbiology, Lobund Laboratory. — Serum interferon in 
both gnotobiotic and conventional mice was inhibited after challenge 
of animals with high-titered vaccinia. A virus challenge of lO'' PFU 
induced the optimum interferon titers when mouse serum was assayed 
six hours later. Concentrations of vaccinia greater or less than this 
optimal dose induced less serum interferon. However, when vaccinia 
virus was heat-inactivated at 60 °C for 15 minutes, the serum interferon 
titers increased at least twofold at all concentrations of vaccinia tested. 
Animals of both groups responded similarly with minor differences in 
reaction times and peak titers. The gnotobiote proved to be more 

A sensitizing dose of vaccinia in a range from 10° to 10^ PFU was 
injected 12 hours prior to the second inducing dose of virus. Sensitizing 
doses of vaccinia in the range of 10' to 10" PFU partially inhibited 
interferon induction by a second challenge of vaccinia and to a lesser 
extent Newcastle disease virus. A sensitizing dose of vaccinia less than 
10^ PFU was not inhibitory to the inducing challenge. Sensitizing doses 
of vaccinia injected 18 hours prior to the interferon inducing dose 
were much less inhibitory than the 12 hours sensitizing dose. 

The interferon was characterized according to species specificity, 
virus specificity, ultracentrifugation, and also by heat, trypsin and 
acid liability. 

The Possible Role of an Alpha-1-glycoprotein in Phagocytosis. J. C. Pl- 

SANO and R. J. Downey, Lobund Laboratory, Department of Microbiol- 
ogy, University of Notre Dame. — Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus 
by guinea pig polymorphonuclear leucocytes was enhanced four-fold by 

182 Indiana Academy of Science 

guinea pig serum, both conventional and germfree, and by guinea 
pig peritoneal exudate fluid. Ammonium sulfate fractionation of the 
exudate fluid yielded several components, one of which contained the 
phagocytosis-promoting factor (PPF). This fraction, identified by 
electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis as an alpha-1-globulin, had 
25 times the phagocytosis-promoting activity of serum. The PPF (alpha- 
1-globulin) was not heat-labile and contained no complement activity. 
Electrophoresis at low pH and histochemical techniques indicated that 
the PPF may be a glycoprotein. Neither the gamma globulin nor the 
albumin isolated from the exudate fluid possessed any phagocytosis- 
promoting activity. 

Lysozyme Activity in the Serum, Saliva and Tears of 
Germfree and Conventional Rats and Mice 

David R. Makulu and Morris Wagner, Lobund Laboratory, 
Department of Microbiology, University of Notre Dame 

The germfree animal, when compared to its conventionally-reared 
counterpart, has been characterized as having generally underdeveloped 
defense mechanisms: e.g. underdeveloped lymph nodes with no or very 
rare reaction centers, slightly reduced numbers of circulating leucocytes, 
reduced number of scattered reticuloendothelial elements in the ileum 
wall, low gamma globulin levels and absence of most of the circulating 
antibacterial antibodies found in the serum of conventional ani- 
mals (10, 16). 

Lysozyme was investigated as one of the factors involved in the 
non-specific defense mechanisms of the host. The presence of sub- 
stantial quantities of lysozyme in the serum, saliva and tears of a 
number of mammalian species has been reviewed by Afonsky (1) and 
reported by various investigators (2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15). It was 
of interest to determine whether the level of lysozyme would be different 
in germfree animals in the absence of stimulation from a viable asso- 
ciated microflora. Some investigators (4, 12) have considered the possi- 
bility that lysozyme may help protect oral tissues from infection by 
lysing or otherwise inhibiting the enzyme-sensitive microorganisms 
which gain access to the mouth. Lysozyme could be a factor which 
limits the indigenous oral flora to lysozyme-insensitive strains. Gibbons 
et ah (9) have surveyed the numerically most prominent bacteria 
indigenous to the oral cavity of man for their susceptibility to lytic 
action of lysozyme. None of 112 pure bacterial isolates, representing 13 
major groups of the human cultivable oral flora, were lysed by high 
levels of lysozyme nor did the enzyme at 50 meg/ ml inhibit their 
growth in vitro. Lysozyme-sensitive Micrococcus lysodeikticus on the 
other hand was inhibited by 0.5 meg/ ml, the lowest level reported. 
It thus seems that the oral flora is limited to lysozyme resistant 

In the present study, lysozyme was not detected by in vitro assays 
on the saliva of germfree rats and mice. It seems significant that 
M. lysodeikticus could be recovered from the oral cavity of gnotobiotic 
rats inoculated orally about 2 weeks earlier with the mentioned micro- 
organism. The m vivo test thus supports the negative salivary lysozyme 
levels found by in vitro methods. This study also revealed a relationship 
between the presence of salivary leucocytes and lysozyme which sug- 
gested that salivary lysozyme may be of local leucocyte origin. 

Materials and Methods 

The germfree animals used were taken from the animal colonies 
maintained at Lobund Laboratory. Bacteria-associated gnotobiotic 

1. This investig-ation was supported in part by U. S. Public Healtli Service 
grant DE-01887 from tlie National Institute of Dental Research and in part by 
the University of Notre Dame. 


184 Indiana Academy of Science 

animals were derived from gnotobiotic germfree stock by oral inocula- 
tion with known microorganisms and holding them in gnotobiotic state 
for the desired period of time. Conventionalized animals were animals 
that were once germfree but were brought out into the external 
environment, inoculated orally with a fecal suspension from con- 
ventional animals, and maintained thereafter in the conventional animal 
room. Conventional controls were animals which were born and reared 
in the open animal room by conventionally-reared parents. 

Flow of saliva and tears was stimulated by subcutaneously in- 
jected methacholine (0.5 mg/kg body weight) after the animals were 
anaesthetized with intraperitoneal administration of Nembutal (25 
mg/kg body weight). 

Saliva samples were assayed for lysozyme individually or pooled 
depending on the volumes collected. Tears were pooled for each group 
of animals, diluted five times with phosphate buffer (pH 6.2) and 
centrifuged at 2000 rpm for ten minutes to sediment the red pigment 
granules. Serum was obtained from blood collected by heart puncture. 

The assay of lysozyme was based on the lysis of a Micrococcus 
lysodeikticus suspension by the method of Smolelis and Hartsell (14). 
Varying dilutions of each of the unknown samples were prepared in 
volumes of 1.0 ml. Three milliliters of a standard suspension of 
lyophilized M. lysodeikticus substrate (Difco) and 2 ml of pH 6.2 
buffer were added to each dilution. The mixtures were incubated at 
25° C for exactly 20 minutes. The initial and the final absorbance 
were read at 450 millimicrons using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer 
(Bausch and Lomb Inc.). Lysozyme levels were interpolated from a 
standard curve using crystalline egg-white lysozyme (Difco). 

Total leucocyte counts were determined in a hemocytometer im- 
mediately following sample collection. Differential leucocyte counts 
were made from smears stained with Wright or Giemsa stains. 

Results and Discussion 

Lysozyme levels in the serum, saliva and tears of germfree and 
conventionally-reared rats and mice are reported in Table 1. There 
was no difference between the germfree and conventional rats with 
regard to the respective lysozyme levels observed in serum and in 
tears. However, there was a striking difference in the salivary levels. 
No lysozyme was detected in the saliva of germfree rats while sub- 
stantial amounts of lysozyme were detected in saliva from the con- 
ventionals. The same salivary difference was observed between germfree 
and conventional CFW mice. Absence of salivary lysozyme in other 
germfree rodents was further confirmed in germfree Sprague-Dawley 
rats and C3H mice. 

Mucins are known to inhibit lysozyme by forming mucin-lysozyme 
complexes (13). The possibility existed that the absence of lysozyme 
activity in germfree animal saliva could be due to complexing, par- 
ticularly since mucinolytic bacteria were not present under germfree 
conditions. Simmons (13) reported that "Cetab" (cetyl trimethyl benzyl 
ammonium chloride) can efficiently dissociate mucin from protein com- 

Bacteriology 185 

plexes and precipitate the mucin from saliva. Thus ''Cetab" was able 
to increase the lytic activity of saliva by freeing- complexed lysozyme. 

TABLE 1. Lysozyme levels in serum, saliva and tears of rats and mice. 


; levels (meg 








Conventional Lobund 





Wistar Rats 




Germfree Lobund 




Wistai- Rats 



Conventional CFW Mice 50 



not run 


Germfree CFW Mice 



not run 

Germfree Sprague-Dawley rats and C3H mice gave results similar to germfree 
Wistar rats and germfree CFW mice respectively. 

"Cetab" added at 0.2% in the lysozyme assay system employed in 
the present experiments did not alter the lysozyme levels; germfree 
saliva remained negative. 

The similar serum lysozyme activity in germfree and conventional 
animals suggested that salivary lysozyme was not derived from the 
secretion of serum lysozyme through the salivary glands. 

Several reports have indicated that much of the lysozyme found in 
body fluids is of leucocyte origin (3, 5, 6, 15). In the light of the findings 
in Table 1, the levels of lysozyme and leucocytes in the saliva of 
germfree and conventional animals were compared in Table 2. The data 
show that conventional rats have a substantial number of salivary 
leucocytes accompanied by appreciable lysozyme levels. The germfree 
rats on the other hand displayed no salivary leucocytes and no salivary 
lysozyme. These observations lend supportive evidence that oral 
leucocytes may be the source of salivary lysozyme, especially since the 
serum lysozyme levels were not reflected in the salivary secretions of 
the germfree group. 

Since salivary lysozyme was absent in the absence of a viable flora, 
salivary lysozyme levels were assayed in animals brought into gnotobiotic 
mono-association with selected pure cultures of bacteria. The results 
are recorded in Table 3. The data show that mono-association of germ- 
free rats with Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus lysodeikticus or two 
groups with Lactobacillus casei had virtually no effect on increasing the 
lysozyme levels or salivary leucocyte counts of these animals. Similarly, 
two groups of rats accidently contaminated with Sarcina sp. or 
Micrococcus sp. respectively gave similar negative results. These 
organisms could be readily isolated from the mouth of these animals 
but they apparently lacked leucotactic activity in the oral cavity. It is 


Indiana Academy of Science 

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188 Indiana Academy of Science 

noteworthy to mention that the highly lysozyme sensitive M. lysodeikticMS 
could be isolated from the mouth of the gnotobiotic rat presumably 
because of the absence of salivary lysozyme in these animals. 

This study was extended to rats which were brought into association 
with more than one bacterial species. The results are summarized in 
Table 4. One group designated as the "hexa" group, consisted of 
gnotobiotic rats which had been associated with six known micro- 
organisms: Lactobacilhis casei, Streptococcus faecalis, Aerobacter aero- 
genes, Staphylococcus epidei'Tnidis , Bacteroides thetaiotaoviicron and a 
yeast. All strains were originally isolated from the intestinal tract of 
conventional rats in the Lobund colony and were selected as non- 
pathogenic representatives of microbial groups which predominate in 
the rodent intestine. These animals displayed lysozyme activity of less 
than 1 migrogram/ml. of saliva. 

Another group of animals was made up of ex-germfree rats, 
conventionalized by oral inoculation with a suspension of feces obtained 
from conventionally reared rats. Two rats sacrificed after 42 days of 
conventionalization had salivary lysozyme activity of less than one 
microgram per ml. The animals held in a conventionalized state for 
114 days as well as their progeny displayed a slight increase in both 
salivary lysozyme and leucocytes above the levels obtained in gnotobiotic 
rats. However, both these groups failed to display the full salivary 
lysozyme levels found in conventionally-reared rats with no previous 
germfree experience. No microbiological studies were made to determine 
whether a "normal" resident oral flora had been established by con- 
ventionalization of germfree rats with fecal suspensions from conven- 
tional animals. One may speculate that the method of conventionalization 
may have omitted possible highly leucotactic organisms from the oral 
flora, but this is pure conjecture at this time. 


Lysozyme levels in serum, saliva and tears of germfree, gnotobiotic, 
conventionalized as well as conventionally-reared rats and mice were 
studied. The results showed that lysozyme levels in serum and tears 
were quite similar in these groups. However, the substantial salivary 
lysozyme levels found in conventional rats and mice were absent in 
germfree stock. Similarly, little or no salivary lysozyme was detected 
in animals derived from germfree stock and either brought into mono- 
association with various bacterial strains or poly-associated with a 
six-membered flora obtained from conventional animals. Lysozyme 
activity in saliva was only partly restored when germfree rats were 

The absence of salivary lysozyme corresponded to the absence 
of salivary leucocytes. Conventional animals showing high salivary 
leucocytes level also displayed substantial salivary lysozyme. 

These observations give further evidence that oral leucocytes 
may be the source of salivary lysozyme. 

The ability of lysozyme-sensitive M. lysodcilxticns to establish itself 
in the oral cavity of the rat under gnotobiotic conditions supports the 



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190 Indiana Academy of Science 

in vitro evidence that saliva from germfree animals lacks lysozyme 

Literature Cited 

1. AfonsevY, D. 1961, Saliva and its Relation to Oral Health. University 
of Alabama Press, Alabama. 

2. Brandtzaeg, p. and W, V. A. Mann. 1964. A comparaitve study of lysozyme 
activity of human gingival pocket fluids, serum and saliva. Acta Odont. 
Scand. 22:414-455. 

3. Briggs, R. S., p. E. Perillip:, and S. C. Finch. 1966. Lysozyme in bone 
marrow and peripheral blood cells. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 14(2) :167-170. 

4. Burnett, G. W., S. Gouge and A. E. Toye. 1959. Lysozyme content of 

human gingiva and various rat tissues. J. Periodont. 30:148-151. 

5. Finch, S. C, J. P. Lamphere and S. Jablon. 1963-64. The relationship of 
serum lysozyme to leucocytes and other constitutional factors. Yale J. Biol. 
Med. 36:350-360. 

6. B'LANAGAN, P. and F. Lionetti. 1955. Lysozyme distribution in blood. Blood 


7. Flemming, a. 192 2. Lysozyme in saliva (Abstract). Brit. J. Exper. Path. 


S. Florey, R. 1930. The relative amounts of lysozyme present in the tissues of 
some mammals. Brit. J. Exper. Path. 11:251-261. 

9. Gibbons, R. J., J. D. Stoppelaar, and L. Harden. 1966. Lysozyme insensi- 
tivity of bacteria indigenous to the oral cavity of man. J. Dent. Res. 

10. Gordon, H. A., E. Brucknbr-Kardoss, T. E. Staley, M. Wagner, and B. S. 
Wostmann. 1966. Characteristics of tlie germfree rat. Acta Anat. 64: 

11. Salton, M. J. 1957. The properties of lysozyme and its action on micro- 
organisms. Bact. Rev, 21:82-99. 

12. Schultz-Haudt, S. D. 1963. Tissue resistance to oral infection. J. Dent. 
Res. 42:545-548. 

13. Simmons, N. S. 1952. Studies on the defense mechanisms of the mucous 
membranes with particular reference to the oral cavity. O. Surg., O. Med., 
O. Path. 5:513-526. 

14. Smolelis, a. N. and S. E. Hartsell. 1949. The determination of lysozoymc. 
J. Bact. 58:731-736. 

15. Speecb, a. J. 1963. Ilistochemical distribution of lysozyme activity in organs 
of normal mice and radiation chimeras. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 12:384-391, 

16. Wagner, M. and B. S. Wostmann. 1961. Serum protein fractions and anti- 

body studies in gnotobiotic animals reared germfree or monocontaminated. 
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 04:210-217. 

Factors Affecting Steroid Excretion in the Rat 

Thomas F. Kelloggi and Bernard S. Wostmann, Lobiind Laboratory, 
University of Notre Dame 

Previous work reported by us (7) and others (4) has suggested 
that the presence of a normal complement of intestinal flora exerts a 
major influence on the sterol metabolism of the rat. Swedish workers 
have shown that the time required for fecal excretion of 50% of an 
injected dose of C'^ cholic acid is five times as long in the germfree as 
in the conventional rat (4). Wostmann, Wiech and Kung (8) reported 
that the in vivo conversion of cholesterol-26-C^* into bile acid is 50% 
faster in the conventional as opposed to the germfree rat. The absence 
of coprostanol, the major fecal neutral sterol of the conventional rat, 
has also been noted in the germfree rat (1, 2). The above studies 
indicate that major differences exist in sterol excretion between rats 
differing only in the presence or absence of intestinal microflora. This 
paper reports on one of a series of studies initiated to determine the 
qualitative and quantitative aspects of the microbiological influence 
on sterol metabolism. 

Materials and Methods 

Germfree Wistar male rats 90-120 days of age were housed in 
plastic metabolism cages in germfree isolators of the flexible plastic 
Trexler type. Diets were of a semi-purified casein-rice starch type 
(L-474E12) (6). The rats were placed on diet in the metabolism cages 
for two weeks prior to a five day fecal collection period. The fecal 
pellets and the diet were assayed for bile acids (3) and neutral sterols 
(5). After the germfree collection period the rats were mono- 
contaminated with Clostridiuiri perfringens type A and after two weeks 
another collection was taken and assayed as above. 

Results and Discussion 

Table 1 gives the total bile acid and endogenous neutral sterol 
excretion of the rats studied. The literature values for conventional 
rats reported by others (3, 5) using the same techniques is also 
reported. The germfree bile acid excretion of 1.82 mg/kg body wt/24 
hrs is only one-tenth of the bile acid excretion reported by others for 
the conventional rat. The germfree bile acids have been identified as 
approximately 90% cholic and /a-muricholic acids. Trace amounts of 
other bile acids have been isolated and are currently under study. 

The neutral sterols of the germfree rat contain no coprosterols 
whereas coprostanone, coprostanol, and the copro analogs of dietary 
plant sterols are predominant in the conventional rat's excreta. The 
absence of coprostanol in the germfree rat has been reported previously 
by others (1, 2). Monocontamination of the germfree rat with Clos- 
tridium perfringens type A results in a doubling of endogenous neutral 

1. These studies were supported by grants from N.I.H., The Nutrition Foun- 
dation, and the American Heart Assn. 


192 Indiana Academy of Science 

sterol excretion without the appearance of any sterols not seen in the 
germfree excreta. This monocontamination appears to have no effect 
on the bile acid excretion either quantitatively or qualitatively. However, 
the integrity of conjugate bonds to taurine or glycine has not been 

These data indicate that the intestinal microflora is responsible 
for a nearly tenfold increase in bile acid elimination and a 50% increase 
in neutral sterol elimination. 

The existence of agents which can cause such a marked change 
in the metabolism of compounds known to be of pathological significance 
emphasizes the need for detailed investigations of the factors in- 
fluencing them. The mechanism for these changes are currently 
under study. 

TABLE 1. Bile acid and neutral sterol excretion of germfree, 
monocontaminated, and conventional adult male rats. 

mg/kg body wt/day 

Germfree Monocontaminated Conventional 

Bile acids 1.82 (3)- 2.1 (3)* 17.3 (10)=^=(3) + 

Endogenous neutral 5.90 (3)- 11.1 (3)- 8 (10)-(5)-f 


* number of animals 
+ reference number 

Literature Cited 

1. Danielsson, H. and B. Gustafsson. 1959. On serum cholesterol levels and 
neutral fecal sterols in germfree rats. Bile acids and steriods. 59 Arch. 
Biochem. Biophys. 83:482-485. 

2. EVRARD, E., P. P. HOET, H. Eyssen, H. Chahlier, and E. Sacquet. 1964 
Faecal lipids in germfree and conventional rats. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 4.%: 

?,. Gkttndy, S. M., E. TT. Ahrkns, Jr., and T. A. Miettinen. 1965. Quantitative 
isolation and gas-liriuid chromatographic analysis of total fecal bile acids. 
J. Lipid Res. «:397-410. 

4. Gustafsson, B. E., S. Bergstrom, S. Lindstedt, and A. Norman. 1957. 
Turnover and nature of fecal bile acids in germfree and infected rats fed 
cholic acid-24-Ci^. Bile acids and steroids 41. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 

5. Miettinen, T. A., E. H. Ahrens, Jr., and S. M. Grundy. 1965. Quantitative 
isolation and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of total dietary and fecal 
neutral steriods. .]. Lipid Res. 6:411-424. 

6. Wostmann, B. S. and T. F. Kellogg. Purified starch-casein diet for nutri- 
tional research with germfree rats. In press. Lab Animal Care. 

7. Wostmann, B. S. and N. L. Wiech. 1961. Total serum and liver cholesterol 
in germfree and conventional male rats. Am. J. Physiol. 201:1027-1029. 

8. Wostmann, B. S., N. L. Wiech, and E. Kung. 1965. Catabolism and elimi- 
nation of cholesterol in germfree rats. .T. Lipid Res. 7:77-82. 

Histidine Decarboxylase in the Adult Rat 

B. S. Wostmann', University of Notre Dame 

Histamine is regarded as one of the mediators of the inflammatory 
response (3), presumably because of its effect on microcirculation (1). 
Local histidine decarboxylase, under the influence of bacterial products 
(e.g. endotoxin) or other traumatic experiences, supposedly produces 
histamine and increases nutritional circulation sufficiently to sustain or 
restore function and to mobilize defensive mechanisms (10). 

In the conventional animal microflora and host experience, the 
most intensive encounter in the intestinal tract. Here the histamine 
levels are definitely higher than in the germfree animal and are 
influenced by the presence and composition of the microflora (2). 
In the conventional rat these levels are exceeded only by those found 
in the pyloric part of the stomach. However, all studies of histidine 
decarboxylase activity in rat intestine so far have indicated at best 
extremely low values (7). As the specific decarboxylation of histidine 
is known to be a relatively slow reaction (5), we investigated the in vitro 
conversion of histidine by rat intestinal tissue and invariably found a 
fast degradation to more acidic products that left no opportunity for a 
measurable histamine formation. In vivo studies, however, always indi- 
cated a slow but consistent formation of histamine in the small intestine 
of the conventional rat. 

Materials and Methods 

Germfree and conventional adult rats (Lobund strain of Wistar 
origin) were used in all experiments. The animals had been reared on 
sterilized practical type diets and were 3 to 6 months old. 

For the determination of histamine, tissues were homogenized in 
0.1 N HCl in 1% saline and, except in the case of intestine, the 
extract was purified via column chromatography on cation exchange 
resin Rexin 102 H" (9). After elution with 1 N HCl, histamine was 
determined according to the method of Shore (11) with the modification 
of Kremzner and Wilson (8). 

Histidine decarboxylase was determined in vitro according to the 
principle described by Schayer (10), with histidine-C^* (ring) as 
substrate. Incubation usually was for 3 hours at 37°. Histamine-C^* 
in the incubation mixture was isolated via a cation exchange resin (see 
above) and further purified via organic solvent extraction as described 
by Shore (11). Histamine-C'^ in the final acid extract was determined 
by scintillation counting. Histamine-T' was carried through all phases 
to determine the recovery of histamine formed during incubation. 

Histidine decarboxylation in vivo was determined after i.e., i.v. or 
i.p. administration of histidine-C^*. Several hours later the rats were 
sacrificed. Tissues were homogenized in 1/15 molar phosphate pH 7.4 

1. These studies were supported by a grant from the Office of Naval 

2. Fisher Scientific Co., Chicago, Illinois. 


194 Indiana Academy of Science 

and total C* in the tissue was determined and expressed as a percentage 
of the total dose. Histamine-C" was isolated via column chromatog-raphy 
and organic solvent extraction as described above for the in vitro deter- 
mination. Histamine C'^ in tissue was calculated as a percentage of 
the total amount of C^^ present in the tissue at the time of sacrifice. 
Paper chromatography of tissue incubates was carried out after 
termination of the reaction with semicarbazide and centrifugation for 
15 minutes at 15,000 rpm in Spinco Ultracentrifuge Model L. Ascending 
chromatography on Whatman #1 filter paper was used (6), the develop- 
ing mixture being a phenol ammonia mixture at pH 7.0 (12). Parallel 
samples of histidine-C^* in the incubation mixture were run with all 
tissue samples. Sample strips were cut and eluted with 0.01 N HCl, and 
the distribution of the label was determined with the scintillation counter. 

Results and Discussion 

Histamine contents of a number of tissues of germfree and con- 
ventional rats are given in Table 1. The concentrations found in the 
small intestine, spleen and blood of the germfree rat are lower than 
in the conventional animal. Of all the internal tissues tested the small 
intestine contained by far the highest total amount of histamine, 
although the concentration per gm tissue was highest in the stomach. 

TABLE 1. Histamine in tissues of adult female germfree 

and conventional rats. 

Diet 5010C. Approx. 10 animals/group 






total/100 BW 


Aig total/100 BW 




Small Intestine 1 




















1 Actual determination in ilevim, but values throughout small intestine 

are quite similar (2). 
s Significantly different from concentration in conventional animal. 

The high concentrations found in the stomach obviously express 
the high local metabolic activity underlying gastric digestion. The 
second highest concentration is found in the wall of the intestine, 
which normally forms the barrier between host and intestinal micro- 
flora and constitutes the tissue most intensively exposed to this flora 
and its metabolic products. The influence of bacterial stimulation on 
histamine concentration is obvious from the difference found between 
germfree and conventional animals and from the variation in this 
concentration found in conventional animals over the years (2). 

Schayer has pointed out that local formation of histamine would 
cause an increase in nutritional circulation whenever and wherever 
needed, presumably to support function (10). The above picture is 
suggestive of substantial histidine decarboxylating activity, not only 

Bacteriology 195 

in the stomach, but also in the small intestine. However, when histidine 
decarboxylase activity was tested in vitro the stomach tissue showed 
high values, but intestinal tissue assayed according- to this method 
failed to show any activity. This confirmed results obtained by others 
(7). Further studies showed that intestinal tissue homogenate, added 
to a histidine decarboxylating stomach preparation, would stop all 
further formation of histamine (Figure 1). 








12 3 4 5 6 HOURS 

Figure 1. Formation of histamine-C^* in vitro from histadine-Ci^ after 

incubation with stomaeli tissue (50 mg) only (x x), and witli stomacli 

tissue to which intestinal tissue (100 mg-) was added two hours after start 
of incubation (o— o). 

It was speculated that substrate deprivation caused by a rapid 
oxidative deamination of histidine might totally overshadow decarboxyla- 
tion in intestinal tissue. Three hour tissue incubates, originally con- 
taining approximately 80 /^g histidine and histidine-C" (2.2 x 10*^ dpm) 
were analyzed by paper chromatography to determine the character of 
the labeled compounds present. Analysis of liver, spleen, stomach and 
intestine indicated that in all instances except in the case of the stomach, 
a substantial portion of the original histidine-C'^ had been converted 
to more acidic products. Intestinal tissue contained hardly any 
histidine-C* after incubation, but in incubates containing stomach tissue, 
a substantial part of the original histidine-C^* was still available 
(Figure 2). 

Thus it appeared that under these experimental conditions no valid 
estimate could be made of the histidine decarboxylating capacity of rat 
small intestinal tissue. It was hoped, however, that in vivo experimenta- 
tion, involving the activity of the integrated tissue, would yield more 
meaningful results. As this required administration of the labeled 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Figrure 2. Ascending- chromatography on paper of hi.stidine-C* + tissue 

incubate (x x) and of histadine-C" incubated in reag-ent mixture 

(o — - — o). Vertical arrow indicates site of application (see text). 

precursor, either i.e., i.v., i.p., or i.m. to the live animal, it was 
recognized that the exposure of the specific tissue to the labeled histidine 
could only be approximated and that values thus obtained could at best 
be regarded as semi-quantitative. However, all nine conventional 
animals which received histidine-C'^ i.e., i.v. or i.p. showed low but 
fairly consistent concentrations of histamine-C'^ in the wall of the small 
intestine. Repeated i.v. administration of histidine-C'^ gave the most 
consistent results. Apparently this minimized the effect of substrate 
depletion in intestinal tissue by oxidative deamination and transamina- 
tion reactions. The values are given in Table 2, and are compared to 
values found in the pyloric portion of the stomach. In each case the 
amount of histamine-C" found in a tissue was expressed as a percentage 
of the total amount of C^^ found in that tissue at the end of the 
experimental period. 

TABLE 2. Histamine-Ci4 in tissues after histidine-Ci * administration 
via carotid artery of 4 conventional ratsi* 


Histamine C^^ 

Total CI 4 

X 100 


Small intestine 






+ ;{) 


1) 4 injections at 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes, sacrificed at 150 minutes. 

2) Percent of total dose. 

■■') Spread in data, but almost always significant formation of hista- 

Bacteriology 197 

The histamine-C" found in the wall of the small intestine appeared 
to be of true local origin. The histamine concentration in the blood is 
quite low, and it was considered to be extremely doubtful that histamine- 
C* formed in other organs could have accumulated in the wall of the 
small intestine via the blood to the extent found in these experiments. 
Nevertheless, histamine-C^* in amounts much larger than found in the 
stomach during the experimental period was injected intravenously. No 
specific accumulation of histamine-C" was seen in the wall of the 
small intestine. 

In part of the experiments the duodenum was ligated just beyond 
the pylorus to prevent a possible direct transfer of histamine-C" formed 
in the pyloric part of the stomach to adjacent parts of the duodenum. 
This procedure appeared to have no effect on the outcome of the 
experiments and confirmed the "local" character of the histidine 
decarboxylating enzyme. 

Based on the data in Table 2 one can estimate that within a given 
time period the stomach produces in the order of 60 times more 
histamine than the small intestine. This estimate is based on the 
assumption that the total amount of C'^ found in the tissue at the end 
of the experimental period is a measure of the exposure of that tissue 
to histidine-C". Obviously this last assumption represents only a rather 
crude approximation. 

Lung and spleen were found to have histidine decarboxylating 
activity of the same order as found in the small intestine. Neither 
m vivo nor in vitro experiments ever showed any histidine decarboxylat- 
ing activity in the liver of the adult rat. 

The above experiments indicate the presence of a specific histidine 
decarboxylase in the small intestine of the rat. The rate of histamine 
formation appears slow, especially when compared to that in the 
stomach. These data are in agreement with the results of studies 
which indicated a rapid formation and fast turnover of histamine in 
the stomach, but a slow formation and slow turnover in the intestinal 
tissue (7). Apparently in both tissues the balance between formation 
and catabolism is such that the steady state concentrations are of a 
similar order. 

It thus appears that the small intestine has a low but definite 
histamine forming capacity. The presence of a conventional intestinal 
microflora results in higher levels of intestinal histamine which seem 
to reflect the state of "physiological inflammation" of this tissue in the 
conventional rat (4). 


The relatively high concentration of histamine in the small intestine 
of the rat indicated local formation from histidine, presumably under 
the influence of the intestinal microflora. In vitro techniques could not 
demonstrate this formation, but revealed the much more rapid conversion 
of histidine to more acidic materials. In vivo administration of histidine- 
C* showed, however, that a slow but consistent formation of histamine 
takes place in the wall of the small intestine of the rat. 

198 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Altura, B. M. and B. W. Zweifach. 1965. Antihistamines and vascular 
reactivity. Am. J. Physiol. ^09:545-549. 

2. Beaver, M. H. and B. S. Wostmann. 1962. Histajiiine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 
in the intestinal tract of germfree animals, animals harboring one microbial 
species and conventional animals. Br. J. Pharmacol. 19:385-393. 

3. FraiVk, ]j., Y. Rapp, L. Biro and F. S. Glickman. 1964. Inflammation me- 
diators and the inflammatory leaction. Arch, of Dermatol. 89:5 5-67. 

4. Gordon, H. A. and K. Bruckner-Kardoss. 1961. Effects of the normal mi- 
crobial flora on various tissue elements of the small intestine. Acta Anat. 44: 


5. Hakanson, R. 1963. Histidine decarboxylase in the fetal rat. Biochem. 
Pharmacol. 12:1289-1296. 

6. Huo-PiNG, P. 1956. A simple apparatus for rapid study of paper partition 
chromatography. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. G4:311-314. 

7. Kahlson, G., E. Rosengren and R. Thunberg. 1963. Observations on the 
inhibition of histamine formation. J. Physiol. 1(59:467-486. 

8. Kremzner, E. T. and I. B. Wilson. 1961. A Procedure for the determina- 
tion of histamine. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 50:364-367. 

9. Gates, J. A., E. Marsh and A. S.toerdsm.'V. 1962. Studies on histamine in 
human urine using a fhiorometric method of assay. Clin. Chim. Acta 


10. ScHAYER, R. W. 1962. Evidence that induced histamine is an intrinsic regu- 
lator of the microcirculatory system. Am. J. Physiol. 202:66-72. 

11. Shore, P. A., A. Burkhalter and V. H. Cohn. 1959. A method for the 
fluorometric assay of histamine in tissues. J. Pharm. Exptl. Therapeutics 


12. Smith, T. (Editor) i960. Clir<Mii:it<»iu;r:i|>liie junl Electrophoretio Tccli- 

iiiqueis. Interscience Publ. Vol. 1. 


Chairman: Jonathan N. Roth, Goshen College 
S. N. POSTELTHWAITE, Purdue University was elected chairman for 1967 

Metabolism of Arbutin by Selected Fungi. Phyllis J. Conrad, Purdue 
University. — Arbutin, a common glycoside of pears, consists of glucose 
linked to hydroquinone. This compound was found to be metabolized 
through different pathways by two different organisms. Alternaria, a 
weak pathogen of pears, breaks the linkage between glucose and hydro- 
quinone. The hydroquinone can be detected by chromatography. Helmiv- 
thosporiiiifn carhonam, a non-pathogen of pears, completely breaks down 
arbutin, leaving no trace of hydroquinone. 

It was hpothesized that pathogens and non-pathogens of pears 
follow different pathways in the breakdown of arbutin. The following 
organisms were tested: Fabreae maculata, a pathogen; and Fiisarium 
moiiiliforme, Nigrospora sp., Septoria glycines, Gibberella zeae, Diaporthe 
sojae, Cercospora sojina I, Cercospora sojina II, and Veyituria inaequalis 
all of which are non-pathogenic to pears. 

The pathogen, F. maculata, as well as the non-pathogens, F. moni- 
liforme, Nigrospora, and G. zeae, metablolized arbutin, leaving traces of 
hydroquinone. The other non-pathogens, 5'. glycines, C. sojina I, C. 
sojina II, and V. inaequalis, left no trace of hydroquinone when arbutin 
was broken down. 

It was concluded that there is no correlation between pathogens and 
non-pathogens as to their metabolism of arbutin. 

Inheritance of Resistance of Barley to Covered Smut. John F. Schafer 
and H. L. Shands, Purdue University and University of Wisconsin. 
— Varieties of spring barley, Hordeimi spp., differ in their response 
to inoculation with Ustilago hordei (Pers.) Lagerh., the fungus causing 
covered smut. These responses vary from susceptibility through an 
intermediate reaction to high resistance. The high resistance of 
Brachytic, Jet, and Pillsbury as studied in hybrids of Hannchen x 
Brachytic, Valentine x Jet, Odessa x Jet, Trebi x Pillsbury, and 
reciprocal of the latter appeared to be conditioned by two independent, 
dominant genes each. The high resistance of Kitchin differed by one 
dominant gene from intermediate responding Chevron whereas an addi- 
tional gene conditioning an intermediate response was suggested for 
Kitchin from study of the hybrid with susceptible Odessa. Fs data of 
Pillsbury x Jet and Jet x Kitchin hybrids indicated that the genes 
conditioning resistance of Jet were different from those of either 
Pillsbury or Kitchin. One gene conditioning the resistance of Brachytic 
appeared associated with the brachytic character conditioned by a gene 
on chromosome 7. The resistance of Kitchin was associated with the 
"deficient" head type conditioned by a gene on chromosome 1. 

Ultrastructural Studies of Puccinia graminis Infection of Wheat Possess- 
ing Sr 11 Resistance. John F. Schafer, Mary A. Ehrlich, and Howard 


200 Indiana Academy of Science 

G. Ehrlich, Purdue University and Duquesne University. — Wheat 
nearly isogenic to the 'Chinese' variety of Triticum aestivii.m L. ssp. 
vulgare (Vill. Host) MacKey, except for possessing the Sr 11 stem- 
rust-resistance gene, produced a '1' type response to infection by an 
isolate of Puccmia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici race 56 at '65° F. The 
'Chinese'-type near-isogenic susceptible counterpart produced a *3c' 
response. The resistant selection was distinguished ultrastructurally, 
seven days after inoculation, by the presence of an electron-optically 
opaque deposit in the corners of those smaller intercellular spaces 
containing fungus hyphae. Host endoplasmic reticulum occurred exces- 
sively in infected regions, apparently in even greater concentration than 
in the 'Chinese'-type counterpart. Lomasomes were occasionally observed 
in host cells adjacent to hyphae, apparently much more frequently in 
the resistant than in the more susceptible wheat line. The location 
of lomasomes suggested a response at points of incipient penetration. 
However, lomasomes and haustoria were observed in the same cell. 
Lomasomes were not observed in comparable resistant and susceptible 
materials grown at 80" F, although gross symptoms were similar to 
those of the respective lines grown at 65° F. 

A Developmental Study of the Maize Mutant Silkless (.sA;). T. F. Weeks 
and S. N. Postlethwait, Purdue University. — The development of the 
maize mutant silkless has been investigated anatomically and morpho- 
logically. This recessive gene has no affect on tassel development. How- 
ever, in ear development three diverse flower patterns were recognized — 
those with (I) anthers only; (II) silks only; and (III) no anthers or silks. 
These phenotypes results from degenerating cells of the pistil primordium 
and a concommitant development of staminate structures. A "gradient" 
system appears to be functioning in the maize plant. Moreover, in {sk) 
the complete gradient is exhibited within the ear. 

The Photographing of Serial Microscope Sections on 16 mm Movie Film. 

S. N. Postlethwait and Roy Mills, Purdue University. — Through 
alignment of a microscope, a microtome and a 16 mm movie camera, 
it has been possible to photograph in perfect registration serial micro- 
scope sections. The authors have collaborated to produce an auto- 
mated machine which in effect permits one to insert a specimen embedded 
in paraffin into the machine and to harvest a movie film at a later 
time on which has been photographed each individual section of a 
specimen in sequence and appropriately aligned. Photographs of the 
machine in operation and several loop film products will be presented. 

An Analysis of Calcium-induced Inhibition of Cell Expansion. James 
S. CoARTNEY, William R. Eisinger and D. James Morre, Department 
of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University. — According to 
classical concepts of plant growth regulation, calcium ions were con- 
sidered to inhibit cell expansion by crosslinking anionic wall polymers. 
When etiolated pea internode sections were incubated in varying con- 
centrations of calcium chloride, expansion was inhibited by high con- 
centrations but stimulated by low concentrations both in the pres- 
ence and absence of growth stimulatory concentrations of auxin 

Botany 201 

(lAA). With calcium-treated sections, cell wall extensibility (the 
ability of the walls to yield under externally imposed load) closely 
paralleled growth both in the presence and absence of auxin. The 
change in extensibility and growth due to auxin was not reduced until 
the calcium concentration exceeded 10 " M. However, auxin-induced 
changes were eliminated at 10"^ M calcium chloride. When the response 
of living pea tissues was compared with that of pea tissues killed by 
freezing and thawing, the extensibility of the frozen and thawed sections 
was unaffected by either calcium or lAA. 

If the effect of calcium were purely physical, the effect should 
increase as a function of concentration rather than having an optimum 
with a rapid decrease as growth is inhibited. In addition, if the effect 
of calcium were simply to cross-link anionic wall polymers, an effect 
of calcium on the dead walls would have been predicted. At least 
with peas, the results suggest that calcium-induced wall stiffening is 
a metabolic event as is auxin-induced wall loosening. Furthermore, 
the possibility that calcium inhibition may result from changes in the 
cation balance of the cell or more specifically of the cell membrane 
should be considered, in addition to a possible effects on the cell wall. 
We are now faced with the complicated problem of understanding how 
calcium might affect the regions of the protoplast which establish wall 
organization or provide the biodynamic driving force of cell expansion. 
It is hoped that further exploration of interactions between calcium, 
auxin and inhibitors of metabolism will provide clues as to the nature 
of the active metabolic events governing cell expansion rates. i 

Preliminary Evidence for Secretion of Cell Dispersing Enzymes during 
Bean Petiole Abscission. D. James Morre, Susan Kampmeyer and Dawn 
Hall, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University. 
— Previous studies of abscission events have focused attention on 
cell wall breakdown as a key structural change. It has been generally 
assumed that the enzymes are produced by cells in or adjacent to the 
separation layer. The cell membrane would normally act as a barrier 
restricting enzyme movement into this region of the cell wall. Results 
with neutral red staining coupled with plasmolytic studies have 
demonstrated that protoplasts remain intact during cell separation. 
Thus we conclude that the enzymes responsible for dissolution of the 
intercellular cementing substances are secreted through the plasma 
membrane and into the cell wall region. Chemical analysis of abscission 
zones revealed that compositional changes are largely restricted to hot 
water extractable constituents of the wall which would include the 
classical pectic fraction. That enzymes are produced during abscission 
is evidenced by the fact that inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis 
block abscission and that ethylene-induced abscission is preceded by 
sequential rises in rates of both RNA and protein synthetic activities 
(Abeles, F. B. and R. E. Holm, Plant Physiol. Abs. liii, 1966). However, 
the nature of the proteins synthesized or of the enzymes secreted is 

1. Work supported in part by a contract with the U. S. Army Biological 
Center, Fort Detrick, Mayland. 

202 Indiana Academy of Science 

Assays for wall dispersing enzymes were based on a method 
measuring cell separation of blocks of cucumber pericarp described 
previously, Chloroamphenicol (100 fxg/ml) was added to enzyme 
preparations and dispersion assays to prevent buildup of micro- 
organisms. Explants were prepared from the monofoliate leaf of 15 
day old bean plants and contained the abscission zone nearest the leaf 
base. Enzymes active in cell dispersion were secreted from the petiole- 
derived portion of the explant in linearly increasing amounts beginning 
24 to 36 hours before the time of 50% abscission. Activity in the 
petiole-derived portion of the explant did not appear until after 
abscission and was due primarily to secondary invasion by micro- 

With intact plants grown in the greenhouse, the monofoliate leaves 
abscise when the plants were about 30 days old. Analysis of petioles 
from such plants of different ages revealed that cell dispersing activity 
reached a maximum between 26 and 30 days after planting and then 
plateaued or declined slightly, the maximum level of cell dispersing 
activity coinciding with the time of natural abscission. 

For purposes of enzyme isolation, 40 g samples of petioles from 28 
to 30 day old bean plants were harvested, homogenized in buffer and the 
proteins fractionated using ammonium sulfate. After exhaustive 
dialysis, cell dispersing activity was recovered in the fraction precipi- 
tated between to 60% of saturation of ammonium sulfate with an 
active concentration of the enzyme in the fraction between 20 and 40% 
of saturation. Ammonium sulfate fractionation has provided no more 
than a 7-fold purification of the activity on a total protein basis, however. 

'^Aseptically" prepared explants abscise normally and contain the 
dispersing enzyme. However, microorganisms are an ever present source 
of concern in research related to cell dispersing enzymes. Regardless 
of the source of the enzyme, the results do demonstrate a rise in a 
pectinase-like cell dispersing activity coinciding with the onset of bean 
petiole abscission. 1 

Ultrastructural Changes during Secretion of a Polygalacturonase by the 
Fungus Fnsarium moniliforme. DONALD TRUMBULL, STANLEY GROVE, D. 
James Morre and Susan Kampmeyer, Depatment of Botany and Plant 
Pathology, Purdue University. — The metabolic systems involved in secre- 
tion are localized in several cell components including sites of synthesis 
(endoplasmic reticulum), sites of concentration and modification (Golgi 
apparatus) and vehicles for transport through the plasma membrance to 
the extracytoplasmic environment (secretion vesicles). Not all secretory 
pathways involve all these cell components as conspicuous or obligate 
participants. The actual secretory pathway may depend upon the nature 
of the secreted materials as well as the kinds of transitions necessary 
to facilitate transfer of product (Mollenhauer, H. H. and D. J. Morre, 
Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 17: 27, 1966). 

1. Results supported in part by NSF GB 10S4, a contract with tlie U. S. 
Army Biological Center, Fort Detriclv, Maryland and NSF Undergraduate 
Research Participation Program Gy-67. 

Botany 203 

In the present study, a fungus, Fusarium moTiiliforme, was chosen 
for study because it lacks a morphologically recognizable Golgi apparatus 
and can be induced to secrete substantial quantities of at least one 
enzyme, polygalacturonase, into the extracellular environment. Enzyme 
secretion was induced by culturing the fungus on a liquid mineral salts 
medium containing sodium pectate as the sole carbon source. Hyphae 
grown on a glucose containing medium served as controls. Hyphae 
were examined after 2 and 3 days of growth for ultrastructural modifica- 
tions related to enzyme secretion. Polygalacturonase activity of extracts 
was estimated by their activity in dispersing cucumber pericarp tissues 
into single cells and by the number of reducing groups released from a 
standard solution of sodium pectate. 

Between 2 and 3 days after inoculation, the fungus was secreting 
significant amounts of polygalacturonase into the pectin-containing 
medium. Hyphae were collected and prepared for electron microscopy 
by fixation in potassium permanganate and were embedded in an 
epon-araldite resin mixture for sectioning. Hyphae grown on the pectin- 
containing medium were generally smaller and with fewer vacuoles than 
those grown on glucose. These diff'erences, however, are probably not 
related to enzyme secretion. A difference which might be related to 
secretion, is the presence in pectin-grown cells of conspicuous, complex 
masses of electron luscent material, concentrated near the cell surface, 
resembling and often continuous with the cell wall. The results will be 
discussed in relation to known secretion pathways. i 

Physiology of Resistance of Glycine and Phaseoliis Species to Fungi. 
W. L. BiEHN, Purdue University. — The youngest trifoliate leaf of GJyc'me 
max reacts hypersensitively to Hehninthosporium carhonnm. Numerous 
hypersensitive reactions are also produced on etiolated hypocotyl tissue 
after penetration by H. carbonum. Polyamide thin layer chromatography 
of ethyl acetate extracts showed that three major diazotized sulfanilic 
acid (DSA) reacting compounds appeared or increased after the hypo- 
cotly tissue had just started to react hypersensitively to H. carbonum. A 
much higher yield of these compounds resulted when most of the epi- 
dermis was removed from the etiolated seedlings prior to inoculation. 
Ethyl acetate extracts of such injured inoculated soybean tissue inhibited 
the growth of H. carbonmti to a much greater extent than the uninocu- 
lated injured tissue. Chromatographic data and ultraviolet spectra 
revealed that the same substances were produced with Monilinia 
fructicola, an Alternaria species and several other fungi. 

Inoculation of injured hypocotyl tissue of Phaseolus limensis and 
P. vulgeris with H. carbonum resulted in the appearance and/or 
accumulation of DSA reacting compounds which were distinct from 
those produced in the G. max-H. carbonum interaction. It appears that 
the specific chemical compounds produced in a resistant interaction are 
dependent on the host and largely independent of the fungus. The DSA 
reacting compounds may be involved in a general mechanism of re- 
sistance to fungi. 

1. Work supported in part by NSF GB 10S4. NSF GB a;',044, and a contract 
with tlie U. S. Army Biological Center, Fort Detrick. Maryland. 

Nutrient Assimilation by Algae in Waste 
Stabilization Ponds 

C. Mervin Palmer 
Robert A, Taft Sanitary Engineering- Center, Cincinnati 

Effects of Waste Disposal 

Every community is confronted with the need for disposing of the 
accumulation of wastes of various kinds, and one of these that often 
produces unique problems is sewage. Because of its unstable nature, 
sewag'e must be removed quickly and continuously. A common practice 
in most communities is to dispose of it, with or without previous 
treatment, into a nearby stream, which carries the material away from 
the area. This addition of sewage or sewage products to the stream 
often creates problems for a downstream community that depends upon 
this source for its water supply. 

There are many variations in the methods used for disposing of sew- 
age. Reducing at least the soluble organic portion of sewage to inorganic 
salts and releasing them into a stream is a very common method. This 
approach has the disadvantage of stimulating uncontrolled algal growth 
in the stream. The algal bloom is followed by a series of changes, 
which may be on too large a scale for the amount of water available, 
and which, therefore, may result in esthetically undesirable flora, fauna, 
and water quality. Limitations may also be imposed upon the uses of a 
stream and the activities it could accommodate. 

An even more damaging eff'ect 02curs where raw, mostly unde- 
composed sewage is released into a stream; septic conditions that are 
not overcome for some distance downstream are often produced. As 
the polluted water flows downstream, bacteria, algae, and other 
organisms help to gradually bring about a "natural purification" and the 
worst undesirable conditions disappear (5). With rapidly increasing- 
demands for the use of streams for agriculture, recreation, industry, 
and water supplies for new and enlarging communities, long stretches 
of stream reserved for self-purification are becoming fewer. 

Use of Stabilization Ponds 

Methods must be developed for more complete treatment of sewage 
before the effluent is released. One of these methods involves the use 
of sewage stabilization ponds (22). Others include tertiary treatment, 
segregation of wastes that require special treatment, and recovery for 
use of some materials that were formerly discarded. 

The waste stabilization pond involves the construction of an arti- 
ficial pond or the setting aside of a suitable natural pond or lagoon. 
The liquid sewage, released into the pond either before or after 
preliminary treatment, is held there to permit desired microbiological 
transformations to take place (20). Algae, bacteria, and other micro- 
organisms combine to change the waste into stabilized forms, which are 
unobjectionable to the community. The process itself can also be so 
regulated that no offensive conditions occur during the treatment (16). 


Botany 205 

This procedure has been accepted in many areas as a legitimate 
and satisfactory method for disposing* of sewage and some types of 
industrial wastes (6). In a few states up to one-half or more of the 
communities have adopted this method of treating their wastes (24). 
Several of these ponds are in use in Indiana (Plate I). There are 
disadvantages and limitations as well as advantages to this method; 
these will be dealt with later. 

Sewage stabilization ponds showing outlets. 

1. Napoleon, Indiana 

2. Sunman, Indiana 

— Photos by R. S. Safferman 

The transformations in a stabilization pond correspond closely to 
the natural purification in a stream that receives organic wastes. 
Aerobic and anaerobic saprobic bacteria are available to act upon the 
organic debris in the water and to break down the material into simpler 
compounds. In the presence of sufficient quantities of sewage, any dis- 
solved oxygen in the water may be consumed very quickly. The activities 
of the aerobic bacteria are generally limited in scope by the decreased 
amount of oxygen in the water to be used, and the aerobic process, 
therefore, comes to a standstill. In many cases, however, it is desirable 
to encourage the aerobic process and to limit the anaerobic, since the 
former can be faster and the amount of intermediate malodorous 
products is less than in the latter process (15). 

Algae, Oxygenation, and Stabilization 

When algae are present in the pond they release excess oxygen 
into the water by photosynthesis. This oxygen is then available to 
increase the aerobic decomposition of the organic wastes by bacteria. 
The aerobic treatment of the sewage is thus accelerated (2). 

Although many kinds of algae are sensitive to large amounts of 
organic wastes in their environment, others are tolerant and may be 
stimulated in their growth and reproduction by the presence of the 

206 Indiana Academy of Science 

wastes. The latter forms are often spoken of as the pollution-tolerant 
algae, or merely the pollution algae (17). 

The algae function in another significant way in the pond. The 
simpler compounds resulting from the decomposition of organic wastes 
by aerobic bacterial activity includes nitrates, ammonia, phosphates, 
and lesser amounts of other compounds, all of which happen to be the 
nutrients required for growth by algae (10). The pond water does 
not accumulate any large quantity of these nutrients since they are 
quickly absorbed and assimilated by the algae. In this way, the 
chemical units formerly comprising the organic wastes eventually are 
incorporated in the algae as relatively stabilized organic components 
of living algal cells (4). 

Considering the two functions of the algae, the ponds may be called 
"oxidation" ponds if the release of oxygen by algae is emphasized, or 
they may be called "stabilization" ponds if the assimilation of stable 
living algal substances is emphasized (18). 

When the algae in the ponds die, their organic contents are sub- 
ject to decomposition by saprobic bacteria. The death and decomposition 
at one time of large numbers of algae would again bring about nuisance 
conditions approximating those caused by the original sewage wastes 
placed in the pond. It is desirable, therefore, to prevent this by stimu- 
lating the algae to continue growing or by arranging for the algae to 
leave the pond continuously in moderate numbers (19). 

The sewage stabilization pond permits control of a number of 
factors that affect the efficiency of treatment. The capacity of the pond 
should be determined to permit optimum concentration of sewage in 
water and optimum holding time. A shallow depth, often about 4 
feet, is used so that sunlight may reach even the lower layers of 
water and thus allow algal photosynthesis throughout the pond. The 
movement of water through the pond is controlled by regulating the 
effluent rate. It must also be determined whether to use the pond for 
complete, secondary, or tertiary treatment of the sewage. Some states 
have statutes that regulate the use of the ponds and restrict them for 
one of the three treatments listed above (7). 

Harvesting of Algae for Commercial Products 

Since the algae represent a concentrated mass of proteins, fats, 
and carbohydrates, there has been much recent interest in experimenting 
with methods of harvesting the excess algae in the ponds and testing 
them for possible commercial use. Potential algal products include fuel, 
fertilizer, poultry feed, cattle feed, fish food, human food, pharmaceu- 
tical materials, and enzyme extracts (23). Because of their very rapid 
growth and multiplication, and their lack of fibers and other inert 
tissues, algae represent a highly concentrated, relatively pure mass of 
usable organic material that can be produced continuously, quickly, and 
cheaply while serving at the same time as a means of processing 
unwanted community wastes (8). 

One of the serious drawbacks in the production of commercial algal 
products is that all methods tried for harvesting algae are quite 

Botany 207 

costly. These methods include straining, centrifuging, drying, flotation, 
coagulation, sedimentation, and chemical extraction. In many cases, two 
or more of these methods have been combined. There is a continuing 
interest in finding an economical method of separating these minute 
organisms from the culture medium (12). 

Another problem in producing a commercial product of high quality 
is the inability to grow a crop of algae having consistent composition 
and texture. At present, predetermining the particular kind of algae 
that will predominate in the pond is not possible. This means that 
the composition of the harvested product will vary according to the kinds 
of algae that happen to be abundant in the pond. These may change 
from week to week, and thus change the composition of the product. 

Uses for Effluent 

Regardless of whether the algae are to be utilized commercially, 
some communities are interested in reuse of the effluent water of the 
pond. This water might be made acceptable for various industrial uses 
and for irrigation of crops. Water is being prepared also for recrea- 
tional lakes suitable for boating, water skiing, fishing, and swimming. 
When used in this way, it is treated with a germicidal agent such as 
chlorine to destroy pathogenic microrganisms that may have survived 
from the sewage (9). 

Kinds of Algae Involved 

A study of several sewage ponds in widely scattered parts of the 
United States, including three in Indiana, indicates that there are more 
than a dozen genera of algae, any one of which may be a frequent and 
dominant constituent of the flora. Only one of these is a diatom, and 
only two are blue-green algae. Three are pigmented flagellates; the 
remainder are nonmotile, nonfilamentous green algae. Practically all of 
these tend to be planktonic, that is, they remain dispersed in the water 
and are unattached to other objects (21). Most of them do not tend 
to collect on the surface as a mat or bloom. They are well equipped 
in form and distribution to absorb sunlight and nutrient salts and to 
release oxygen throughout the length and depth of the pond (1). Algae 
that would concentrate as mats or blooms on the surface would be 
undesirable because they would release oxygen into the air above 
rather than into the water. 

A few of the sewage pond algae have the unusual capacity of being 
able to absorb organic compounds rather than the inorganic salts. These 
algae produce little oxygen and are therefore inefficient in stimulating- 
aerobic bacteria to act upon the sewage (11). 

Several of the algae are unable to develop in the presence of large 
amounts of certain organic wastes such as those from milk processing 
plants and beet sugar factories (13). At other times the algal popula- 
tion may be radically reduced in numbers by small aquatic animals, 
particularly daphnia, which may develop in large numbers and consume 
the algae as food. These examples help to emphasize the significant 
problems that can be expected to arise, at least occasionally, when 
sewage stabilization ponds are used. 

208 Indiana Academy of Science 

Advantages and Limitations of Waste Bonds 

The advantages of treatment of sewage by means of stabilization 
ponds have been sufficient to cause them to be installed in many places. 
The process can be a relatively inexpensive method for satisfactory 
disposal of sewage, both as to cost of installation and of maintenance. 
It can make possible the eventual use of the effluent water and the algal 
mass. It appears to have an antibiotic effect that reduces intestinal 
microorganisms. Pollution of streams with unstable organic materials 
or with algal nutrients is greatly reduced. The sewage pond has found 
its place more often in small communities where sufficient area is 
available and reasonable in price. It is particularly promising where 
water reuse is in demand, where there is an interest in the harvesting 
of the algae, or where prevention of stream pollution is important (14). 

There are some disadvantages and limitations in the use of a 
stabilization pond. The large area required often makes the acquisition 
of sufficient acreage for the ponds too costly. Control of midge flies and 
other flying insects that may breed in the ponds and become an 
annoyance to the community may be difficult. Certain industrial wastes 
may interfere with the desired biological activities in the pond. Most 
of the disadvantages apply particularly to the larger cities and 
town s ( 3 ) . 


The natural science approach to assimilation of nutrients involves 
the use of aquatic microorganisms to decompose unwanted wastes and 
to permit the products of decomposition, after absorption and assimila- 
tion by algae, to form cell substances that tend to remain in a stabilized 
condition. In this form they are not objectionable and may even be 
harvested to become products useful to man. The process is also a 
method of reducing pollution of streams. 

Literature Cited 

1. Allen, M. B. 1955. General features of algal growth in sewage oxidation 
ponds. State Water Pollution Control Board, Sacramento, California. Pub- 
lication No. 31. 48 p. 

2. Bartsch, a. F. 1961. Algae as a source of oxygen in waste treatment. Jour. 
Water Pollution Contr. Fed. 33(3) :239-249. 

3. Bauman, E. R. 1955. Limitations of sewage lagoons. Amer. City 1)9(5) :7. 

4. BoGAN, R. H. 19fjl. Removal of sewage nutrients by algae. Pub. Health 
Rept. 76(4):301-308. 

5. BORCHARDT, J. A. 1958. The role of algae in pollution abatement. Public 
Works 89(12) :109-110. 

6. Brinck, C. W. 1961. Operation and maintenance of seA^'age lagoons. Water 
and Sewage Works 108(12) :466-4 6S. 

7. Caldwell, D. H. 1946. Sewage oxidation ponds — performance, operation 
and design. Sewage AVorks .Tour. 18:433-458. 

8. Cook, R. C. 1962. The nutritive value of waste-grown algae. Amer. Jour. 
Pub. Health 5L*(2) :243-251. 

9. Cooper, R. C. 1962. Some public health a.spects of algal-bacterial nutrient 
recovery systems. Amer. Jour. Pub. Health 53(2) :252-257. 

Botany 209 

10. Curry, J. J. and S. L. Wilson. 1955. Effect of sewage-borne phosphorus on 
algae. Sewage and Indus. Wastes 27(11) :1262-1266. 

11. Eppley, R. W., and F. M. Maciasr. 1962. Rapid growth of sewage lagoon 
Chlamydomonas with acetate. Physiologia Planatarium 15:72-79. 

12. GOLUEKB, C. G., and W. J. Oswald. 1965. Harvesting and processing 
sewage-grown planktonic algae. Jour. Water Pollution Control Fed. 37(4): 

13. Maloney, T. E., H. E. Ludwig, J. A. Harmon, and L. McClintock. 1960. 
Effect of whey wastes on stabilization ponds. Jour. Water Pollution Control 
Fed. 33(12) :1283-1299. 

14. Myers, J. 1948. Studies of sewage lagoons. Public Works 75)( 12) :25-27. 

15. Neil, J. K., and G. J. Hopkins. 1956. Experimental lagooning of raw sew- 
age. Sewage and Indus. Wastes 38(11) :1326-1356. 

16. Oswald, W. J., H. B. Gotaas, C. G. Golueke, and W. R. Kellbn. 1957. 
Algae in waste treatment. Sewage and Indus, Wastes 39(4) :437-457. 

17. Palmer, C. M. 1963. The effect of pollution on river algae. Ann. New York 
Acad. Sci. 108:389-395. 

18. Pierce, D. M. 1960. Symposium on waste stabilization lagoons. Water and 
Sewage Works 107(10) :408-411. 

19. Pipes, W. O. Jr., 1961. Basic biology of stabilization ponds. Water and 
Sewage Works. 108(4) :131-136. 

20. PoRGEs, R., and K. M. Mackenthun. 1963. Waste stabilization ponds: use, 
function, and biota. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 5:255-273. 

21. SiLVA, P. C, and G. F. Papenfuss. 1953. A systematic study of the algae 
of sewage oxidation ponds. State Water Pollution Control Board, Sacra- 
mento, California. Publication No. 7. 3 5 p. 

22. Wennstrom, M. 1949. Biological purification of settled sewage in shallow 
ponds. Proc. United Nations Scientific Conference on the Conservation and 
Utilization of Resources, Lake Success, New York 4(Water Resources): 

23. Williams, L. G. 195 5. Can sewage be converted to hvunan food? Bulletin 
Furman Univ. 3(2):16-24. 

2 4. (Anon.) 1959. Survey shows present status of oxidation ponds and sewage 
lagoons. Public Works 90(12) :90-92. 

Dictyosomes in Vegetative Hyphae of Pythium ultimum^ 

S. N. Grove, D. J. Morre and C. E. Bracker, Department of Botany 
and Plant Pathology, Purdue University 

The Golgi apparatus is a cell component consisting of inter- 
associated dictyosomes. Dictyosomes are stacks of plate-like cisternae 
characterized by the following features: 1) cisternal membranes free 
from ribosomes; 2) a peripheral system of 300 to 500 A diam tubules; 3) 
shaggy vesicles attached to some of the tubules; 4) smooth-surfaced 
vesicles attached to peripheral tubules and functioning in secretion; 5) 
intercisternal elements appearing as rod-like structures 70 to 80 A in 
diam; 6) morphological polarity (2, 6, 7, 15). The above characteristics 
hold for a wide range of" plant and animal dictyosomes. 

Among higher fungi, reports of Golgi apparatus are restricted to 
the Ascomycete Neohrdgaria pura where cells of the inner ectal 
excipulum have a single perinuclear dictyosome (9). However, dictyo- 
somes are widespread among lower fungi (3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14) including 
the Oomycetes. This report concerns the occurrence and structure of 
dictyosomes in the vegetative hyphae of Pythmm ultirnum Trow, a 
phytopathogen in the order Peronosporales. 

Materials and Methods 

Cultures of P. idtmmm were grown at 27" C in Petri plates con- 
taining potato dextrose agar (Difco) overlaid with permeable cellophane. 
Mycelia were fixed at room temperature (25"' C) by flooding cultures 
with 1) 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7), 2) 4% 
glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7), or 3) 1% potassium 
permanganate. Immediately, small portions of mycelium were trans- 
ferred to fixative in vials (1 to 8 hours for osmium tetroxide, 0.5 to 
1 hour for glutaraldehyde, and 1 to 2 hours for potassium permanga- 
nate). All glutaraldehyde-fixed material was post-fixed with iVr osmium 
tetroxide in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7) for 1 to 8 hours. The fixed 
materials were washed in distilled water, dehydrated in a graded ethanol 
and acetone series, embedded in an Araldite epoxy resin mixture (13), 
and polymerized in a nitrogen atmosphere at 70° C for about 24 hours. 

Thin sections were cut using a Porter-Blum MT-2 ultramicrotome 
with a diamond knife. Materials fixed with osmium tetroxide were post 
stained with aqueous barium permanganate or uranyl acetate and lead 
citrate. Sections were examined with a Philips EM/200. 

Observations and Discussion 

Dictyosomes of P. ultmium are composed of 3 to 5 plate-like 
cisternae (Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) 1 to 1.5 ix in diam. The cisternal peripheries 
appear fenestrated or tubular in face view (Figs. 2, 3). Connected to 

1. Journal Paper No. 2960, Purdue University Agricultural ]^:xperiment 
Station, Lafayette, Indiana. Supported by NSP research grants GB 03044 and 
GB 1084. 


Botany 211 

the tubules are structures (ca. 500 a diam) having a fuzzy or shaggy 
appearance due to the presence of a nap-like electron-dense coating (Figs. 
2, 4). These correspond to shaggy vesicles. Vesicles of similar structure 
in the area around the dictyosomes appear unattached (Fig. 4, arrow). 
In contrast to rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (ER, Fig. 6), 
recognizable ribosomes are absent from the surface of the dictyosomes 
(Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). In these features the dictyosomes of P. Jilthmim 
are similar to those of higher plants (2, 6, 7, 15). 

P. ultmium dictyosomes occur throughout the cytoplasm, usually 
associated v^ith the nuclear envelope (Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5) and/or ER (Fig. 
6). This frequent perinuclear positioning may indicate a more general 
association of dictyosomes with ER (7) which includes the nuclear 
envelope. When perinuclear, the dictyosomes are often associated with 
that portion of the nuclear membrane adjacent to the nucleolus (Fig. 5). 
Perinuclear positioning, although uncommon in higher plants, is of 
general occurrence in lower forms (1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 14). 

The region between the dictyosomes and the nuclear envelope or 
ER is free from ribosomes (Figs. 1, 2, 4, 6). This region contains 
numerous small vesicles (Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) and extensions of the outer 
membrane of the nuclear envelope (Figs. 1, 4, 5). Projections from 
the nuclear envelope beside dictyosomes have been reported in other 
organisms. On the basis of a study with Neobulgaria pura, Moore 
and McAlear (9) suggest that the cisternae are formed by a series 
of vesiculations of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. Elec- 
tron micrographs of Aphanomyces euteiches (14) show extensions of 
the outer nuclear membrane. Blebbing of the outer nuclear membrane 
toward the associated dictyosome also occurs in brown algae (1). 
Projections from the nuclear envelope in the region adjacent to the 
dictyosomes may represent a general phenomenon characteristic of lower 

Dictyosomes of P. nltimum exhibit structural polarity. The cisterna 
immediately adjacent to the nuclear envelope or ER is discontinuous 
(Figs. 1, 2, 5). The cisternae in median position are continuous and 
tend to be compressed (Figs. 1, 6). Cisternae at the distal pole are 
discontinuous (Figs. 4, 5, 6) but appear more swollen than those at the 
proximal pole (Figs. 2, 6). 


Dictyosomes of the Golgi apparatus of Pythium nltimum are shown 
to have characteristics in common with dictyosomes of higher plants. The 
existence of tubular cisternae and attached shaggy vesicles are reported 
for the first time in a fungus. The dictyosomes are distributed through- 
out the cytoplasm but usually are in association with the nuclear 
envelope or ER. Dictyosome polarity is also demonstrated. 

Literature Cited 

1. BoucK, G. B. 1965. Structure and organelle associations in brown algae. 
J. Cell Biol. 2C:r)23-537. 

2. Cunningham, W. P., D. J. Morre and H. H. Mollenhauer. 19fit). Structure 
of isolated plant Golgi apparatus revealed by negative staining. J. Cell Biol. 

212 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. B'ULLER, M. S. and R. Retchle. 1965. The zoospore and early development 
of RMzidiomyces apophysatiis. Mycologia 57:946-961. 

4. GoLDSTAiN, S., L. MoRiBER and Betty Herskenov. 1964. Ultrastructure of 
Thraustochytrmvi aureum, a biflagellate marine Phycomycete. Mycologia 

5. Hawker^ Lilian E. and Patricia Abbott. 1963. Fine structure of the young- 
vegetative hyphae of Pythium deharyanum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 31:491-494. 

6. MOLLENHAUER, H. H. 196.'). An intereisternal structure in Golgi apparatus. 
J. Cell Biol. 24:504-511. 

7. MOLLENHAUER, H. H. and D. J. MoRRK. 1966. Golgi apparatus and plant 
secretion. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 17:27-46. 

S. MooRE, R. T. 1965. Distribution and characterization of the Golgi complex 
in the Phycomycetes. J. Cell Biol. 27:69A. 

9. Moore, R. T. and J. H. McAlear. 1963. Fine structure of Mycota 4. The 
occurrence of the Golgi dictyosome in the fungus Neohulgaria pura (Fr. ) 
Petrak. J. Cell Biol. 16:131-141. 

10. Moore, D. J. and H. H. Mollenhauer. 1964. Isolation of the Golgi appara- 
ratus from plant cells. J. Cell Biol. 23:295-305. 

11. MoRRfi, D. J., H. H. Mollenhauer and J. E. Chambers. 1965. Glutaralde- 
hyde stabilization as an aid to Golgi apparatus isolation. Exp. Cell Res. 

12. Peyton, G. A, and C. C. Bowen. 1963. The host-parasite interface of 
Peronospora manshiirica on (ilycine max. Amer. J. Bot. 50:787-797. 

13. Richardson, K. C, L. Jarrett and E. H. Finke. 1960. Embedding in epoxy 
i-esins for ultrathin sectioning in electron miscroscopy. Stain Tech. 35: 

14. Shatla, M. N., C. Y. Yang and J. E. Mitchell. 1966. Cytological and fine- 
structural studies of Aphanomyces euteiches. Phytopathology 56:923-928. 

15. Turner, R. R. and W. G. Whaley. 1965. Intereisternal elements of the 
Golgi apparatus. Science 147:1303-1304. 



Figure Legends 


Figure 1. A vegetative hypha of P. ultimnm. Nucleus (N), nucleolus (NU), 

nuclear envelope (NE), mitochondrion (M), dictyosome (D), vesicle (V), 

vacuole (VA), plasma membrane (PM), hyphal wall (W), ribosome (R), and 

endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Glutaraldehyde-OsOi fixation. X 29,000. 

Figure 2. Dictyosome (Di) with what may be an attached secretion vesicle 

( V^j ) and similar vesicles (V2) free in the cytoplasm. A second dictyosome (D2) 

is seen in face view. Glutaraldehyde-OsO^ fixation. X 30,000. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

^ V vV" ' ^- 


Figure 3. Face (Di), oblique (D:>) and cross sectional (D.O views of dictyo- 
somes showing- tubules (T) at the peripheries. Glutaraldehyde-0s04 fixation. 

X 3 5,000. 
Figure 4. Shaggy vesicles (SV) attached to cisterna. Extension (E) on outer 
nuclear membrane (NM) and small vesicles (V) occur between dictyosome (D) 

and nucleus (N). Glutaraldehyde-0s04 fixation. X 85,000. 
l^^'igure 5. A perinuclear dictyosome (D) adjacent to a nucleolus (NU). Exten- 
sion (E) of the outer nuclear membrane (NM) and small vesicles (V) shown 

between the nucleus (N) and the dictyosome. Os04 fixation. X 22,000. 
l*^igure (J. i3ictyosome (D) contrasted to rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum 
(ER). Arrow indicates liliosomes ( R)- Cdutaraldehyde-OsO^ fixation. X 32,000. 

Some Responses by Members of the Marsileaceae Grown 
Under Field Conditions 

William W. Bloom and Kenneth E. Nichols, Valparaiso University 

It is generally known that the members of the genus Marsilea 
exhibit sleep movements (1, 2). During the past two summers obser- 
vations have been made of members of the Marsileaceae grown under 
conditions approximating their natural habitats. In the course of 
these observations, several other phenomena which appear to be asso- 
ciated with the same mechanism responsible for sleep movements have 
been noted. This paper will be a preliminary report on these observa- 
tions to date. 

During the summer of 1965, plants of Marsilea Drummondii were 
transplanted to a tub filled with soil to within two inches of its rim. 
The tub was placed out of doors in an open area where it received very 
little shade. From time to time water was added. During a chance 
observation in the middle of the afternoon it was noted that all the 
leaves were exposed in such a way as to present the plane of the opened 
leaf blades at a right angle to the sun's rays. Following this observation, 
further observations were made throughout the day. Early morning 
observations showed the leaves to be open and facing the rising sun. 
During the course of the day the leaves were observed to turn so as 
to present at all times their upper surface at right angles to the sun's 
rays, and to close in the evening while still facing the direction in which 
the sun had set. 

Methods and Materials 

During the summer of 1966, large galvanized tubs were partially 
buried in a field on the East Campus of Valparaiso University and the 
tubs filled to within a few inches of the rim with a rich loam soil from 
the field. The soil in each tub was saturated with water and eleven 
different species of the genus Marsilea and Regnellidiimi diphyllurn were 
transplanted, one each, into the tubs. The tubs were watered to the 
brim about once a week early in the summer and later permitted to dry 
to induce sporocarp formation. 


Observations were made throughout the day to determine if all 
the species being cultivated showed the type of movements observed 
earlier. All the species of Marsilea showed such movements but it 
was noted that some species assumed a more extreme position in the 
early morning and late afternoon. In these species the plane of the 
open leaf was in an almost vertical position at these times. Regnellidiiim 
showed no such movements. 

All the species of the genus Marsilea showed the characteristic 
sleep movements reported for the group. However, Regnellidiimi did 
now show sleep movements. Efforts were made to determine whether 
the sleep movements were of a rhythmic or time-controlled nature or 


216 Indiana Academy of Science 

whether they were controlled by the light stimulus. Various tub 
cultures were covered by an inverted tub at various times during 
the day and the plants observed after some time. Whenever Marsilea 
plants were covered, the leaves soon assumed the sleep position. Plants 
were also illuminated during the night. When the lights were turned 
on during the night after sleep positions had been established, the 
leaves returned to the open position. When the light was turned on 
prior to sunset, the leaves did not close. 

When water was withheld from the plants to the point at which 
wilting occurred, the members of the genus Marsilea exhibit modified 
sleep movements. Regnellidium plants do not show such wilting 


Since movements following the sun, sleep movements, and modified 
sleep movements with wilting are either all present as in the Marsilea 
or all absent as in Regnellidium,, it would appear probable that the 
same mechanism is involved in all three responses. These observations 
in addition to the known facts concerning similar responses in other 
plant species would suggest that turgor pressures are at least partially 
responsible for these movements. Studies are in progress to determine 
the light action spectrum and the anatomical structures involved in 
these movements. 

Literature Cited 

1. Eames, Arthur J. 19.3G. Mori>holojj,y of V aseuhir IMaist.s. jNIcGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc., New York. 

2. Wallack, Raymond H. liKJl. Studies on the Sensitivity of Mimosa pudiea T. 
The effect of certain animal anesthetics upon sleep movements. Am. Jour. 
Bot. 18(2):102-111. 

The Differential Effect of Mercuric Chloride on Growth of 
Certain Fungi Associated with Corn Seed 

Hector M. Leon-Gallegos\ Purdue University 

Mercuric chloride has been used for treatment of certain diseases 
of seeds, bulbs and tubers, and to preserve industrial materials. 

Moore and Olien (7) demonstrated that cereal seeds treated with 
mercuric chloride carried a residue, which was not removed even 
after a 24-hour rinse in distilled water. 

Davies (4) showed that the use of mercuric chloride can make the 
isolation of Ophiobolus graminis difficult from wheat. Ions of mercury 
compounds are protein precipitants; the mechanism of action is at- 
tributed to a reaction with the (-SH) groups of essential metabolites 
(2, 3, 5, '6, 8). The action of mercuric chloride can be reversed by the 
addition of sulphur-containing compounds (1, 5, 6, 8, 9). 

I undertook to determine the residual effects of mercuric chloride 
on the growth of some of the fungi commonly isolated from corn stalks 
and kernels (Table 1). 

Materials and Methods 

Kernels of the hybrid US-13 were surface desinfected by immersing 
for different times in 0.1% mercuric chloride and/or 5.25% sodium 
hypochlorite (Clorox). The fungi were subcultured in 50 cc of 10% 
mal-extract (Difco) in 250 cc Erlenmeyer flasks. 

The treated kernels were rinsed twice for 5 minutes with constant 
agitation in sterile water. The kernels were then dried on sterile 
blotting paper. Five kernels were placed on each of three PDA (Difco) 
plates. Prior to pouring, the agar had been seeded with the specific 
fungi to be studied. The plates were then incubated at 26± 1° C and 
examined after four days. The degree of inhibition was determined by 
measuring the diameter of the clear zone around the kernels. 

Results and Discussion 

Corn kernels immersed in 0.1% mercuric chloride for 1, 2, 4, and 
6 minutes retained a sufficient amount of the chemical to inhibit growth 
of Cephalosporin in acr'emonimn Corda, Penicilliimi cyclopium series, 
P. frequentans Westling, P. funiculosuin Thom., P. herquei Bainier & 
Sartory, P. multicolor Grigorieva-Manoilova & Poradielova, P. rugulosiim 
Thorn., P. variahle Scop., and Pythiiim ultimum Trow. (Table 1). 

The zone of inhibition increased in proportion to the immersion time. 
Seeds immersed for 2 or 4 minutes, retained enough mercuric chloride to 
effect only slightly the growth of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon. 

1. The author is grateful to Dr. A. J. Ullstrup for council and advice 
during the research and to Dr. J. F. Tuite of some of the fungi used. 

Contribution from Purdue University, Agricultural Experiment Station 
.Journal Paper No. 2919. 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Botany 219 

Mercuric chloride residue caused a fairly marked inhibition of C. 
acremonhim (Table 1), but when a sodium hypochlorite rinse followed 
the chloride, the zone of inhibition was eliminated. 

Immersion for 1 or 2 minutes in mercuric chloride followed by 
4 minutes in sodium hypochlorite did not affect the growth of P. 
cyclopiimi, Penicillium variable was not inhibited by residues adhering 
after 1 minute in mercuric chloride. 

P. imdticolor and P. fnniculosum were greatly inhibited following 
all treatments. Inhibition was reduced by the sodium hypochlorite treat- 
ment growth of P. freqiientans was affected only after 6 minutes in 
mercuric chloride. 

There was no observable inhibition of the growth of Diplodia 
viaydis (D. zeae [Schw.] Lev.), Nigrospora oryzac (Berk. & Br.) Fetch, 
Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Fetch, and Aspergillus flaviis Link in any 

Sodium hypochlorite alone did not inhibit growth. Maximum im- 
mersion periods in mercuric chloride or sodium hypochlorite did not 
impair the germinability of the kernels and apparently had no effect 
or the fungi beneath the seed coat. 

Results indicate that the residue of mercuric chloride, following its 
use as a surface disinfectant, inhibits the growth of some fungi isolated 
from corn. But the ear and stalk rot fungi such as F. moniliforme, D. 
inaydis, G. zeae and N. oryzae were not affected. 

The inhibition following short immersion periods indicates that 
it is important to evaluate the toxic effect of mercuric chloride on 
specific fungi. 

Sodium hypochlorite had no inhibitory effect at immersion periods 
used. When used after mercuric chloride it tended to reduce the in- 
hibitory effects of residues. 


The residue of mercuric chloride, following its use as a surface 
disinfectant of corn kernels, inhibited growth in vitro of Cephalosporium 
acrevionium, Penicillium cyclopium, P. frequejihms, P. fnniculosum, P. 
herquei, P. inulticolor, P. rugulosuni, P. variable, and Pythium ultimum. 
Growth of A. flavus, D. maydis, F. nionilifomic, Gibbei'ella zeae and 
Nigrospora oryzae was not affected. A sodium hypochlorite rinse after 
mercuric chloride treatment removed a large part of the residue. 

Literature Cited 

1. A.sHWORTH, Ij. J., and J. V. Amin. 1964. A mechanism for mercury tolerance 

in fungi. Pliytopathology .^4:1459-1163. 

2. Bailey, J. H. and C. J. Cavali.ito. 194 8. The reversal of antibiotic action. 

J. Bact. r>r>: 175. 

3. Barron, E. S. G., and T. P. Singer. 1945. Studies on Biological oxidations. 
XIX. Sulfhydryl enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 157:221. 

4. Davies, F. R. 1935. Superiority of silver nitrate over mercuric chloride for 
surface sterilization in the isolation of Ophioholus graminis Sacc. Canad. J. 
Res. 13:168-173. 

220 Indiana Academy of Science 

5. FijjDES, P. 1940. Tlie mechanism of aiitibaeterial action of mercury. Brit. J. 
Exp. Pathol. 21:67. 

ti. Janke, p., F. Beran., and G.Schmidt. 1953. Uber die Einwirlvung- von Schwer- 
metallsalzen auf Pilze. II Uber die Einwirl-iung von Scliwermetallsalzen auf 
Brandpilze. Pfl. Schutz. Ber. 10:5. 

7. Moore, M. B., and C. R. Olien. 1952. Mercury bichloride solution as a 
surface disinfectant for cereal seeds. Phytopathology 43:471 (Abstract). 

8. TOLBA, M. K. and A. M. Saleh. 1958. On the fungicidal action of mercuric 

chloride. Proc. Iraq. Sci. Soc. 2:25. 

9. TOLBA, M. K. and A. M. Salama. 1962. Studies on the mechanism of fungi- 
cidal action of mercuric chloride on mycelial felts of Rhizoctonia solani. 
Arch. Microbiol. 43:349-364. 


Chairman: Robert E. Davis, Purdue University 
G. B. Bachman, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1967 

Reduction of Enamines with Secondary Amines. A. G. Cook and C. R. 
SCHULZ, Valparaiso University. — Various cyclic, acyclic and aromatic 
secondary amines reduce enamines to the corresponding saturated ter- 
tiary amines. The reaction is acid catalyzed, and the transfer of a 
hydride ion from the secondary amine to the protonated enamine yields 
an imine as the oxidation product. Secondary amines reduce bicyclic 
enamines from the less hindered exo side. 

Homoconjugate Addition of Morpholine to Bicyclic Ketones. A. G. CooK 
and W. M. Kosman, Valparaiso University. — Morpholine adds to nor- 
bornenone under both acidic and basic conditions. Under basic conditions 
a homoenolate ion must be involved in the addition reaction. 

Ionization Potentials of Three Hydrides of Phosphorus. Robert B. 
Callen, University of Notre Dame. — The application of electron impact 
mass spectrometry for the determination of ionization potentials is well 
documented. One technique that has recently been employed in the study 
of ionization processes of polyatomic molecules is the retarding potential 
difference (RPD) method developed by Fox and coworkers. This method 
provides a means of obtaining essentially monoenergetic electrons. Sub- 
sequently, ionization efficiency curves obtained by the R.P.D. technique are 
linear in the region of the threshold potential and allow an unambiguous 
determination of the ionization potential to be made. In this study the 
ionization potentials of three hydrides of phosphorus — phosphine, PHs, 
diphosphine, Pl'H4, and triphosphine, P.sHs, — have been determined. The 
ionization potentials of the corresponding deuterium substituted com- 
pounds have also been obtained. The ionization potentials of phosphine, 
deuterated phosphine, diphosphine, and deuterated diphosphine were ob- 
tained by the R.P.D. technique. Ionization potentials of triphosphine, 
and deuterated triphosphine were determined by the semi-log matching 

Phosphine and diphosphine were prepared by hydrolysis of calcium 
phosphide and separated by trap to trap distillation. Triphosphine 
was prepared by pyrolyzing diphosphine in a hot-cold reactor and was 
isolated by fractional codistillation. All ionization potentials were ob- 
tained on a Bendix model 12-107 time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The 
measured ionization potentials are shown in Table 1. 



Ionization Potential 


10.05±0.05 ev 


9.15 0.05 ev 


8.85 0.10 ev 


10.05 0.05 ev 


9.16 0.05 ev 


8.85 0.10 ev 


222 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Association of Ribonuclease with Yeast Ribosomes. R. K. Brett- 
HAUER and R. K. Haroz, University of Notre Dame. — Polypeptide 
synthesis in cell-free extracts of various microorganizms is compli- 
cated by the presence of ribonucleases. In extracts of the hybrid 
yeast Saccharomyces fragilis x 5". dobzhanskii three ribonucleases 
can be identified, two soluble and one associated v^ith the ribosomes. 
Incubation of polyribonucleotides with ribosomes results in extensive 
loss (75%) of template activity whereas incubation with ribosome-free 
cell extract results in only 10% loss of activity. Partial inhibition of 
the ribosomal nuclease activity alters the nature of the peptides 
synthesized. As these experiments suggest that the ribosomal nuclease 
may be a limiting factor in cell-free protein synthesis, some properties 
of the enzyme have been examined. The amount of nuclease activity 
associated with the ribosomes is greatest in early log cells, activity 
decreasing with time of growth. The enzyme is activated in the ribosome 
with urea and can be released with urea or lithium chloride. Natural 
and synthetic polyribonucleotides are degraded. 

Structural Differences between Heart Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial 
Glutamate Aspartate Transaminases. M. Martinez-Carrion and D. 
TiEMEiER, University of Notre Dame. — Glutamate aspartate trans- 
aminases (E.C. L-aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase) 
with different cytological localizations have been isolated in large 
quantities in a very high degree of purity by ion exchange chromatog- 
raphy. Previous work done in less pure material had shown different 
Michaelis constants for their common substrates for both forms of 
the enzyme (Wada, H. and Morino, Y,, Vitamins and Hormones, 22, 411, 
1964). The amino acid composition of these tv/o isozymes has now been 
determined on samples subjected to acid hydrolysis before and after 
performic acid oxidation. The number of tryptophan residues and the 
amount of free sulphydryl groups were measured by different spectro- 
photometric methods. This complete analysis shows a marked dissimi- 
larity in the amino acid composition of the two enzymes. This differ- 
ence in structure is also apparent in peptides maps obtained for both 
enzymes after tryptic hydrolysis. By this technique it is also possible 
to show that the mitochondrial enzyme like the supernatant one, al- 
though of different chemical composition, is a dimer consisting of two 
identical polypeptide chains. 

These results will be discussed in terms of the enzyme structure and 
its genetic implications. 

Injectionless Gas Chromatography. D. Meyers and F. Schmidt-Bleek, 
Purdue University. — It is known that the injection of pure carrier gas 
as a sample into a gas chromatographic system which has impurities 
in the carrier gas, causes the impurities to show up as a series of nega- 
tive peaks. A similar effect has been observed by causing an in situ 
fractionation of carrier gas and impurities by means of a sudden flow 
increase through a small orifice or through a capillary. 

An Inexpensive Low Voltage Paper Strip 
Electrophoresis Apparatus 

Larry Darlage, Indiana Central College 

The paper strip type of electrophoresis is a simple laboratory 
method of separating and identifying small quantities of chemical 
compound mixtures. The technique is based on the principles of 
chromatography in that separation is accomplished by the variety of 
migration rates of different compounds. Electrophoresis employs a 
high potential difference to cause the migration, while other forms 
of chromatography achieve this by solvent flow. The need for a source 
of high voltage and current regulation makes electrophoresis more 
costly and complicated than thin-layer or paper chromatography. My 
interest in the technique resulted in the construction of a simple, 
inexpensive electrophoresis apparatus with which successful separations 
of amino acids were performed. 

Figure 1. 





1 U-TUBE BRIDGE . . . 



The solvent containers of the instrument were a plastic shoe box 
and two plastic butter dishes. The main tank was a transparent box 
with dimensions of 30.5 x 17 x 9 cm. The transparent lid had a 2 cm. lip 
overlapping the top of the tank when in place. Within the tank there 
were two clear plastic reservoirs, one placed at each end and perpen- 
dicular to the length of the main vessel. These were 14.5 x 5.5 x 4 cm. 
and were used to hold the buffer solution. A 15 ml. analytical weighing 
bottle was placed in each of the reservoirs and contained the electrodes. 


224 Indiana Academy of Science 

A strip of filter paper, 1 cm. wide and 7 cm. long, folded over the lip 
of the weighing- bottle was saturated with the buffer solution and made 
electrical contact between the electrolyte in the reservoir and the 
electrode. In order to prevent a flow of the buffer through the 
chromatographic paper strip, a leveling U-tube (5mm-0.D.) was filled 
with electrolyte and placed so that the ends of the tube projected below 
the surface of the buffer in each reservoir (3). Two holes were melted 
into the same side of the tank with a heated 10 mm. glass tube. 
Each hole was situated about 3 cm. from the top and 4 cm. from the 
end of the tank. Small cork stoppers were inserted into these holes and 
platinum wires were pushed through the stoppers, projecting about 3 cm. 
into the tank. To these projections were attached platinum foil elec- 
trodes (1x5 cm.). A glass plate (10 x 20 cm.) was used as a support 
on which the paper strips were laid. This plate was supported on each 
end by the top edge of the buffer reservoir. 

The power supply consisted of a Lab-Volt transformer, model 250B. 
It produced a voltage of 300 volts DC with a maximum current of 
100 ma. The voltage gradient in a strip of paper 28 cm. long with 
approximately 1 cm. of each end immersed in buffer solution was about 
12 volts per cm. A milliammeter (0-20 ma. range) was connected in 
series with the tank and the transformer. To prevent more heat 
from being generated than could be dissipated by evaporation of buffer 
solution from the paper strips, the amperage was controlled by a 2.5 
watt, 37.5 kilo-ohm resistor in series with the circuit. This prevented 
the current from becoming greater than 9 ma. and could be read directly 
from the milliammeter. 

This apparatus was used to separate three amino acides: glycine, 
arginine, and aspartic acid. Four strips of Whatman No. 1 chroma- 
tography paper, 2.5 cm. wide, were cut to a length of 28 cm. These 
were saturated with the buffer solution and placed on the glass plate so 
that 4 cm. of the paper extended over the ends of the plate into the 
buffer solution reservoirs. The buffer solution was made up by mixing 
100 ml. of O.IN potassium acid phthalate and 40.6 ml. of 0.2N hydro- 
chloic acid, diluted to 200 ml. with water (4). The electrode containers 
were filled with the solution and the remaining amount was divided equally 
between the two reservoirs using the U-tube to balance the levels. 
A blotter of folded chromatography paper was used to dry a 2.5 cm. 
wide space on the strips at the point of application of the amino acids. 
The acids were applied to the strips with an applicator made by folding 
a strip of filter paper around a rectangular wire frame. After about 
ten minutes, the buffer solution had flowed back to the point of applica- 
tion, producing a narrow band of the amino acids. Voltage (300 v) was 
applied to the completed circuit to produce an initial current of 2.5 ma. 
After four hours the current had risen to 7 ma. The strips were taken 
out and dried by evaporation at room temperature. The dry strips 
were sprayed with a 0.2% solution of ninhydrin in acetone and placed 
in a drying oven at 80-90 degrees C for about 3 minutes to develop 
the color. The relative positions of the amino acids could be seen by 
the various purple bands. Arginine (isoelectric point, 10.8) moved 
about 6 cm. in the direction of the cathode. Since the pH of the buffer 

Chemistry 225 

was 3.0, arginine was acidic and carried an excess of positive charges. 
Glycine moved only 3 cm. from the point of application toward the 
cathode. Because its isoelectric point is 6.1, it was less acidic and 
less positive than arginine. The third amino acid, aspartic acid, moved 
only slightly from the point of application because its isoelectric point 
is 3.0 and it was electrically neutral in the buffer solution (2). 

A second experiment was conducted on the same amino acids. All 
conditions remained the same except for the change in the buffer solu- 
tion. This was replaced with 10.4 ml. of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide, 100 ml. 
of O.IN potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sufficient water added to 
make 200 ml. The final pH was 6.0. Paper strips were prepared in the 
same manner as before. The potential difference was 300 volts, and 
the current ranged from 2.5 ma. at the start to 7.0 ma. at the end of 
the experiment. The strips were removed after four hours and treated 
as before. The amino acids appeared in the same sequence as before 
but the rates of movement were different. Arginine, still acidic in 
this buffer solution, moved approximately 4 cm. toward the negative 
electrode. Glycine moved only 1 cm. in the same direction since the 
buffer solution with a pH of 6.0 was very near the isoelectric point of 
glycine. Aspartic acid, which was basic in this buffer, moved toward 
the anode (3 cm.) from the point of application. 

The distances that the acids migrated from the point of application 
usually varied when the same buffer solution was used for the second 
time. There was an increase in the current flowing through the circuit. 
This was probably the result of water loss and an increase in salt 
concentration in the buffer solution due to evaporation and decomposi- 
tion at the electrodes. The latter accounted for only a minor change 
in pH because of the separation of the electrodes from the buffer 
reservoirs achieved by the separate electrode containers. As a result 
of this change, the acids moved farther from the point of application. 
Exact reproductibility was difficult unless one used freshly prepared 
buffer solution for each experiment. 

Other factors that greatly affected the degree of separation were 
the amount of the amino acids applied and the distribution of the 
sample on the strip. The streaking of the zone was another factor. 
If the zone applied was too wide or too much acid was applied, the 
zones did not separate into distinct spots. This streaking may have 
resulted from uneven application of the amino acids, or possibly from 
improper drying of the area before the acids were applied. 

This type of laboratory method for the separation of chemical 
compounds is especially advantageous when working with ampholytic 
compounds such as proteins and amino acids (1). Other chromatographic 
techniques depend on the rate of adsorption of the compound to the 
resolving medium. Open strip electrophoresis can produce different 
separations when such conditions as temperature, voltage, pH of the 
buffer solution, and the time factor are controlled (3). Although the 
acids could not be identified by the absolute distance they had migrated, 
the number present and their approximate isoelectric points could be 
determined by their relative positions on the strip. One could make 

226 Indiana Academy of Science 

positive identification of each zone by knowing the acids that were 
present in the mixture and the pH of the buffer. 

This simple, inexpensive electrophoresis apparatus was constructed 
from regular laboratory equipment and some plastic containers. It was 
successfully used to separate amino acids. The results were reproducible 
vdthin experimental error limits. 

Literature Cited 

1. Collins, John R. 1961, Electrophoreses. Electronics World 66:52-3. 

2. Harrow, Benjamin, and Mazur, Abruham. 1958. Biocliemistry. Philadelphia, 

W. B. Saunders Company. 

3. Heftman, Erich. 1961. Cliromatography. New York, Reinhold Publishing 

4. Van Peursem, Ralph L., and Imes, Homer C. 1953. Elementary Q,uantita- 
tive Analysis. New York, McGraw-Hill. 

Success in Freshman Chemistry 

A Predictive Analysis of Chemistry 115 at Purdue with 

a Single Class of 1100 Students in 1962 

Robert Earl Davis', Purdue University 

The Problem — Nearly all entering students at Purdue enroll in some 
freshman chemistry course. The enrollment has risen to the point that 
it severely taxed our crowded freshman laboratory facilities. 

A faculty committee" on Graduate Student Teaching Duties was 
set up to examine the future needs and current problems. Laboratory 
work is most dear on time, facilities and cost. Therefore, the com- 
mittee asked the question: can we predict success in freshman chem- 
istry? If we could predict the failures before they enroll, we could 
prevent refluxing (a chemical condition in which students fail, are boiled 
up, condense and repeat the course next time around). 

Previous Studies 

The results of several other studies have been reported. Scofield (11) 
suggested that high performance in high school chemistry, high school 
physics and high school math usually predicated good performance in 
freshman chemistry at Syracuse University. However, in the group of 
students ranked "high" in high school work, numerous failures and 
nonhonor grades (D or lower) in chemistry were reported. Likewise in 
the "low" group, 14.5% of the students received A or B grades. 

Herrmann (4) observed as a result of his statistical studies that 
high school chemistry is advantageous to success in college chemistry. 
He also noted that perhaps the students taking high school chemistry 
were more intelligent, more industrious, more apt in chemistry or even 
more "college-oriented". Steiner (12) added that the study of high 
school chemistry plays a significant part in the development of chemistry 

Martin (8) at Purdue confirmed the results of F. E. Brown: "those 
who have trouble with chemistry are generally poor in reading, writing 
and arithmetic". Martin commented on hypothyroidism but did not 
mention quantity data on the blood levels of protein-bound iodine on each 

Willard (9) attempted an analysis of success in freshman chemistry 
using several criteria: high school chemistry, size of the home town, 
and the achievement tests given at the University of Wisconsin. 

Willard confirmed that students with high school chemistry are 
as a group intellectually superior to the students not taking the 
high school course. 

He also noted that while there is a direct positive relationship be- 
tween grades and entrance achievement scores, extreme caution must 
be used when predicting a result for an individual student. 

1. Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, 1962-1966. 

2. Professor G. Urry, Chairman, R. E. Davis, W. F. Edgell, N. Korn- 
blum, R. L. Livingston, and H. L. Pardue, members. Department of Chemistry, 
Purdue University. 


228 Indiana Academy of Science 

Hadley (3) discussed the work of Scofield, Herrmann, Steiner and 
Clark showing that high school chemistry is advantageous and the work 
of West (13) (who concluded that general intelligence is more important 
than specific high school training). On the basis of the new study, 
Hadley concluded that high school math, physics and chemistry aided 
the most to success. He also concluded that most common grade 
for a student having all three courses was a B. 

Carlin (2) determined the critical ratios (a statistical measure to 
determine if there is a difference between two averages) between six 
groups of students. He concluded that high school chemistry is an asset 
in college chemistry. He found that high school chemistry and high 
school physics contribute even more to success. But he concluded a 
course only in high school physics does not aid the performance in college 
chemistry at the freshman level. 

Hovey and Krohn (5) noted that they started their studies because 
of the great increase in quantity (but not quality) of their students. 
They cited the increasing trend to use television (10) to decrease 
the staff requirements and the replacement of the first semester work 
by demonstrations (7). Hovey and Krohn concluded that they could 
predict 89% of the failures (F and drops) from the group of students 
making less than a 30% score on the Iowa Chemistry Aptitude Test, 
Form M (ICAT). The correlation coefficient was 0.51 for the ICAT 
test. The additional use of the Toledo Achievement test improved the 
correlation coefficient to 0.61. Such a number indicates a degree of 
success. But some students (about 11%) would be placed in a remedial, 
non-laboratory course when in fact they would pass the higher course 
with honors. 

Kunhart, Olsen and Gammons (6) examined the placement of stu- 
dents to various courses using the high school chemistry grade, the 
high school algebra grade, the American Council of Education Psycho- 
logical Examination linguistic score, the quantitative score and the 
total score. The extent of predictive success was low as reflected in the 
low positive values of correlation : the high school chemistry grade 
(0.263), algebra (0.205), A.C.E. quantitative score (0.178), A.C.E. 
total (0.122) and using ovly the A.C.E. linguistic score, the correlation 
was 07ily 0.071. 

Combining all five (as a sum) the multiple coefficient rose to 0.397. 
This number is not high enough to eliminate considerable scatter and 
false predictions of individual behavior. They admit that maturation 
of the students from high school to college age and the nonunifomiity 
of grading in the various high schools probably cause the low 

Brasted (1) used his data on 2500 students to analyze the teaching 
of high school chemistry. He further recommended that the college- 
bound student take math, physics and chemistry in high school. 

The Present Study 

The previous studies make it clear that exams with uniform grading 
given at the college would probably be better than using only high school 

Chemistry 229 

grades. It is clear that no attempt was made to obtain the maximum 
amount of correlation using the data available on each students. 
It was also the belief of the committee" that 

"Success in Freshman Chemistry 

is Success in Freshman Chemistry" 


Therefore, a ''hypothetical course" was constructed. Lecture and 
recitation work would run for eight weeks. During this time four or 
five quizs would be given and two hourly exams. Only the hour exams 
would be used. The quizs would be used only to prepare the students 
for the exams and let them know what types of chemistry questions 
might appear on the exam. 

At the end of eight weeks, the course would be split into the upper 
section and the lower section. The upper section would receive lab 
work (two labs a week for the remaining eight weeks). The lower 
section would continue as a remedical section. 

We can ask: How carefully can we place the students into the 
upper section? 

We populated this hypothetical course with 1100 real students from 
Chemistry 115 at Purdue' in the fall of 1962. 

The Data 

At the end of the eighth week, the professors had the results of two 
hourly exams (Exam I and Exam II). When the students entered 
Purdue, we had scores on rather standard orientation exams given at 
Purdue in English, Math, Chemistry, and the percentage rank in high 
school (88 meaning 12th man in his class of 100). 

We then attempted a correlation of these factors with the real 
class of almost 1100 students in Chem. 115 in the 1962 fall term. The 
final maximum score in Chem. 115 was 1000 points. The actual grade 
ranges were 1000-850 A, 849-726 B, 725-641 C, 640-576 D, and below 
576, F. 

In Table 1 the data are listed. The student's total score at the end 
of the course (sum of four hour exams, eight short quizs [best 8 of 10], 

3. Chemistry 115 is described in the Purdue University Bulletin as 

115. GENERAL. CHEMISTRY. Sem. 1 and 2. SS. Class 3, Lab. 3, cr. 4. 
Required of students majoring' in chemistry, physics, and engi- 
neering who do not take CHM 117-126. 

Laws and principles of chemistry, with special emphasis on topics 
of importance in engineering. Numerical problems and relationships are 
Introduced whenever quantitative treatment is possible. 

In 1962 the text book was H. H. Sisler, C. A. Vander Werf and A. W. 
Davidson, College Chemistry, 2nd edition. The MacMlllan Co., New York, 
N. Y., 1961. The laboratory manual was D. W. Margerum, F. D. Martin and 
R. E. Davis, I^aboratory Manual for General Chemistry, Tri-State Offset Co., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1962. 

230 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 1. Data Available on Each Student. 

Primary Variable 

Maximum Value 


Exam I 



Exam II 



Chemistry Orientation 



English Orientation 



Math Orientation 



High School Rank 



Secondary Variables 

(a + b) (c + d) (c + e) (c + f ) (c + d + e) (c + d + f ) ( 
(d + e + f) (a') (h') (c=) (d^) (e^) (P) (ab) (ac) (ad) 
[(a + b)c] [(a + b)d] [(a + b)e] [(a + b)f] (a-fb)= (( 
(c + d-ff)" (c + e-ff)" (d + e + f)- (c -f d + e + f)" a' b" 
(a + b)'' abc abd abe abf bed bee bcf cde cdf def 

c + e + f ) 
(ae) (af) 

: + d + e) = 
c'' d^ e^' f^ 

a recitation home work score, lab scores, and an instructor evaluation 
[maximum of 10% of the grade] to reward effort) and the values of 
his six primary variables were entered on the IBM data cards. 

The secondary variables (as the product of the Math score and 
the English score) were computed by our program. While it may be 
difficult to visualize the meaning of such a product, it introduces the 
skewness needed to improve the goodness of fit. 

Primary Variables. Scores of students. 

Secondary Variables. Terms computed by the 7090 computer from 
the primary variables entered for each student. 

Method-Multiple Regression 

We assume that there is some functional relationship between the 
final score, F, and the variables, Xi (either primary or secondary 
variables) and some constants, g, etc. 

Y = gXx + hX. + ... (1) 

The question is then asked as to which variable alone (say A'^) does the 
best in predicting Y. 

Y==kXj (2) 

The measure of the degree of fitting equation (2) can then be expressed 
by r, the correlation coefficient. The coefficient is computed from the 
standard error of estimate, s. 

= I i:(y-yc)^ (s) 


y = true value of Y for one value of X 

2/c= value calculated for Y using the equation (as 2) 

n = number of points 

Chemistry 231 



where / 2Y- 

<r=^J Y^ (5) 

~ n 

Thus if r = -f 1.00, all the points 9^1 fall exactly on the line (2). If r 
is 0.00, then there is absolutely no linear correlation at all. 

The program is set up so that the second best term is then added 
to equation (2) to get a still better estimate of Y. 

Y = k'X, + lpX,n (3) 

The calculation continues until the terms entering the equation 
no longer cause any significant improvement (as determined by the F 
test) . 

All calculations were made on the IBM 7090 computer. This pro- 
gram is available from us at Purdue. 


In Table 2 the results are listed after computation cycles 1, 2, 3 
and 29. The variables are listed in order from the most significant 
(Exam I + Exam II) to the least significant. The coefficient for each 
term is listed with the standard error of the coefficient. On the 30th 
cycle our control card (card S0L0NG) terminated further calculations. 

In Table 3 the results of some of the predictions are listed. 

Of the F grades actually given, we correctly predicted 45.3% of 
their failures. One predicted (predicted 558) F student receive a high 
C grade (719 score). Only sixteen other predicted F students received 
C or low C grades. 

The other predicted F students received D grades. No predicted 
F students received A or B grades. 

No predicted A students failed and none received D grades. Some 
received C grades and many receive B grades. 

As a general conclusion the grade can be rather accurately pre- 
dicted to ± two grade letters. 

Thus our study (which uses part of the college chemistry course) 
has a higher degree of predicability than those based only on high school 
or entrance scores. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

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234 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 3. Random Selection of Predicted Values of the Total Score 
Computed Using the 29-Term Equation (from Table II) 


Actual Score 

Score Predicted 






















































































































a) First occurrence of a minus deviation. 

Chemistry 235 

Literature Cited 

1. Brasted, Robert C. 1957. Achievement in first year college chemistry re- 
lated to high school preparation. J. Chem. Ed. 34:562-565. 

2. Carlin, John J. 1957. Do courses in chemistry and physics at the high 
.school level contribute to success in beginning college chemistry? J. Chem. 
Ed. 34:25-26. 

3. Hadley, E. H., R. a. Scott, and K. A. van Lente. 1953. The relationship 
of high school preparation to college chemistry grades. J. Chem. Ed. 30: 

4. Herrmann, George A. 1931. An analysis of freshman college chemistry 

grades wtih reference to previous study of chemistry. J. Chem. Ed. S:1376- 

5. HovEY, Nelson W., and Albertine Krohn. 195S. Predicting failures in 
general chemistry. J. Chem. Ed. 35:507-509. 

6. Kunhart, William E., Lionel R. Olsen, and R. S. Gammons. 195S. Pre- 
dicting success of junior college students in introductory chemistry. J. 
Chem. Ed. 35:391. 

7. Marquardt, D. N. 1957. Laboratory versus demonsti-ation for the first 
semester of general chemistry. Div. of Chem. Ed., Amer. Chem. Soc, 132nd 
meeting, New York. 

8. Martin, F. D. 1942. A diagnostic and remedial study of failures in fresh- 
man chemistry, J. Chem. Ed. lJ>:274-277. 

9. McQuARY, J. P., H. V. Williams, and J. E. Willard. 1952. What factors 
determine student achievement in first-year college chemistry? J. Chem. Ed. 

10. Morgan, L. O., W. H. R. Shaw, and P. D. Gardner. 1957. Lal)oratory in- 
struction by closed circuit television. I^iv. of Chem. Ed., Amer. Chem. Soc, 
13 1st meeting, Miami. 

11. ScopiELD, Maude B. 1930. Further studies on sectioning in general chem- 
istry. J. Chem. Ed. 7:117-126. 

12. Steiner, L. E. 1932. Contribution of high school chemistry toward success 
in the college course. J. Chem. Ed. 9:530-537. 

13. West, G. A. 1932. School Sci. and Math. 32:911-913. 

Boron Hydrides. XII. The Synthesis and Infrared Spectra of 
NaBHoD and NaBD^H 

Robert Earl Davis''' and Robert E. Kenson'^* 
Purdue University 

In continuing our studies on the unusual kinetic isotope effects and 
exchange reactions observed in simple boron hydrides (as BHr and 
amine boranes) (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), it seems important to prepare the 
isotopically mixed borohydrides (BIL-xDx ) in pure form. Mixtures 
(with x = to 4) have been prepared by Jolly using a high temperature 
exchange reaction of deuterium gas with solid potassium borohydride 
(11). The pure materials are described in the present article. 

Synthesis of the isotopic borohydride ions was based on a pro- 
cedure due to Koester (10). He reported the reaction (all hydrogen): 
NaH + R3NBH3 — > NaBH, + R3N 

which has been modified in the present investigation by the use of 
NaD or R3NBD3 in the reaction. 

The infrared spectra of the product of the reaction of NaD with 
triethylamine borane and the product of NaH with (C:;H5)3NBD3 were 
obtained. In Table 1 the spectra of NaBH4, NaBH3D and NaBD^ in 
solution are reported. The calculated frequencies for NaBH4 and NaBD4 
were obtained from the FG matrix calculation of Taylor (8). Table 1 
also contains the results of our calculations for NaBHaD using the 
force constants reported by Taylor. 

The infrared spectrum of sodium borohydride-rf was also measured 
in potassium bromide pellet. The bands were observed at 1702 ± 5 cm^ 
(I'l), 1214 (v,), 2298 (u3a), 2235 (i'3bc), 1127 (i'4a) and 953 (iu.,o). Thus 
the bands of Ai symmetry decrease in frequency as the change is made 
from the solid phase to solution. The symmetric A vibrations must be 
greatly perturbed by the asymmetric ionic environment within the 
crystalline state. The bands in the pellet are somewhat broader than 
those in the liquid phase but a band splitting is not clearly detectable. 

The infrared spectrum of sodium borohydride-cZa was obtained in a 
Nujol mull. The bands were observed at 1727 cm-^ M, 1090 (u.), 2320 
(.'3a ), 1781 (i'3bc), 825 (i'4a) and 855 (i'4bo). The same shifts with A and 
E bands observed in NaBH3D were observed with NaBD3H. 

In a future paper the kinetic isotope effects for hydrolysis of 
these mixed ions will be reported. 

Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride-d. 

A 250 ml three-neck round-bottom flask was fitted with a condenser 
and a nitrogen-inlet tube. The system was purged with nitrogen and 90 

1. (a) Alfred P. Sloan Fellow 1902-1966. (b) Purdue Research Found- 
ation XL. Fellow 1964-65. Taken in part from the Ph.D. Thesis, June, 1965. 
The computer program is listed in this thesis in Fortran II for the IBM 


Chemistry 237 

TABLE 1. Comparison of the Experimental Frequencies in Solution 
with the Calculated Values in cm^^ 

BH4~ Experimental ± 3 cm"^ Calculated 

Vi 2264^ 2267 

Va 1210« 1210 

Vs 2244 2251 

V* 1080 1089 

Vi 1646 1643 

Va 1214 1172 

Vaa 2277 2264 

Vsdc 2259 2251 

V4a 1102 1072 

V4de 952 957 

Vi 1571« 1603 

V2 855'^ 856 

V3 1696 1686 

V4 823 819 

(a) Raman value, Ref. 11. 

ml of methylcyclohexane was added, followed by careful addition of 2.5 g 
(0.05 moles) of sodium deuteride dispersion (Metal Hydrides — 51% 
sodium deuteride) and 8 ml (0.056 moles) of liquid triethylamine 
borane. The reaction mixture was heated to 100° C under nitrogen. 
After a day the solvent was evaporated, and more was added. For the 
next four days the system was purged with nitrogen every few hours 
to remove the free triethylamine. The odor of amine was noticeable. 
The solid product was removed by filtration. The unreacted triethylamine 
borane was recovered by extraction with ether. The solid was then 
extracted with isopropylamine. The product was obtained upon evapora- 
tion in vacuo of the amine. Sodium borohydride-(i (0.60 g, 39% of 
theory) was recovered. The infrared spectrum was deteiTnine on a 
Perkin-Elmer 221 high resolution (± 3 cm^) infrared spectrophotometer. 
The observed bands corresponded well to the expected spectrum of 
sodium borohydride-c^. 

Since the two infrared active bands of BH*" are so close to two of 
the infrared active bands of BH^D , the presence of BH4- in sample 
cannot be detected. The analysis of the sample by mass spectra of 
the gas produced on complete acid hydrolysis gave a ratio of HJHD of 
4.90, indicating a mixture of '67% NaBH.,D and 33% NaBH,. Since no 
infrared bands were seen in the region of 1600 cm-\ it has been con- 
cluded that little or no BHi-D/ was present. 

H + 
BH.D — > H3BO3 + HD + 3H2 

H + 
BH4- > H.BOn + 4H.. 

mild acid hydrolysis 

238 Indiana Academy of Science 

Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride-ds 

The preparation of triethylamine borane -da was required as a pre- 
liminary step. Treithylamine borane (12 g, 0.0104 moles) was dissolved 
in 150 ml of ether. This was stirred with 100 ml of 1.7 normal 
DCI-D2SO4 solution. This acid solution is prepared from heavy water 
(99.73% D) and sulfuryl chloride. The preparation is discussed in 
another paper (6, 9). 

After eig-ht hours the ether layer was separated and dried over 
potassium carbonate. The ether was removed hi vacuo by use of a 
Rinco flash evaporator and the infrared spectrum of the liquid amine 
borane determined as liquid film on a Perkin-Elmer 221 high-resolution 
infrared spectrophotometer. The procedure was repeated twice until 
the boron-deuterium bands present indicated that the amine borane had 
been at least ninety percent deuterated on the boron atom. 

D3O + 

(aH5).N-BHa > (C.H5)3N-BD3 


The deuterated triethylamine borane, (6.4 g, 0.056 moles) was reacted 
with 2.5 g (0.05 moles) of sodium hydride (51% by weight in oil, 
Metal Hydrides) in 90 ml of methylcyclohexane at 100° C (under the 
same procedure as sodium borohydride-c?) for one week. The yield was 
0.1 g or 13 percent of theory. The infrared spectrum was taken on a 
Perkin-Elmer 221 high resolution infrared spectrophotometer as a Nujol 
mull after the potassium bromide pellet method failed. The spectrum 
corresponds to that of sodium borohydride-ds while the background bands 
exist that may be other borohydrides as BH^D^". 


The F and G matrix method (1, 12) has been used to obtain the 
results of the present investigation using an IBM 7094 computer. 


The authors wish to express their thanks to the Sloan Foundation, 
the Purdue Research Foundation and the American Chemical Society 
(Petroleum Research Foundation, Grant 1874-A) for support. The 
Dean's Fund at Purdue covered the cost of computing. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barrow, G. M. 1962. Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 

2. Davis, R. B. 1962. Boron hydrides. IV. Concerning the geometry of the 
activated complex in the hydrolysis of borohydride ion by trimethyl- 
ammonium ion. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84:892-894. 

3. Davis, R. K., and J. A. Gottbrath. 1962. Boron hydrides. V. Methanolysis 
of sodium Ijorohydride. J. Am. Chem. So. 84:895-898. 

4. Davis, R. E., and C. G. Swain. 19G0. General acid catalysis of tlie hydrol- 
ysis of sodium borohydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 82:5949. 

5. Davis, R. K., E. Bkomei^s, and C. Jj. Kibbt. 1962. Boron hydrides. III. 
Hydrolysis of sodium boi-ohydride in aqueous solution. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 

Chemistry 239 

6. Davis, R. E., A. E. Brown, R. Hopmann, and C. L. Kibby. 1963. Boron 
hydrides. VI. A rapid and quantitative exchange of the boron hydrogens 
in trimethylamine borane vv^ith D^O. J. Am. Cliem. Soc. 85:487. 

7. Davis, R. E., C. L. Kibby, and C. G. Swain. 1960. An inverse hydrogen 
isotope effect in the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 

8. Emery, A. R., and R. C. Taylor. Raman spectroscopy in liquid ammonia 
solutions. "Vibrational frequencies and force constants for isotopic species 
of the borohydride ion having tetrahedral symmetry. J. Chem. Phys. 

9. Hawthorne, M. F., and W. L. Budde. 1964. Mechanism of displacement 
reactions at tetrahedral boron. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86:5337. 

10. Koester, R. 1957. Neue Herstellungsmethoden flir Metallborhydride. Angew, 
Chem. 69:94. 

11. Mesmer, R. E., and W. L. Jolly. 1962. The exchange of deuterium with 
solid potassium hydroborate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84:2039-2042. 

12. Wilson, E. B., J. C. Decius, and P. C. Cross. 1955. Molecular Vibrations. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 


Chairman: Donald E. Miller, Ball State University 

Marion T. Jackson, Indiana State University, 
was elected chairman for 1967 

Studies on the Movement of Certain Radionuclides in Estuarine and 
Benthic Environments. Raymond E. Henzlick, Ball State University. — 
Fallout radioactivity in certain molluscs was investigated in order 
to establish movements or patterns of movements for the more easily 
detected gamma-emitting radioactive contaminants. Ecologically, this 
information should help in establishing trophic relationships for this 
group of organisms. Modiolus demissus (marsh mussel), Crassostrea 
virginica (American oyster), Aequipecten irradiayis (bay scallop), and 
Mercenaria 7nercenaria (hard clam) appear to be biological indicators 
of radioactivity in the environment. Oysters appear to select for zinc-65 
and scallops for manganese-54, at least in the natural environment. 

In a separate study, selected isotopes (Co"*', Fe^^ Zn"% Mn''', and 
Ce"*) were experimentally placed in a large wood exclosure in an 
estuarine environment. Bottom samples were then taken and the benthos 
assayed for accumulation of the radioactive nuclides. Crustacea, tubed 
polychaetes, errant polychaetes, and molluscs constituted the greatest 
biomass. Meiobenthos M^ere similarly collected and assayed but, although 
they were the most numerous organisms, their biomass was too small 
to concentrate any detectable radioactivity — at least under the condi- 
tions of the study. The greatest radioactivity was manifested in the 
shelled molluscs and the tube worms, with most of the activity associated 
with the shells or the tubes. 

Facilities of the Radiobiological Laboratory, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Beaufort, N. C, were made 
available for these studies in conjunction with an NSF summer research 
grant to North Carolina State University. 

Preliminary Studies of Vegetation and Microclimates on 30-Year Old 
Abandoned Stripmined Lands. Carolyn Kruse Mayrose and Marylyn 
Kruse Wright, Indiana State University. — ^Vegetation and microcli- 
matic differences were studied in a partially strip-mined area near Brazil, 
Indiana. Random 1/10 acre plots were sampled by the Bitterlich- 
rangefmder method. 

The 1-4 inch size class in the stripped section, consisting of 16 woody 
species, is dominated by Ulmus americana, Liquidambar sfyraciflua, 
Fraxinus americana, Ulmus rubra and Platanus occidentalis with re- 
spective importance values of 36, 16, 8, 8 and 7%. The larger size 
classes, consisting of 10 species, are dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia, 
Ulmiis americana and Populus deltoides with respective importance 
values of 43, 17 and 10%. In the unstripped section, the 1-4 inch size 
class, consisting of 18 woody species, is dominated by Acer rubrum, 
Liquidambar styracifiua, Carpinus caroliniana and Ulmus americana 


242 Indiana Academy of Science 

with respective importance values of 23, 15, 13 and 11%. The larger 
size classes, consisting of 11 woody species, are dominated by Liguidam- 
bar styraciflua, Acer ruhrum and Fraxinus pennsylvanica with respec- 
tive importance values of 41, 17 and 15%. Both stands are shifting in 
species composition and in dominant species. Pinus sylvest7'is and 
Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in stripped area but neither is re- 
placing itself. Ulmus americana is heavily infected with Dutch elm 
disease and dying rapidly. 

During spring months south-facing slope air temperatures averaged 
nearly 2° F. higher than opposing north-facing slopes. Air temperature 
ranges were 5° F. greater under deciduous canopies than in adjacent 
conifers. However, as the canopy closed the range was reduced to I'' F. 

Further studies should elaborate succession and microclimatic pat- 
terns for the area. 

Use of Large Scale Forest Maps for Teaching Forest 
Sampling Methodology 

Marion T. Jackson and Phillip R. Allen, Indiana State University, 
Terre Haute, and Columbus High School, Columbus, Indiana 

Several problems frequently arise when teaching forest sampling 
methods in plant ecology classes. Suitable undisturbed stands are often 
not readily accessible; it is difficult for students to gain experience in 
sampling and studying contrasting forest types; and testing sampling- 
adequacy is frequently impracticable in the field, because incomplete 
stand data and forest spatial relations are usually unknown or poorly 
known. Also, time and weather may prevent sufficiently detailed field 

Large scale maps of representative undisturbed forest stands over- 
come most of the above objections. Furthermore, they help give students 
an overview of an entire stand and a better appreciation of forest spatial 
relations. Indoor study of such maps enables students to become 
familiar with several kinds of forest sampling methods during rather 
brief laboratory periods. Sampling adequacy and efficiency are easily 
attainable and sampling confidence limits may be set because exact stand 
data are available for comparison. Maps should not be used, however, to 
supplant field experience in sampling but as a laboratory supplement. 

Detailed forest maps are also desirable to show successional and 
stabilization trends within a stand over relatively long periods of time. 
As shown by Lindsey and Schmelz (3), individual trees may be 
rechecked at decade or longer intervals to indicate mortality, growth 
rates, and species composition changes. 

Location and Description of Areas 

The first stand mapped is a representative beech-maple dominated 
hardwood forest. This virgin stand, known as Hoot Woods, is located 
approximately three miles northwest of Freedom, Owen County, Indiana. 
Of the 64 acres comprising the stand, a square segment of 10.9 acres 
was mapped. This section represents the least disturbed portion of the 
stand and it occupies a topographically similar unit, namely a gentle 
east-facing slope. The mapped portion is largely included within the 
17 acres that were full-tallied by Petty and Lindsey (5). 

The second stand is a virgin coastal redwood dominated coniferous 
forest in Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park in Del Norte County, 
the northwesternmost county in California. The stand is located about 
9 miles northeast of Crescent City at the confluence of the Smith River 
and Mill Creek. An 8.1-acre floodplain section of the 44-acre Frank 
D. Stout Memorial Grove was mapped in this study. Occasionally the 
Smith River overflows this stand (as in the December, 1964, flood) and 
spreads fertile alluvium over the floodplain. This regeneration of soil 
fertility no doubt accounts for the very large trees found there, the 
success of redwood seedlings on the mineral soil, and the preponderance 
of redwood in the stand. 


244 Indiana Academy of Science 

Only the floodplain was mapped because of the uniform topography- 
represented; moreover, the adjacent upland stand had been slightly 
disturbed during construction of a stagecoach road in the late 19th 


Field mapping of Hoot Woods was completed in the summer and 
fall of 1965. The Stout Grove was mapped in June, 1966. The locations 
of all trees over 4 inches dbh were determined to within one-half foot 
accuracy in the eastern stand and to within one foot accuracy in the 
western stand. Diameters were recorded to the nearest one-tenth inch 
in Hoot Woods; the larger western trees were measured to the nearest 
one-tenth foot circumference. Species nomenclature follows Little (4). 

The Hoot Woods stand was divided into 64 equal plots, which in 
turn were divided into north and south halves. Allowing for a margin 
along the forest edges, each plot was 86 ft square. The plots were laid 
out and checked with a compass and a standard 200 ft steel tape. Each 
plot was marked with corner posts and outlined with string. 

The Stout Grove was mapped similarly to Hoot Woods, but one- 
tenth acre plots (66 ft square) were used. Plot corners and half 
corners were marked with plastic tape. A 200 ft tape was placed along 
the plot center on a compass line; the accuracy of plot dimensions was 
checked at both ends of each plot. The distance from the plot edge 
to a point perpendicular to each tree was measured along the 200 ft 
center tape; the distance from the center tape to the tree in question 
was measured with a second 50 ft tape laid normal to the center tape. 

Stand maps were constructed on a 33:1 scale on heavy chart paper 
by laying out sufficient paper on a large classroom floor and then 
delimiting plots on the paper in the same sequence as they were mapped" 
in the field. Tree centers were located on the map by first measuring 
the distance along the plot center line from the plot edge to a point 
perpendicular to the tree center. Perpendicular distances from the 
center line to the tree centers were measured with a T-square graduated 
into the proper scale. Trees with map diameters of 1 inch (actually 
33 inches dbh) or less were drawn to scale to within 0.5 inch dbh 
accuracy by using standard circle drafting templates. Larger trees 
were drawn to scale with drafting compasses to within 1.0 inch dbh 
accuracy. Species symbols (usually the first letters of the generic and 
specific names) and tree diameters were placed adjacent to each tree 
on the maps. The resultant maps were ca. 21 feet square and 10 feet 
X 36 feet for Hoot Woods and Stout Grove, respectively (Figures 1 
and 2). 

Coordinates placed along the map outlines permit random location 
of points when using plotless sampling or the determination of plot 
locations when sampling the maps by quadrat methods. Transects or 
line strips may also be run for any distance in any direction by using 
map coordinates for location and direction. Sampling templates of 
various sizes and shapes for student sampling of the maps were con- 
structed of transparent plastic. 




(1) Map of 10.9 acre section of Hoot Woods at 33:1 scale. Actual map is 
about 21 feet square. 

(2) Map of an 8.1 acre section of Stout Grove at 33:1 scale. Actual map 
is 10 feet by 36 feet. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

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(;;) ('1()H(> view- of map of coastal redwood forest sliowing- the enormous 
size of mature trees and tlie extreme clumping of young- redwoods 
around a "nurse" tree. Subordinate species are insignificant in im- 
potance and generally occur in widely scattered clumps. Tree diameters 
are given in feet. Fountain pen gives scale. 

(4) Close view of map of virgin hardwood forest showing- the very larg-e 
tulip poplar (T^t) and the predominance of beech (Fg-) and sug-ar maple 
(As) in the stand. Tree diameters are g-iven in inches. Fountain pen 
gives scale. 

Ecology 247 


Mapping Efficiencies. Field mapping required 10 and 9 man hours 
per acre in Hoot Woods and Stout Grove, respectively; whereas, labora- 
tory construction of the maps required 6 and 5 man hours per acre, 
respectively. Field work was slowed in the redwood stand due to 
difficulty in getting over fallen logs and in circling huge trees to obtain 
diameters. Included is all time employed in setting up field plots, cutting 
and assembling map paper to scale and outlining plots on map paper. 
These rates make this technique a practicable method of analysis of 
virgin forest stands and for use in developing a forest sampling labora- 
tory "tool". 

Stand Attributes. Since a full tally of Hoot Woods was previously done 
by Petty and Lindsey (5), tabular results for attributes of that stand 
are not given. Twenty-one species were recorded with 899 individuals 
above 4 inches dbh. This gave a density per acre of 83 trees, as com- 
pared with 73 reported by Petty and Lindsey. Basal area figures were 
119 and 136 square feet per acre, respectively. These differences are 
accounted for, in part, by greater forest edge effect in our sample, hence 
proportionally more and smaller stems. 

The only significant variation in data between the two full tallies 
is our importance value for sugar maple of 24% as compared to 41% 
for Petty and Lindsey (5). Examination of size class data indicates 
that several of the largest maples previously tallied in their 17-acre 
plot fell outside the 11-acre section that we mapped. 

Perhaps the most surprising finding was the high density of the 
redwood stand. The density was about as high as in the eastern 
stand, 74.4 to 82.8 stems per acre. Of course, the enormous size of the 
western conifers gave basal area figures ten times greater than in the 
eastern stand (1260 square feet per acre to 119 square feet per acre). 
Volume figures would make the contrast even more striking. Stand 
attributes shown in Table 1 indicate that of the 11 species found in the 
Stout Grove, all are very insignificant and widely scattered except 
redwood, which accounts for 90% of the importance value of the stand. 
Stand attributes as follows are those advanced by Lindsey (1) : D2, 
density per acre; Dr., relative density; B2, basal area per acre; B,,, 
relative basal area; Vs, importance value found by averaging Ds and 
B3. All size classes of redwoods are well represented (Table 2) indi- 
cating that reproduction is succeeding adequately in the periodically 
deposited mineral alluvium. No major shifts in species composition 
of this stand are expected for many years. However, the marked in- 
crease in number of individuals in the 3.0 to 4.0 foot size class indicates 
that extensive natural disturbance undoubtedly occurred several decades 
ago. Fire or an abnormally high flood at that time could have created 
favorable conditions for extensive seedling establishment. No attempt 
was made to date the event since increment corings are impracticable for 
trees 4 feet in diameter. 

Using the Maps. Eventually a library of several maps of contrasting 
successional or virgin forests can be assembled to provide more fruitful 

248 Indiana Academy of Science 

student experience in forest analysis. Vegetation types other than 
forest could be mapped, but more labor would undoubtedly be required. 
Small artificial population boards for use in laboratory sampling exer- 
cises can also be assembled by computer analysis of a random selection 
of "individuals" of different species, sizes and locations (6). Maps of 
actual stands, however, have the advantage of teaching the student 
something about spatial relations, individual size and species composition 
rather than just teaching sampling methodology. They also provide a 
basis for further studies of forest phytosociology and forest sampling 
efficiencies (2). The major disadvantages are the relatively long time 
required for field and laboratory mapping of the stands, storage space 
for the rather bulky maps and finding a large enough area for labora- 
tory use of the maps. 

For student sampling, perhaps the maps are most easily used by 
being laid out flat on a gymnasium floor. Ample space is available 
and several maps may be sampled simultaneously. The clear plastic 
overlays used is sampling easily permit individual trees to be tallied 
while the quadrat is in place. Transects and plotless sample locations 
are as easily and efficiently located and sampled as are plot samples. 
Moreover, the 33:1 scale facilitates use of the variable-radius Bitterlich 
plotless sampling method. The analytic sampling attributes of density, 
frequency and basal area are easily determined by any of several 
sampling methods, but cover estimates are available only from basal 
area data. Future maps could include crown areas in addition to trunk 
cross sectional areas. This would, however, increase the field labor 
substantially. If enough stands of a given association were mapped, 
synthetic characteristics of presence, constance and fidelity could be 
determined as could continuum and ordination analyses. 

The two stands reported here give students valuable experience in 
forest sampling because of the widely contrasting tree sizes and spatial 
relations of representative species in the two types. As shown in 
Figures 3 and 4, the clumping of small individuals of relatively rare 
species in the stand wholly dominated by large coastal redwoods, as 
compared with greater species diversity and more even distribution of 
similarly sized individuals in the hardwood forest co-dominated by beech 
and sugar maple does indeed present some interesting sampling prob- 
lems for ecology students. 


The authors wish to thank Messrs. Harley R. Allen and John 
Carter who helped with the field mapping. 

Literature Cited 

1. LiNDSEY, A. A. 1956. Sampling methods and community attributes in forest 
ecology. Forest Sci. 2(4) :287-296. 

2. LiNDSEY, A. A., J. D. Barton, Jr., and S. R. Miles. 1958. Field efficiencies 
of forest sampling- methods. Ecology 39:428-444. 

3. LiiNDSEY, A. A. and D. V. Schmelz. 1965. Comparison of Donaldson's Woods 
in 1964 with its 1954 Forest Map of 20 Acres. Proe. Ind. Acad, of Sci. 

Ecology 249 

Little, E. L.., Jr. 1953. Cheek list of Native and Naturalized Trees of the 
United States. U. S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 41. 472 pp. 

Petty, R. O. and A. A. Lindsey. 1961. Hoot Woods, a remnant of virgin 
timber, Owen County, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 71:320-326. 

Tadmor, Naphtali H. and Emanuel Rabinowitz. 1964. An improved arti- 
ficial population board. Ecology 45(2) :413-414. 

TABLE 1. Stand Attributes Stout Grove, Del Notre County, California. 
Species Do D3 B. B3 V3 

Sequoia sempervirens 

Lithocarpus densiflorus 

Umbellularia californica 

Acer circinatum 

Abies grandis 

Chamaecyparis lavvsoniana 

Tsuga heterophylla 

Alnus rubra 

Acer macrophyllum 

Corylus cornuta var. californica 

Pseudotsuga menziesii 
























































Totals 74.4 1260.6 


Indiana Academy of Science 


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Rapid Estimation of Forest Parameters Using Monareal and 
Polyareal Combination Sampling^ 

Thomas W. Beers, Purdue University- 
It is always exciting to get something for nothing. Think how 
excited Walter Bitterlich must have been when he realized that he 
could accurately estimate basal area per acre without measuring a 
single tree ! 

I won't pretend to uncover any concepts comparable in scope to 
Bitterlich's but I will expand upon a something-for-nothing technique 
briefly presented by Grosenbaugh (3), which can be used to obtain 
estimates of certain forest parameters with very little or no individual 
tree measurements. The estimates to be described find occasional 
usefulness in stand description, prescription, and analysis: They are 
(1) diameter of the tree of average basal area (quadratic mean 
diameter) and (2) arithmetic average tree diameter. Either of these 
can be obtained by appropriate combination of fixed-size plots (monareal 
plot sampling) and variable-size plots (polyareal plot sampling). Esti- 
mates of quadratic and arithmetic average tree height can be obtained 
similarly but will not be described in detail. 

A brief description of monareal and polyareal plot sampling is in 
order first. 

Monareal plot sampling is the case where fixed-size circular, 
rectangular, or square plots are used as the sampling unit. Each tree 
tallied or measured represents the same number of trees per acre regard- 
less of the tree size. Therefore, for example, one tree tallied on a one- 
tenth acre plot represents 10 trees per acre. 

Th most widely used example of polyareal plot sampling is 
"Bitterlich Sampling," known also by a multitude of other names, but 
most descriptively by "horizontal point sampling." In this type of 
sampling, the plot size and therefore the number of trees represented by 
each tree tallied is not constant but varies with tree diameter. For 
example, if the basal area factor being used is ten, a tallied 12-inch 
tree represents 12.73 trees per acre while a tallied 24-inch tree represents 
3.18 trees per acre. 

The other types of polyareal plot sampling are horizontal line 
sampling, vertical point sampling and vertical line sampling. Further 
description is not appropriate here but can be found in Grosenbaugh 
(3) or Husch (4). A recent discussion of monareal and polyareal 
sampling has been prepared by Beers and Miller (2). 

Quadratic Mean Tree Diameter 

An estimate of the quadratic mean diameter, that is the diameter of 
the tree of average basal area, can be obtained by the following pro- 

1. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Papei 


252 Indiana Academy of Science 

1. Visit an arbitrary number of locations within the stand to be 

2. At each location make two tallies, first a count of the trees which 
qualify (this is the usual "Bitterlich count," '*angle count" or 
"point count") using a pre-selected basal area factor, and second 
a count of the trees within the circular plot concentric with the 
point where the "angle count" was made and whose radius depends 
on the basal area factor being used. It is convenient to designate 


the radius of this plot as — where k is the angle gauge constant. 


P'or example, if basal area factor = 10, the angle gauge constant 

1 1 

= — = .030303, and the circular plot radius = — 33 feet. 

33 .030303 

This condition, where plot radius is the reciprocal of the gauge 
constant, is referred to as the "neutral situation." 

3. After sufficient locations have been visited, calculate the average 
point tree count and the average plot tree count per location. 

4. Calculate the quadratic mean diameter from the formula 

ave. point tree count 
ave. diameter (quadratic) 

12 y 

ave. plot tree count 
or refer to a table such as Table 1 where the solution is given for 
a limited range of tree counts. 

The formula upon which Table 1 is based can be developed as 

follows : 

ave. B.A. per acre 

ave. basal area per tree = 

ave. number of trees per acre 

Now if the numerator is estimated using horizontal point sampling 
(Bitterlich sampling) and the denominator using conventional circular 
plots and assuming one location is visited, we have" 

F (point tree count) 

ave. B.A. per tree = 


(plot tree count) 

10890 k' (point tree count) tt R' 
43560 (plot tree count) 
TT R^^ (point tree count) 

4 (plot tree count) 

F = basal area factor = 10890 k", 
k — angle gauge constant = 0.0095827 VF7 
and R = circular plot radius in feet. 

2. A basic discussion of the following- fundamental relationships can 
be found in Beers and Miller (1). 

Ecology 253 

Now, since the diameter associated with any basal area is found by 

diameter = A/ B.A. I I 


ave. diameter (quadratic) = A/ ave. B.A.I I 

Substituting the formula developed above for average B.A. 
we have 

VTT R- k^ (point tree count) / 576 \ 
4 (Plot tree count) tt / 

ave. diameter (quadratic) 

12 R k A/ 
12 yj 

point tree count 
plot tree count 

point tree count 
plot tree count 

where plot radius, R, is equal to — . Average point and plot tree counts 


can be used in the formula if more than one location is visited. 

Arithmetic Mean Tree Diameter 

The ordinary arithmetic average tree diameter, which does not 
give as much weight to the larger size trees, can be estimated by 
a similar combination of monareal and polyareal plot sampling — again 
with no tree measurements needed. Here, however, it is necessary to 
use horizontal line sampling, desirably in conjunction with a rectangular, 
fixed-width plot. Horizontal line sampling differs from horizontal point 
sampling (Bitterlich sampling) in that trees are viewed and checked 
for qualification on one or more often on both sides of a line of some 
measured length. The trees are viewed, using an angle gauge, with 
the line of sight perpendicular to the fixed line segment. The rectangular 
plot is established using the sample line segment as the long central 
axis and measuring a specified distance on either side. 

An estimate of the arithmetic average tree diameter can be ob- 
tained by the following procedure : 

1. Visit an arbitrary number of sample line segments, say one chain in 

2. Along each line make two tallies, first a count of the trees which 
qualify using a pre-selected diameter factor (analagous to basal area 
factor in conventional Bitterlich sampling) , and second a count 
of the trees within the rectangular plot whose length is the length 


of the sample line segment and whose half-width is . For 


example, using an angle gauge having a basal area factor (F) of 10, 

254 Indiana Academy of Science 

diameter factor (inches) i= f = 12 V'lOF =120, 


gauge constant = k ^= — =^ .030303, 

10 330 

and plot half-width = = = 27.5 feet. 

12k 12 

3. After sufficient line segments have been traversed calculate the 
average line tree count and the average plot tree count per location. 

4. Calculate the arithmetic average diameter from the formula average 

(line tree count \ 
I , or refer to a table such as Table 2. 
nlot tree count / 

The formula upon which Table 2 is based was developed as follows: 

sum of diameters per acre 

average diameter per tree = , but if the 

number of trees per acre 

numerator is estimated using horizontal line sampling and the de- 
nominator using a fixed-size rectangular plot, we have 

f (line tree count) 

average diameter :=^ 


(rect. plot tree count) 


(line tree count) 


(rect plot tree count) 


/ line tree count ' 
12 w k( 

plot tree count / 


43560 ('6k) = 3960 k 
f zir diameter factor = 

66L L 

k = angle gauge constant 

w ^= rectangular plot half -width (in feet) 

and L = length of plot or length of line segment (in chains). 

Letting the plot half-width be determined by the angle gauge being 


used, specifically equal to , then the formula becomes 


/ line tree count \ 

average diameter = 10 I ) 

\ plot tree count / 

and a table can be prepared which is applicable to any combination of 
angle gauge and plot width leading to the neutral situation (i.e., plot 


half width = ) . 


Ecology 255 

Other Estimates 

Quadratic or arithmetic average stand height can be rapidly esti- 
mated using vertical point sampling or vertical line sampling in com- 
bination with the appropriate type of monareal plot. 

Vertical sampling (which can be accomplished either at a point 
or along a line) is not nearly as well known as horizontal sampling. 
Basically, however, they are the same in that sampling is being per- 
formed with the probability of tree selection in proportion to some 
element of tree size. While diameter (or D') is the pertinent element 
in horizontal sampling, height (or H") is the pertinent element in 
vertical sampling. Thus for a tree to "qualify" in vertical sampling its 
height must be greater than some constant, pre-determined gauge angle. 

Using field procedures similar to those previously described, the 
following formulas are appropriate using the indicated combinations of 
vertical sampling and plot sampling: 

ave tree height (quadratic) = R (tan *) 


vertical point tree count 
circular plot tree count 

(vertical line tree count \ 
rectangular plot tree count/, 

R = circular plot radius (in feet), 
w = rectangular plot half -width (in feet), 
tan 4> = vertical gauge constant. 

Literature Cited 

1. Beers, T. W. and C. I. Miller. 1964. Point Sampling: Research Resvilts, 
Theory, and Applications. Purdue Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bui. 786, 56 pp. 

2. . 1965. Polyareal plot sampling: terminology, symbolism and 

formulism. Manuscript submitted for publication in Journal of Forestry. 

3. Grosenbaugh, L. R. 1958. Point-sampling and Line-sampling: Probability 
Theory, Geometric Implications, Synthesis. So. For. Exp. Sta. Occ. Paper 
160. 34 pp. 

4. HusCH, B. 1963. Forest Mensuration and Statistics. The Ronald Press 


Indiana Academy of Science 



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Chairman: Ray T. Everly, Purdue University 
George H. Bick, Saint Mary's College, was elected chairman for 1967 

The Garden Symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata (Newport), a new Prob- 
lem of Field Corn. George E. Gould, Purdue University. — Infestations 
of garden symphylans in Clinton, Shelby and Harrison Counties in 1966 
are the first recorded on corn in the State. For many years this small 
centipede has been a pest of vegetable crops grown in greenhouses and 
occasionally migrated to crops nearby. In early June of 1966 our atten- 
tion was called to stunted corn plants with a purple color. Such plants 
had 25 or more symphylans feeding on the fine rootlets. Some plants 
died during the hot, dry weather in June and July, while the survivors 
grew to a foot or so in height and produced no ear. 

Areas infested with this pest ranged from one to 10 acres and 
were noticeably lower than surrounding rows. These soils had a high 
organic content and were quite loose. In one field where a 6-row 
corn planter was used, rows 2 and 5 were compacted by the tractor 
wheels and produced normal plants, while the other four were seriously 
damaged. In June a 4-inch soil core taken to a 4-inch depth had from 
25 to 50 symphylans feeding on the roots. Populations in the same rows 
in August were 50 or more. 

Notes and Records of Indiana Odonata, 1955-1966. B. Elwood Mont- 
gomery and Vinnedge, Lawrence, Purdue University. — Noteworthy rec- 
ords of Odonata collected during the period of 1955-1966, are included. 
Of most interest, perhaps, are the records of the spread and increase 
of the southern species, which came into Indiana during the dry period 
of the 1930*s. Although some species, as Erthrodijjlax minuscula, E. 
umbrata, and Teleallagma daeckii were present for only a few years, 
others, as Ladona deplanta, Celithemis fasciata and C. veryia have per- 
sisted and spread over additional portions of southern Indiana, and still 
others, as Anax longipes, Enallagma basidens and Archilestes grandis, 
now occur over most of the state. 

Wheat Curl Mite Aceria tulipae (Keifer), a New State Record. David L. 
Matthew Jr., Purdue University. — The wheat curl mite, Aceria tulipae 
(Keifer) has been found on wheat plants in three counties of the state. 
This record is of particular interest since this eriophyid mite is a sus- 
pected vector of kernel red streak, a virus disease of com. 


Review of Factors Affecting the Abundance of the 
Corn Leaf Aphid ^ 

Ray T. Everly, Purdue University 

In recent years the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphiwi maidis (Fitch), 
has become increasingly abundant and more destructive. The rates of 
infestation and losses for the past seven years are given in Table 
1. The loss in yield aveage 5.2% for the past seven years and the 
average bushel loss was 22,000,000. Questions concerning this insect's 
importance and the need and methods of control are becoming more 
urgent. A review of what is known about this insect and factors 
affecting its abundance is necessary before attempting to answer these 
questions. The corn leaf aphid is indigenous to the United States and 
was first described from New York by Fitch (7) in 1856. It is now 
known to be distributed world wide. In addition to being a primary 
destructor of corn yields, it is also the known vector of several virus 
disease, one of which, the Maize Dwarf Mosaic, is of importance to 
Indiana producers. Everly (5) gives a detailed review of the history 
and injury caused by this aphid. 


Aphids are among those insects that have a tremendous potential 
for increasing abundance. The corn leaf aphid reproduces by the un- 
fertilized female producing living young. According to Davis (3) the 
corn leaf aphid will start producing young when 11 days old and may 
give birth to as many as 95 over a 21-day period. The average pro- 
duction is 34. He also reported the aphid to have 9 generations in 
central Illinois and first appeared about June 11. However, recent 
investigations in connection with the Maize Dwarf Mosaic problem in 
southern Indiana indicated that the corn leaf aphid appears in late 
April or early May and will have at least 11 generations a year. Based 
upon an average progeny production of 34 and 11 generations, one corn 
leaf aphid could produce 7,020,000,000,000,000 progeny in one summer. 
Fortunately aphids are exposed to many environmental hazards and 
relatively few of this potential number survive. However, it is the 
most important factor in their abundance. A few aphids in the protec- 
tive whorl of a corn plant can produce a great number of progeny by the 
time of tassel appearance. 


An insect that overwinters in an area of occurrence often has a 
distinct advantage for population buildup over those that migrate into 
the area. Up to the present time there is no positive proof that the 
corn leaf aphid overwinters in Indiana. It is known to occur during 
winter months in northern Mississippi and central Oklahoma. Wilder- 

1. Approved by the Director of the Purdue Agricultural Experiment 
Station and assigned Jounal paper no. 2950. 


Entomology 261 

muth and Walters (11) reported that in Arizona 25% of colonies of 
this aphid survived when exposed for a short period of time to 
temperatures as low as 13° F. Recent observations of the corn leaf 
aphids in a field of barley near Evansville, Indiana, indicated that this 
aphid may overwinter in southern Indiana under favorable conditions. 
Corn leaf aphids in all stages of development were found on monthly 
samples of barley plants, except those in early March and April. Posi- 
tive identifications were made by Dr. Louise M. Russell of the U. S. 
National Museum. 

One theory of the occurrence of this aphid in Northern latitudes 
is its distribution by air currents from the south during late spring 
and early summer. It is thought that the increasing abundance of the 
aphids in the areas of overwintering, coupled with the maturing of host 
plants, results in the development of great numbers of winged forms. 
Since aphids are relatively incapable of extensive flights, these winged 
individuals leave the host plants and are carried by updrafts into the 
low jet streams that move from south to north and in a short time may 
be carried as far as 600 or 700 miles. Thus primary infestations in 
Indiana may be due to "fall-outs" of these insects. Factors causing 
this fall-out are not completely understood, but there is evidence that 
cold fronts may inactivate the insects or the exhaustion of food reserves 
resulting in their dropping out of the jet streams and settling on 
plants. Should these plants be suitable for colonization the aphids will 
survive. If not, they probably die as their food reserves are not 
adequate for much additional movement. Observations in the vicinity 
of New Albany, Indiana, in early May, 1965 and 1966, found the corn 
leaf aphid colonizing Johnson grass. At the same time aphids found 
on small corn were dead winged forms, due to the unsuitability of young 
com for aphid establishment. Undoubtedly this first appearance will 
vary from year to year as conditions vary at the point of origin 
of migration in the south. However, it does point out that this insect 
appears in Indiana in late April, and possible development on hosts 
other than corn may account for variations in yearly abundance and 

Host Plants 

A total of 67 host plants have been recorded for the corn leaf 
aphid. Most of these belong to the grass family, but a few, ragweed, 
plantain and dock, are "broad-leaved" plants. Native grasses include 
crab grass, bluegrass, barnyard grass, Foxtail grasses, Johnson grass 
and wild cane. These latter two are very abundant in southern Indiana. 
Cultivated crops include oats, barley, millet, rye, sorghum, corn, sudan 
grass, wheat, and broomcorn. With this number of hosts, early migrants 
could build-up in great numbers without recognition and subsequently 
migrate to corn. 


Biotypes of the corn leaf aphid are known to exist. Cartier and 
Painter (2) have isolated a biotype that is restricted to certain 
varieties of sorghum. Everly and Miller (6) showed that corn leaf 
aphids from different geographical areas of the United States responded 

262 Indiana Academy of Science 

differently to the three most suitable host crops. Thus the origin 
of the migrating population may be a factor in the abundance as well 
as the destructiveness of aphid populations on corn plants in different 

Predators and Parasites 

Predators and parasites are an important influence on populations 
of the corn leaf aphid. Predators include larval and adult ladybird 
beetles, larvae of lacewing flies, syrphid flies and possibly soldier 
beetles. The latter were very abundant on aphid infested corn plants 
the fall of 1966. A parasitic wasp is also very abundant when aphid 
colonies become large and numerous. 

There are several factors limiting the effectiveness of predators 
and parasites of the corn leaf aphid. The location of the developing 
aphid colonies deep in the whorl of the corn plant protects the aphids 
from all but very small predacious insects. It is not until the corn 
tassel emerges from the whorl and exposes the aphid colonies that 
predators and parasites become important. In addition, predators feed 
on many species of aphids and other insects, and a heavy population of 
aphids on a nearby legume crop could limit the number of predators 
moving into an aphid infested cornfield. This mass movement of 
predators and parasites at the time tassels emerge and expose the 
aphids makes insecticide treatments at this time an undesirable 
practice. For maximum benefit insecticides should be applied two weeks 
prior to tassel appearance. 

Soil Fertility 

While little is known about the influence of soil nutrients on aphid 
populations, highly fertile soils produce more succulent and larger 
plants. Some exploratory investigations by Branson and Simpson (1) 
indicate that high nitrogen applications increase aphid abundance. 
In the past five to ten years, production practices have greatly in- 
creased the amount of nitrogen applied to corn crops. This practice 
may in part be responsible for the increased aphid populations in recent 
years. In addition, high fertility levels stimulate plant development so 
corn plants are in a more suitable condition for colony establishment 
at an earlier stage of plant development. 

Host Plant Resistance 

Host crop resistance to corn leaf aphid establishment and develop- 
ment have been known for many years (8, 10). Huber and Stringfield 
(9) showed a high correlation between aphid resistance in corn and 
European corn borer resistance. Dishner and Everly (4) tested both 
seedling corn and barley and found significant differences in aphid 
populations among the inbreds and varieties tested. Other workers 
have reported field observations of differences in aphid infestations on 
corn. In the field today, even though no direct application of this 
resistance to aphids has been attempted, aphid populations are affected 
by the kinds of corn grown. In 1959, Everly (7), in a field of seven 
different commercial hybrids, reported a wide range of infestation and 

Entomology 263 

tolerance. These data are reproduced in Table 2. It will be noted 
that the hybrid Crow 432 had an average amount of severely infested 
plants but had relatively few barren plants and a low percentage 
of nubbins, whereas DeKalb 411 averaged slightly less heavily in- 
fested plants but had 23% barren and 28% with nubbin ears. Under 
a comparable aphid infestation, Crow 432 suffered less loss than DeKalb 
411. This represents a high degree of tolerance in the Hybrid Crow 
432. Resistance is shown in hybrid DeKalb 423, which averaged 35% 
heavily infested plants and a loss of 22% as compared to Crib Filler 
1'63G with 68% of the plants severely infested and a loss of 50%. In 
these two hybrids, the loss increased proportionally to the population, 
and the antibosis exhibited in hybrid DeKalb 423 not only affected 
the aphid population but also resulted in less injury. 

How much selectivity by aphids may play a part in aphid abundance 
is problematical. Most insects show preferences for hosts either as 
a source of food or for their progeny. In areas where cornfields are 
small and numerous, a high degree of selectivity by winged aphids 
is possible. On the other hand, the relative poor mobility of winged 
aphids makes selectivity in areas of high corn production, where 
acreages are large, of minor importance. However, until a method is 
developed for manually infesting corn plants in the field with aphids 
and obtaining a decree of consistency of establishment, the question of 
selectivity of hosts by the corn leaf aphid will not be resolved. As 
a factor in corn leaf aphid abundance, plant resistance in the genetic 
background of corn hybrids in use today, plays a part in determining 
aphid abundance. 


Of the seven factors discussed, two, the biotic potential and high 
soil fertility, act toward increasing aphid abundance. Predators and 
parasites and host plant resistance are effective in reducing aphid 
abundance. Three factors, aphid biotype, host plants and overwintering, 
can either increase or decrease aphid abundance. 

TABLE 1. Estimated losses in corn yield in Indiana associated 
with corn leaf aphid infestation. 1959-1965 



% Plants 

% Loss 

Bushel loss 


in Yield 

in yield 






















264 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 2. Infestation and losses to commercial dent corn hybrids from 
infestations of the corn leaf aphid. Bourbon, Indiana. 1959^ 

% Severely % Plants % Plants % Loss 

Hybrid infestedb with no ears with nubbins in yield 

Crow 432 





DeKalb 423 

Plot A 





Plot B 





Crib Filler 166G 





Indiana 610 





Crib Filler 151G 





DeKalb 411 





Crib Filler 163G 










a Based on the examination of 2 samples of 50 plants each in each hybrid, 
h All hybrids were 100% infested. The data in this column represents the 
percent plants showing- severe infestation — stunted tassels, upper leaves 
dead and discolored with sooty mold growth and massive areas of cast 
aphid skins. 

Literature Cited 

1. Branson, Terry F. and Robert G. Simpson. 1966. The effect of a nitrogen 
deficient test and crowding on the corn leaf aphid. Proc. N. Cent. Br. 
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 20:56. 

2. C ARTIER, J. J. and Reginald H. Painter. 1956. Differential reaction of two 
biotypes of corn leaf aphid to resistant and susceptible varieties and selec- 
tions of sorghum. J. Econ. Entomol. 49:498-508. 

3. Davis, J. J. 1909. Biological studies of three species of Aphididae. USDA 
Bur. Entomol. Tech. Serv. 12(8) :123-168. 

4. Dishner, Gayla H. and Ray T. Everly, 1961. Greenhouse studies on the 
resistance of corn and barley varieties to survival of the corn leaf aphid. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 71:138-141. 

5. Everly, Ray T. 1960. Loss in corn yield associated with the abundance 
of the corn leaf aphid, EJiopalosiiilinm maidis, in Indiana. J. Econ. Entomol. 

6. Everly, Ray T. and Melvin S. Miller. 1962. Preliminary Studies of the 
responses of the corn leaf aphid, Ehopalosiithnm maidis (Fitch), from six 
geographical areas to three host crops. Proc. N. Cent. Br. Entomol. Soc. 
Amer. 17:25-27. 

7. ViTCii, Asa. 185G. Tlie maize aphid. Second Rpt. Insects, New York State, 
Albany, pp. 318-320. 

S. Gernert, W. B. 1917. Aphid immunity of Teosinte-corn hybrids. Science 

(n.s.) 40:390-392. 
9. Huber, L. L. and J. IT. Stringfield. 1942. Aphid infestation of strains of 

corn as an index of their susceptibility to corn borer attack. J. Agric. Res. 


10. McCoLLOCH, J. W. 1921. The corn leaf aphid (Aphis maidis Fitch) in 
Kansas. .1. Ecoil Entomol. 14:89-94. 

11. Wildermuth, V. L. and E. V. Walter. 1932. Biology and control of the 
corn leaf aphid with special reference to the Southwestern states. USDA 
Tech. Bull. 306. 21 p. 

Field Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner 
in an Apple Orchard 

Robert E. Dolphin, Merrill L. Cleveland and Thomas E. Mouzin/ 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Vincennes 

The use of preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (1) 
for the control of lepidopterous insects has increased in recent years. 
For example, the results obtained in field trials against the alfalfa 
caterpillar, Colias eurytheme Boisduval, reported by Steinhaus (10) 
and Stern et al. (11), and against the cabbage looper, Trichopliisia ni 
(Hiibner), reported by Hall et al. (2), are particularly noteworthy. 
However, as noted by McEwen (5), the foliage-feeding species are 
more likely to acquire a lethal dose of the bacillus crystals than 
species that are internal feeders; thus, he considered the codling moth, 
Carpocapsa pomonella (L.), poorly suited for this type of biological 

In actual field experiments with such a preparation of B. 
thuringiensis (Thuricide®)^ against foliage and fruit pests of the apple, 
Mains sylvestris Mill., the results have been variable. Jacques (3) 
found that the codling moth could be controlled effectively but not at 
the usual levels of commercial control; unprotected foliage feeders such 
as the fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometa^Ha (Harris), were controlled 
economically, but protected leaf feeders such as the red-banded leaf 
roller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker), were not. Oatman and 
Legner (8) and Oatman (7) used ryania and Thuricide in combination 
in a program of integrated control of orchard pests and reported 
86-88% undamaged fruit for 2 consecutive years. Defoliation in an 
apple orchard by the fall cankerworm and the linden looper, Ei'ranis 
tiliaria (Harris), was significantly reduced by applying B. thuringiensis 
sprays (9). Also, according to Legner and Oatman (4), a population re- 
duction in the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis & Schiffer- 
miiller), after exposure to B. thuringiensis, was accompanied by retarded 
growth and development of the insect. In another study by Oatman (6), 
injury from codling moths was 50% lower after treatment with Thuricide 
than in an untreated check, but economic control was not achieved; it 
was reported that the material had value as a selective control agent 
against the red-banded leaf roller and the eye-spotted bud moth. (The 
increase of phytophagous mites in the treatment plots was an adverse 
side-effect in his studies.) 

Experiments with an improved formulation (1) of Z>. thiiringiensis 
were conducted during the summer of 1966 at Vincennes, Indiana, 
against codling moth and other apple pests to determine if the extended 
biological activity reported would give better results than the formula- 
tions used previously by other workers. 

1. The assistance of Miss "Vienna Wong', Insects Researeli Helper, in 
conducting these experiments is gratefully acknowledged. 

2. Mention of a proprietary product does not necessarily imply its 
endorsement by the U.S.D.A. 


266 Indiana Academy of Science 


A block of 5 mature Grimes Golden apple trees in an abandoned 
orchard of 84 trees was sprayed weekly for 16 weeks with Thuricide 
90 TS(R), a flowable material containing 30 x 10" spores/g". Rate of 
application varied from 1.5 to 21 lb. of formulated material/ 100 gallons 
of spray. 

Ten gallons of spray were applied to each tree from the ground by 
using a single-nozzle hand gun attached to a 40-ft. hose of a con- 
ventional high-pressure sprayer operating at 600 psi. Applications were 
begun May 4 when the trees were at the calyx stage and concluded 
August 16. The rate of application was doubled as the season progressed. 
Times of application and doses are shown in Table 1. On the day after 
all applications except those made June 13 and July 19, a randomly- 
selected sample of 20 leaves was taken from each treated tree and 
from 3 nearby untreated trees. Each leaf was then infested in the 
laboratory with 2 laboratory-reared larvae of red-banded leaf rollers 
and placed on wet sand in red plastic containers that were 13 cm. in 
diameter and 8 cm. in height. Eight 2-mm. holes were drilled into 
the tight-fitting lid to permit gas exchange. The leaves were examined 
at 1- and 7-day intervals to determine the number of healthy, diseased, 
and dead larvae. Diseased larvae were easily counted because they 
deteriorated to a blackened, flaccid sac of liquid. 

TABLE 1. Mortality of laboratory-reared red-banded leaf roller larvae 

exposed to deposits of Bacillus thuringiensis on field-sprayed 

apple leaves. (Vincennes, Ind. 1966.) 

Adusted 9 

i, mortalitya b 


Date treated 

Ib./lOO gal. 

24 hours 

1 week 

May 4 



















June 7 
















July 5 
















Aug. 2 











a Adjusted by the use of Abbott's formula. 

b Dash ( — ) indicates that leaf samples were not taken. 



After 6 applications, 2 apples were taken from each of the 5 
treated trees and from each of 2 untreated trees for bioassay studies. 
These apples were impaled on 4-in. wire pins at the calyx end of the 
fruit and placed upright on a board. Five first-instar codling moth 
larvae from a laboratory culture were transferred to each apple with 
a camel's hair brush, and a narrow ring of tanglefoot was placed 
around the apple's calyx end to prevent their escape. The apples were 
dissected 1 week later, and a record was made of the number of larval 
entries, the number of larvae found, and their condition (Table 2). 

On August 18, 2 days after the final application, 100 leaves and 
100 fruit were picked from each of the 5 treated trees and each of 5 
untreated trees. The leaves were examined, and the amount of insect 
damage was estimated. Also, the fruit was examined externally and 
then dissected for detailed study. Records made of the type of damage 
present and the number of codling moth larvae found are shown in 
Tables 3 and 4. 


As indicated in Table 1, red-banded leaf roller larvae that fed 
on treated leaves had higher mortality than those that fed on un- 
treated leaves; also, rate of application and the degree of mortality 
had a direct correlation. Although the controls showed considerable 
mortality at the end of 1 week of laboratory feeding, the percentage 
efficiency of the treatment ranged from 28 to 98% at the various rates 
of applications. However, the effects of B. thuringiensis deposits on 
field-sprayed apple fruit against laboratory-reared codling moth larvae 
(Table 2) were evident only at the higher rates and even then, damage 
to the apples was not prevented. 

The data obtained from the leaf samples collected at the end of 
the tests (August 18) showed that damage to treated foliage was 
about half that sustained by untreated foliage (Table 3). However, 

TABLE 2. Mortality of laboratory-reared codling moth larvae exposed 

to deposits of Bacillus thitringievsis on field-sprayed apple 

fruit. (Vincennes, Ind. 1966.) 


one week 




Ib./lOO gal. 


June 21 





July 12 










Aug. 2 















a Adjusted by the use of Abbott's formula. 

268 Indiana Academy of Science 

the amount of damage to untreated foliage by foliage feeders was 
generally moderate, except near feeding colonies of the eastern tent 
caterpillar, Malacosoma aynericanmn (F.), and the fall webworm, 
Hyphantria cunea (Drury). Although both species were present in the 
treated trees, they were sufficiently controlled by the weekly sprays 
so that colonies did not persist. 

The damage to the fruit by codling moth was reduced by about 
half in the plot treated with B. thiirmgiensis (Table 4). An average 
of 9 vacated galleries of the first generation and 2'6 active second- 
generation codling moth larvae per 100 fruit were recorded; in the 
check, the average was 21 vacated galleries and 46 live larvae. The 

TABLE 3. Insect damage to foliage of 5 apple trees sprayed weekly 
with Bacillus thurmgiensis. (Vincennes, Ind. 1966.) 

Characteristic of damaged 
portion of leaf 





% of total leaf area damaged 

a Average for 100-leaf samples from each of 5 trees. Leaves picked on 
August 18, 19G6, 2 days after final treatment. 

b Feeding damage by insects and mites with sucking mouthparts. 

TABLE 4. Insect damage to fruit from 5 apple trees sprayed with 
Bacillus thurmgiensis. (Vincennes, Ind. 1966.) 

Percentage of fruits damageda in 

Percentage of 















d 10 


Type of injury Check Treatment 

Vacated codling moth galleries 21 9 

Codling moth larvae (live) 46 26 

Codling moth stings'' 65 138 

Red-banded leaf roller damage 8 9 

Plum curculio scars 22 17 

San Jose scale damage' 8 3 

Fruit deformation'' 3 2 

a Average for 100 fruit from each of 5 trees. Fruit picked August IS, 
2 days after final treatment. 

b Characterized by shallow feeding area, corky tissue, growth distortion, 
and absence of live larvae. 

c Presence of scale and/or characteristic ring of abnormal color. 

<1 Malformed fi-uit resulting from early season feeding by aphids. 

Entomology 269 

treated fruit had a greater number of stings than the check fruit, 
which may reflect the death of newly-entered larvae. The fruit in the 
check had an average of 22% damage by plum curculio, Conotrachelus 
nenuphar (Herbst), adult feeding and oviposition scars, as compared 
to 17% in the treatment. San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus Com- 
stock, was also more common on the check fruit, with an S% infestation, 
than on the treated fruit, with 3% infestation. 

Thuricide 90 TS, in these tests, did not provide sufficient protection 
of fruit or foliage from insect attack, judged by present economic 
standards. However, the formulation could be incorporated into an 
integrated program in which partial control of the codling moth and 
red-banded leaf roller would be acceptable if other control methods 
were concurrently directed toward these species. 

The results of these tests and of those reported in the literature 
indicate that the best utilization of the material could be made in a 
program of selective reduction of lepidopterous foliage feeders, especially 
such gregarious feeders as tent caterpillars, fall webworms, and, per- 
haps, leaf rollers, combined with an overall program of biological control 
or integrated biological and chemical control. 

Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1965. Thuricide 90 TS flowable extended activity microbial in- 
secticide. Bioferm Division, International Mining & Chem. Corp., 9 pp. 

2. Hall, I. M., R. L. Hale, H. H. Shorey, and K. Y. Arakawa. 1961. Evalu- 
ation of chemical and microbial materials for control of the cabbage looper, 
J. Econ. Entomol. 54(l):141-6. 

3. Jacques, R. P. 1961. Control of some lepidopterous pests of apple with 
commercial preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. J. Insect Pathol. 

4. Legneu, E. F., and E. R. Oatman. 19G2. Effects of Thuricide on the eye- 
spotted bud moth, Sjnlonota ocellana. J. Econ. Entomol. 55(5):677-8. 

5. McEWEN, F. L. 1960. Microbial insecticides for insect control in Handbook 
of Biological Control of Plant Pests. Plants and Gardens 16(3):69-75. 

6. Oatman, E. R. 1965. The effect of Bacillus tliuringiensis Berliner on some 
lepidopterous larval pests, apple aphid and predators, and on phytophagous 
and predacious mites on young apple trees. J. Econ. Entomol. 58(6) :1144-7. 

7. Oatman, E. R. 1966. Studies on integrated control of apple pests. J. Econ. 
Entomol. 59(2) :368-73. 

8. Oatman, E. R., and E. F. Legner. 1962. Integrated control of apple insects 
and mite pests in Wisconsin. Proc. N.C. Branch E.S.A. 17:110-5. 

9. QuiNTON, R. J., and C. C. Doane. 1962. Bacillus tlmringiensis against the 
fall cankerw^orm, AlsopMla iJonietaria. J. Econ. Entomol. 55(4):567-8. 

10. Steinhaus, E. a. 1951. Possible use of Bacilhts thuringiensis Berliner as 
an aid in the biological control of alfalfa caterpillar. Hilgardia 30(18) : 

11. Stern, V. M., I. M. Hall, and G. D. Peterson. 1959. The utilization of 
Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner as a biotic insecticide to suppress the alfalfa 
caterpillar. J. Insect Pathol. 1:142-51. 

Three Pine Weevils New to Indiana^ 

Donald L. Schuder, Purdue University 

The pales weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst)", and Pissodes affinis 
RandalP are serious pests of cutover pine land. The weevils are at- 
tracted by the odor of resin into areas where pine trees have been cut. 
They lay their eggs under the bark of recently cut stumps and weak 
trees where the larvae later develop (4). 

The adult weevils of both species feed on the bark of the trees. 
The external nibbling produces small round holes, usually in patches. 
These feeding areas often girdle small seedlings and lateral branches, 
which subsequently die. Damage is usually at its worst in early summer, 
although occasional seedlings may be killed throughout the entire 
growing season. 

The adults of both species are nocturnal. They normally feed 
at night or during cloudy weather. During the daytime the adults 
hide in the litter beneath the tree. 

Pales Weevil 

The pales weevil is an increasingly troublesome pest of pine 
plantings in southern Indiana. This robust weevil seems to prefer 
white pine, but red and scotch pines may also be severely damaged. All 
pine species can be attacked as well as fir, hemlock, spruce, cypress, 
juniper, arborvitae, birch and ash, according to Warner (6). 

The weevil is a dark reddish brown to black and marked irregularly 
with gray or yellowish hairs. It is about Vs to V2 inch long and has a 
prominent snout. The white eggs are laid at the base of stumps or 
seedlings. The grubs, which tunnel beneath the bark, are creamy white 
with brown heads. When full grown, they construct a shallow, oval 
shaped cell about V2 inch long. Each cell is filled with a layer of 
excelsior-like shredded wood, called a "chip cocoon". The adults emerge 
in September and overwinter in the duff and debris beneath the tree (2). 

The pales weevil was first discovered in Brown county in 1962. Since 
then this insect has been found in Porter, Pike, Vanderburg, Spencer, 
Jennings, Tippecanoe and Jeft'erson counties by the author. 

Pissodes affinis 
This pine weevil superficially resembles the white pine weevil in 
appearance, but its life history and damage are entirely different. 
The body is a dark reddish brown with two pairs of creamy white 
spots on the elytra. The insect is i/4 to % of an inch in length. Over- 
wintering adult weevils emerge in early May. They feed on the bark 
of pine trees up to 50 feet in height. Feeding continues throughout 
the summer, and the adults overwinter in the duff. Adults emerge in 
early June, feeding and flying about in search of food and breeding 

1. Purdue University Agricultural P^xperiment Station Journal Paper 
No. 2954. 

2. Identification verified by John Kingsolver, IJ. S. National Museum. 

3. Collected by Paul I^amb, identification by the author. 


Entomology 271 

sites. The common hosts are white, red, Scotch and jack pines (3, 6). 

The Pissodes weevil was first discovered in Elkhart county in 1961. 
Since that time, it has been found in Bartholomew, Brown, Harrison, 
Jennings, Jefferson, Knox, Marion, Monroe, Pike, Porter, Spencer, 
Tippecanoe, Warrick and Vanderburgh counties by the author. 

Eggs are laid in mid-May at the root collar of stumps usually 
just an inch or two below the soil line. The larvae tunnel beneath the 
bark and usually complete their feeding in about 50 to 60 days (6). The 
larval feeding zone is usually a few inches above and below the soil 
line. However, when the population is heavy, the feeding may extend 
several feet up on the trunk and down in the roots. The mature larvae 
are about ^L inch long and white with brown heads. Pupation occurs 
in shallow, elongated pits covered with excelsior-like wood fibers. The 
insect remains in a prepupal stage over winter. Pupation occurs in 
April and adults emerge in May and June. 

White Pine Weevil 

The white pine weevil kills the tops of pine and spruce trees, 
especially white pine, jack pine and Norway spruce. The weevil will 
attack all conifers except balsam fir and hemlock ( 1 ) . 

The adult weevil, superficially identical to P. affinis, overwinters in 
litter on the ground. When the pine buds begin to swell in the spring, 
the weevils emerge and congregate on the terminal shoot to feed and 
deposit their eggs. Pitch flow from feeding and egg-laying punctures 
in the bark is the first sign of weevil attack. Later, after the larval 
stages bore downward beneath the bark, the top two to four whorls 
of growth die. The mature larvae form oval pits in the wood, which 
are lined with excelsior-like shredded wood. These structures are 
called "chip cocoons". Adults emerge in late summer and feed on 
the buds and branches prior to entering hibernation in the fall. 

The loss of the central leader, due to weevil attack, results in 
crooks or forks which reduce the quality of ornamentals and both 
quality and quantity of timber. Trees from three to twenty feet tall 
are subject to attack. 

To date, the white pine weevil has been found only in Morgan 
county^, but the increased usage of pine trees for many different pur- 
poses ensures a wide distribution of this insect in Indiana. 

Literature Cited 

1. Dirks, C. O, 1955. White pine — natures gift to New England. Protect it 
from the white pine weevil. Maine Farm Res. 3(3):3-8. 

2. Friend, R. B. and H. H. Chamberlin. 1940. Some observations on pales 
weevil injury to white pine plantings in New England. Conn. AES Bui. 461: 

3. Martin, J. L. 1964. The insect ecology of red pine plantations in central 
Ontario. II. Life history and control of Curculionidae. Can. Ent. 96(11): 

4. Rennels, R. G. 1966. The pales weevil. 111. Res., Summer: 5. 

5. Warner, R. E. 1966. A review of the Hylobius of North America, with a 
new species injurious to slash pine. Coleopterist's Bui. 20(3):69-71. 

6. Wells, A. B. 1926. Notes on Hylobius pales and Pissodes strobi Peck as 
nursery pests. Jour. Econ, Ent, 19:413. 

Studies on the Color Patterns in Crosses of Tropisternus from 

Western Mexico with Other Color Forms of the Tropisternus 

coUaris Complex (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)^ 

Frank N. Young, Indiana University 

In a previous paper (3), I referred all of the North American 
forms of Tropiste7'nus (s. str.), except T. nigcr d'Orchymont, to 
Tropisternus collaris (Fabricius). The close relationship of the North 
and South American color forms is evident, but the genetic evidence 
of Fi and backcross incompatibility between geographically separated 
populations is now more extensive and indicates the existence of partial 
sterility barriers between several of the populations. Detailed data are 
presented in the companion paper by B. Dancis (1). The critical experi- 
ments with the hybridization of mexicanus-like forms from Panama and 
other parts of Central America have not yet been made, however, and 
until the relationship of the South American populations of collaris 
with the geographically adjacent populations of 7nexicanus-\ike forms 
can be determined, I think that we should retain the present arrange- 
ment and consider all the color forms as belonging to the Tropisternus 
collaris Complex. The known color forms of this group are shown in 
semi-diagrammatic figures and a rough indication of their distribution 
is given in Plate I, figs. 1-13. 

In western Mexico (Sinaloa, Nayarit, and Jalisco) very lightly 
pigmented forms of T. collaris are common. In a collection from 
Culiacan, Sinaloa (in California Academy of Science), the pattern 
is so reduced in some specimens that the pronotal blotch is represented 
by a fine dark line and the elytral dark lines are greatly reduced and 
fragmented (2). The reduction of the dark markings seems to be 
greatest in the central coastal area of Sinaloa, and specimens from 
Nayarit and Jalisco, although still showing reduced patterns, are 
closer to typical mexicanns (Castelnau) from eastern Mexico and 
Central America. Sufficient collecting has not been done in central 
Mexico to prove the geographical continuity or discontinuity of these 
western populations with typical mexicanus, but it seems probable 
that we are here dealing with an isolated population adapted to more 
extreme desert conditions than the eastern and southern populations. 

Collections were made in June, 1965, in Sinaloa and Nayarit, 
and living beetles were transported to the laboratory in Bloomington. 
None of the wild specimens nor specimens reared from them showed 
color patterns which rated less than 7 on the head, 21 on pronotum, 
or 30 on elytra by the scale (PI. II) used in previous work (2). Specimens 
used in crosses reported here were from the Rio Presidio, near towns 
of Walamo, Sinaloa {WAL), or Villa Union {VIJN). 

Crosses of individuals from the Rio Presidio population were made 
with laboratory stocks of striolatiis (LeConte) from the White River 

1. Contribution No. 796 from . the Zoological Laboratories of Indiana 
University aided by grant GB 2768 from the Natiqnal Science Foundation. 




PLAa\h] I 
Semi-diagrammatic figures representing the color patterns of the tcnown members 
of tlie Tropisternus collaris Complex with approximate indications of their dis- 
tribution : 1. Light form of mexicaniis (Castelnau) from Sinaloa, Nayarit, and 
Jalisco, Mexico 2. striolatvs (LeConte) eastern United States 3. viridis Young 
and Spangler, Florida and southern Georgia and Alabama 4. Typical form of 
mexicanus, central United States, Mexico, and Central America 5. vroxivius 
Sharp, Cuba 6. Puerto Rican form of collaris (Fabricius) 7. Melanic form of 
collaris from Colombia 8. Typical form ? of collaris from Venezuela and north- 
eastern Brazil 9. Form of collaris found along western edge of Amazon region 
in Bolivia and Peru 10. Form of collaris from Sao Paulo region of Brazil 11. 
lepidus (Castelnau), Argentina 12. parananus Sharp, Parana region of Brazil 
13. Melanic form of collaris from Matto Grosso of Brazil. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

near Elnora, Indiana (WHR) , viridis Young and Spangler from Bivin's 
Arm of Payne Prairie near Gainesville, Florida (BIV), and a melanic 
form of collaris from Lago de Ayapel, Colombia {AY A). The color 
patterns found in the results of these hybrid crosses, Fi crosses, back- 
crosses to the recessive parent type, and crosses with other stocks are 
tabulated in Figs. 15-24. 

Semidiagrammatic figures of head, pronotal, and elytral patterns of United 
States forms of Tropisternus collaris complex and intermediates between 
them. Numbers on histograms in figures 14-24 refer to numbers of patterns 
on this plate. (After Young, 1961.) 

A number of other crosses were made using specimens from the 
Rio Piaxtla near town of San Ignacio, Sinaloa, and from ponds and 
a stream near San Bias, Nayarit. Most of these either produced small 
numbers of offspring or the results were similar to those with the Rio 
Presidio individuals. 

Entomology 275 

Most of the crosses made were of wild Walamo males to laboratory 
stock females, but crosses using- wild Walamo females and laboratory 
males were more successful and did not show any apparent differences 
as far as the color pattern is concerned. 

Although the results of these crosses are not as clear cut as could 
be desired, they do show the presence of a switch mechanism and 
suggest some interesting relationships between the color forms. The 
wild population from which the lightly pigmented mexicanus parents 
were drawn is quite uniform as shown in Fig. 14. There is some 
variation, but most is of such a minor nature it is difficult to assay. 
The pronotal blotch in some specimens shows a reduction at the 
posterior end, but this did not reappear in hybrids or backcrosses and 
so is considered to be due to developmental factors. The venter of 
western Mexican specimens is dark reddish brown instead of being 
fuscous or black as in other color forms. This effect, however, seems 
to be inherited multifactorially, the Fi hybrids being intermediate and 
the Fi and backcross progeny showing a wide range of variation in 
ventral coloration which is very difficult to assay. 

It is clear from these crosses that the head pattern does not 
show the degree of dominance of the light patterns which is shown 
in the pronotal and elytral patterns. This has also been evident in 
previous crosses of other color forms but in most is difficult to quantify 
because of the close resemblances of the head patterns. In all the 
present crosses, the female or male parent from the lightly pigmented 
western Mexican form showed head pattern 8 in which the pigment does 
not extend anterior to the arms of the epicranial suture. Only about 
8% of the wild specimens from the Rio Presidio show any indication 
of a darker pattern, and these all have the pigment barely exceeding 
the arms of the epicranial suture and were rated as 7. In the Fi 
of crosses with the darker forms, darker head patterns were common : 
95% with AY A (Fig. 15), over 80% with WHR (Fig. 18), and 100% 
with BIV (Fig. 21). These results are also confirmed by a number of 
other crosses in which smaller numbers were involved and which are 
not included in the totals in the figures. 

In Fi crosses and backcrosses of A FA x WAL, the partial dominance 
of the lighter head pattern is maintained (Figs. 16-17) as also seems 
to be the case in the Fx crosses of WAL x WHR (Figs. 18-19). In the 
crosses of hybrids of WAL x WHR with AY A and with backcrosses 
and crosses of WAL x BIV, however, scattering occurs (Figs. 20, 
22-24) with only partial segregation into two modes (Fig. 24). 

In all the crosses the pronotal and elytral patterns show clearer 
indications of dominance and segregation in the Fi, backcrosses, and 
crosses with other strains. Although the numbers are small, segregation 
is marked in the Fi and backcrosses of AY A x WAL as might be ex- 
pected from the very different patterns of these two forms. The evi- 
dence of segregation is less evident in the crosses of WAL x WHR and 
WAL X BIV, and WAL x WHR crosses some interference may be present 
which reduces the darker classes. 

The WAL x BIV hybrids are remarkable in that in backcrosses 
and crosses with AY A, types of pronotal and elytral patterns appear 


Indiana Academy of Science 


1 2 3 ii 5 6 7 
80 50 

FIG. 15 26 

1 2 3 ii 5 6 7 8 

9 11:13 15 1719 21 23 2526272829303132 

9 11131517192123 2526272829303132 

FIG. 16 

1 3 2 2 2 11 

, \mK7A , ^fTT:!^ ty?:^ {SZa .^ trm tssi 

1231^5 67 8 A 9 11132517192123 A 2526272829303132 


FIG. 17 

9 10 





1231a5678 a. 9 11131517192123 A 25 2627 26 29303132 


FIG. 18 





123li56 78 

9 11131517192123 2526 27 28 2930 3L 32 

Frequency histograms of color patterns in crosses of Tropisternus (See 
Plate II for key, pronotal patterns are grouped by twos and patterns 31 
and 32 represent the extreme reduction of the elytral pattern). 

Figure 14. WATj and VUN, wild and reared specimens from Rio 

Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Figure 15. Hybrids of AYA x WAL 

Figure IG. Fi crosses of AYA x WAL 

Fig-ure 17. Blackcrosses of AYA x WAL 

Figure IS. Hybrids of WAL x WHR 




FIG. 19 


1 2 

3 1; 5 6 7 8 



.20 ^15 

1 2 3 I4 5 6 7 


FIG. 21 


1 2 3 ii 5 6 7 8 




9 11331517 192123 



9 11 03 1517 as- 21 23 

2 2 





^ , 7 

2526 272829303132 


9 11131517192123 2526272829303132 


FIG. 2J 


XP^J^ X 



12 3 1; 

5 6 7 8 

9 1113:1$ 1739 21 







HG. 23 



6 ^^ ^^ I^IO 9 

9 111315 17192123 2526272829303132 


FIG. 2li 


^r^^ ^ 

1 2 3 U 5 6 7 





9 11131517192123 




Figure 19. Fi crosses of WAL x WHR 

Figure 20. Crosses of Fi (WAL x WHR) x AYA 

Figure 21. Hybrids of WAL x BIV 

Figure 22. Crosses of Fi (WAL x BIV) x AYA (male) 

Figure 23. Crosses of Fi (WAL x BIV) x AYA (female) 

Figure 24. Backerosses of WAL x BIV 

278 Indiana Academy of Science 

which are characteristic of the wild populations of striolatns. The 
suggestion, however, that striolatus actually represents a hybrid 
population between viridis and typical mexicanus is still unacceptable. 
The population of striolatus is too uniform over too great an area (2). 
A possible explanation is that viridis (BIV) carries the pattern genes 
for the striolatus (WHR) pattern, and that the extension of the 
pattern is due to unrelated genes. 

The results reported here do not seem to indicate the breakdown 
of a supergene, but may best be explained on the basis of segregation 
of modifiers of a major gene or genes. 


A lightly pigmented form of Tropisternus (s. str.) from western 
Mexico was crossed with color forms striolatus (LeConte) and viridis 
Young and Spangler and with a melanic form of collaris from Colombia. 
The pronotal and elytral pattern of the light form showed dominance 
over the darker patterns in all crosses, but the lighter head pattern 
showed partial dominance. Fi crosses, backcrosses, and crosses with 
the South American melanic form showed higher variability and 
partial segregation into the parental types. The results are interpreted 
as being most probably due to the segregation of modifying genes which 
affect the details of the major color patterns. 

Literature Cited 

1. Dancis, Barry M. 196 7. Experimental hybridization of an insular form of 
Tropisternus collaris (Fabricius) with mainland subspecies (Coleoptera : 
Hydrophilidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 76: 

2. Young, Frank N. 1961. Geographical variation in the Tropisteriuis mexi- 
canus (Castelnau) complex (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Proc. XI Inter. 
Cong, of Entomol. Vienna, 1960, 1:112-116. 

3. Young, Frank N. 1965. Hybridization Between North and South American 
Tropisternus (Coleoptera: Hydropliilidae). Proc. XII Inter. Cong, of Entomol., 
London, p. 246. 

i. Young, Frank N. 1966. The genetic basis of color patterns of aquatic 
beetles of the Tropisternus collaris complex (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). 
Proc. North Central Branch, Entomol. Soc. of Amer. 20:87-92. 

Experimental Hybridization of an Insular Form of Tropisternus 

collaris (Fabricus) with Mainland Subspecies (Coleopetera: 

Hydrophilidae) ^ 

Barry M. Dancis", Indiana University 

Matings between the three North American subspecies of beetles 
in the Tropisternus collaris complex and a melanic form from Colombia 
show varying degrees of fertility and viability depending upon which 
two subspecies are mated in a given cross (Table 3). Each of the 
subspecies studied has a distinctive head, pronotal, and elytral pattern, 
and there is a definite relation between the dominance of one pattern 
over another and the degree of pigmentation. The purpose of the present 
study was to determine the relation of color pattern and fertility be- 
tween an insular subspecies found in Puerto Rico and the four mainland 

Materials and Methods 

The insular strain of Tropisternus collaris (Fabricus) was col- 
lected in April, 1966, near Camuey, Puerto Rico (CAM). The beetles 
were found in a quiet backwater, thirty yards in diameter, of a slow 
moving stream. The water was about one foot deep with a layer of 
mud at least nine inches thick on the bottom. Emergent grasses, with 
stems three to six inches apart, occurred along the edges and out 
several feet from shore. The only shade was that of these plants and 
the bank. Tropistern2is lateralis (Fabr.) was common along with other 
aquatic beetles, but T. collaris was relatively rare. Only six specimens 
were caught in thirty minutes of collecting. These were transported to 
Bloomington, Indiana, in jars containing moist, sterile sphagnum. 
The mainland subspecies used in the crosses were stock cultures of 
Tropisteryius collaris mexicanus (Castelnau), T. c. viridis (Young and 
Spangler), and T. c. cf. parana7ius (Sharp) whose parents were from 
Walamo, Mexico (WAL), Bivin's Arm of Payne Prairie, near Gainsville, 
Florida (BIV), and Lago de Ayapel, Colombia (AYA), respectively. 
CAM males were mated with BIV, AYA, and WAL females, and a 
single CAM female was mated with a WAL male and subsequently 
with a CAM male. The Fi progeny were selfed and were backcrossed to 
the subspecies which had the recessive color pattern. The beetles were 
fed, handled, and cared for in a manner similar to that reported in 
Young (1). For those larvae which had failed to burrow into the 
sand after one week of exposure to it, narrow holes were poked 
in the sand to form a chamber one-quarter inch in diameter. One 
larva was placed in each hole, and the chamber was closed with a glass 
coverslip. The sand was kept moist enough to give it a darker color 
than when dry, and dry enough so that water did not collect at the 

1. Contribution No. 795 from tlie Zoological Laboratories of Indiana 
University aided by grant GB 2768 from the National Science Foundation. 

2. Trainee under United States Public Health Service Genetics Train- 
ing Grant GMT-29-66. 


280 Indiana Academy of Science 

bottom of the container. After two weeks in the sand, all the beetles 
which had not emerged were dug up, and those which were not adults 
were placed in a sand chamber as mentioned above. 


The results of the crosses are summarized and included in tables 
1, 2, and 3, If the number of eggs in a given eggcase was not known, 
the eggcase and larvae emerging from it were not included in the data 
unless there were no other data from the cross. Crosses which did not 
produce any eggcases were not included in the results. 

TABLE 1. Color Pattern Dominance and Segregation in Crosses 
Between Different Forms of Tropisternus collaris 


Color Pattern 

Fi Progeny 


X Fi and Backcross Progeny 







CAM, and some intermediate 





CAM and some intermediate 





BIV and some intermediate 





AYA and some intermediate 


See Table 2 for explanation of abbreviations. 

Discussion and Conclusion 

For all the pureline times pureline hybrid crosses, the Fi progeny 
show the same general color pattern as the lighter parent (Table 1). 
When the Fi progeny are selfed or backcrossed to the darker parent, 
the resulting progeny show much greater pattern variability than 
either of the parental subspecies. Many of these progeny have inter- 
mediate patterns which indicate that more than one gene controls color. 
These results are consistent with those obtained when the mainland 
subspecies are intercrossed (2, 3). Studies are now in progress to 
determine the number and action of the genes controlling the color 
pattern elements. 

The results of the crosses in Table 3 show experimentally that 
Tropisternus collaris (Fabricius) from Puerto Rico is indeed part of 
this species complex. In almost all cases, the hybridization resulted 
in heterosis, even in those crosses where the Fi progeny were infertile. 
The low fertility of the AYA x WAL and WAL x AYA crosses is most 
probably due to the old age of the parents. In all crosses between AYA 
and CAM and their progeny, the fertility and viability was greater 
than or equal to that of the parent subspecies. High fertility and 
viability occurs when BIV and WHR are crossed and Fi progeny are 
selfcrossed and outcrossed to AYA. When WAL is crossed with any of 
the other subspecies studied, the Fi progeny are fairly sterile when 
selfcrossed. Thus, the five subspecies of ^the Tropisternus collaris 
species-complex appear now to be divisible into at least three breeding 

















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Entomology 283 

populations, South American (including Puerto Rico), North American, 
and West Mexican, which may be isolated from the rest of the North 
American population by the Sierre Madre Occidental Mountains. The 
hybridization of the 7nexica7ius-\ike form found in southwestern United 
States and eastern Mexico with WAL and WHR to determine if WAL 
is truly an isolated breeding population have not been made. 

I wish to thank Dr. F. N. Young for the use of his unpublished data 
included in Tables 2 and 3. 


The five subspecies of Tropistermis coUaris (Fabricius) studied 
appear now to be divisible into three breeding populations. Tropisternus 
collmns from Puerto Rico, which belongs to the South American breed- 
ing population, exhibits color pattern dominance relations similar to 
those exhibited by the other four subspecies. 

References Cited 

1. Young, Frank N. 195S. Notes on the care and rearing of Tropisternus in 
the laboratory (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Ecology 39:166-167. 

2. Young, Frank N. 1965. Hybridization Between North and South American 
Tropisternus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Proc. XII Int. Cong. Entomol. 
London, p. 246. 

3. Young, Frank N. 1966. The genetic basis of color patterns of aquatic 
beetles of the Tropisternus coUaris Complex (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). 
Proc. North Central Branch, Entomol. Soc. Amer. 20:87-92. 

An Indiana Record of Amblyoninia americanurti (L.) 

James E. Wappes, Purdue University 

On June 14, 1966, an adult female of the lone star tick, Amhlyomma 
wmericmimn (L.), was found attached to the author after a field trip to 
Kolb pond, located five miles north of West Lafayette, Tippecanoe 
County, Indiana. The specimen was checked for positive identification 
by Dr. W. L. Butts, formerly of Purdue University. It has been deposited 
in the Purdue University Research Collection. 

Upon reviewing the literature for records of the lone star tick in 
Indiana, it was found that there were no valid published records of it 
being collected under natural conditions in the state, with the possible 
exception of a record from dogs in Harrison County. Wilson (3) listed 
only three occurrences of it in the state. 

It has been recorded in Tippecanoe, Brown, and Harrison counties. 
The record from Tippecanoe County definitely was traced to individuals 
who had recently returned from vacation in Carroll County, Arkansas. 
In fact, they brought back preserved specimens of A. mnericanitm, 
which they had taken from their dog in Carroll County. The specimen 
collected in Brown County from a wood thrush, Hylocichla 7mistelina 
(Gmel.), is an engorged nymph that was attached at the edge of the 
lower beak, close to the base. For an unknown reason, the collector 
did not supply a definite date, but it is quite possible that this bird 
was a recent migrant from the south. The 1957 edition of the "American 
Ornithologists Union Checklist" gives the winter range of Hylocichla 
mnstelina as from southern Texas south through eastern Mexico and 
Central America, well within the range of the lone star tick. A small 
number of birds were examined from the same area in which this 
collection was made, but they produced no additional records. 

The third record was from Harrison County, bordering on the 
Ohio River. The ticks were submitted by a veterinarian, and as near 
as he could recall, they were collected in the spring. The owner of the 
dogs was contacted, and as far as he knew, the dogs had never been 
out of the state. This record was the only one in which further inquiry 
did not disclose evidence of introduction and in which it appeared that 
the ticks may have originated in Indiana. 

Attempts were made by the author to collect more specimens of A. 
americanum from the Kolb pond location. A drag was made from white 
flannel and wood as described by Smith (2) and used by the author in 
the area around Kolb pond. This location consists of a muck sand area 
around the extremities of the pond which graduates into firmer soil that 
haa heavy vegetation and a few scattered trees. There is no cultivated 
land for a half-mile in any direction, although there is a farm house 
about one-eighth mile from the pond. Ten hours spent dragging in 
the area around Kolb pond did not produce any specimens of the lone 
star tick, although several Dermaccntor variabilis (Say), the American 
dog tick, were collected in this manner. In a further attempt to gain 


Entomology 285 

more A. americanum, traps were set to capture small mammals. Microtus 
pennsylv aniens (Ord), meadow vole, Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner), 
deer mouse, Sylvilogus floridanus (Allen), eastern cottontail rabbit, and 
Didelphis virginiana Kerr, opossum were caught and examined. Results 
were again negative. 

Wilson (3) concluded, "It is my opinion that A, americanum is a 
permanent, though rare, resident in the southern-most counties of 

Diamont and Strickland (1) state "Amblyomma a'}nericanum is a 
carrier of the rickettsia, Coxiella buryietii, causative agent of Q fever. 
It is suspected as a vector of the disease to man and animals. Man 
is possibly infected by inhalation of contaminated dusts on infected 
tick feces. This tick is also a vector to man of Rocky Mountain spotted 
fever and tularemia. In the Eastern and Southern States, A. amerieannm 
reportedly causes tick paralysis in man and in dogs. It is a suspected 
vector of Bullis fever." 

They report its distribution '\ . . from as far west in Texas as 
the brush grows, north to Missouri, and east in a broad belt to the 
Atlantic coast. It has been reported in Michigan, Illinois, and Iowa. It 
is believed that this species was formerly more numerous in the 
Northern states. The type locality is Pennsylvania or New Jersey." (1) 

It has a wide range of hosts, apparently attaching to any mammal 
with which its comes in contact, with larva and nymphs attaching to the 
same hosts as the adults. 

Literature Cited 

1. Diamont, Gp:rald, and R. K. Strickland. 1.965. Manual on Livestock Ticks. 

(ARS 91-49) USDA, Washington. 142 pp. 

2. Smith, Carroll N. 1946. Biology and Control of the American Dog Ticlv. 
USDA Tech. Bull. 905. 

3. Wilson, Nixon. 1961. The Ectoparasites of Indiana Mammals. Unpublished 
Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University. 

(Author's note: Any information regarding Amhly omnia americanum ii 
Indiana would be greatly appreciated and welcomed by the author.) 

Aquatic Beetles of a Northern Indiana Lake^ 

Michael E. Montgomery and Gertrude L. Ward, Earlham College 

Several studies have been made of the beetle fauna of ponds (1, 2, 
3, 4), but this fauna in lakes has been largely neglected. A lake 
differs from a pond in being larger and deeper, in being less subject to 
depth changes and in possessing a variety of habitats. This variety 
represents a diversity of specialized situations which may be inhabited 
by aquatic beetles resulting in a greater richness of beetle fauna. 

By investigating several different minor habitats of a lake, a 
determination of the characteristic beetle fauna is possible. Analysis 
of the differences in various habitats gives information on the prefer- 
ences and requirements of many beetle species. 

This study was conducted at Dewart Lake, located in Kosciusko 
County, Indiana. The lake comprises 551 acres and has a maximum 
depth of 83 feet. Being the highest lake in its drainage, Dewart is 
subject to fluctuations of water level. Its water is supplied mainly by 
seepage through underground strata. There is only one small feeder 

After thorough examination of the entire lake margin, six areas 
were selected to represent the different minor habitats of the lake. The 
selection of these areas is admittedly biased. The areas chosen are 
places where density of the aquatic beetle population was high. Aside 
from areas very similar to the ones selected, the lake margin harbored 
surprisingly few beetles, and these beetles were the ones most common 
in the six areas studied intensively. 

Habitat Descriptions 

The following brief descriptions of the areas are largely subjective 
and attempt to compare what are believed to be the primary parameters. 
Area 1 was a three-year-old dredged channel having a bottom of soft 
muck that supported a thick growth of Myriophylhmi. Its bottom, 
which had a steep slope, was only slightly covered by detritus. The 
area was never in shade. Area 2 was removed from the main body 
of the lake and was marked by succession toward swamp conditions. 
It was the most shaded area. The bottom had a layer of decaying 
tree leaves, measuring 4 to 11 inches thick. There was no rooted 
vegetation, only masses of floating Lemna. The area was similar to the 
typical woods pond. Area 3 was unique in having a clean sandy bottom. 
It supported a moderate growth of Myriophylhmi which had been washed 
up and had rerooted. It was fully exposed to the sun. This was the 
only area in which beetles were readily observed. Many could be seen, 
especially Tropisteynius spp., at all times except during stormy weather 
when they were found only beneath the gravel and mats oi Myriophyllum. 
In all the other areas, beetles were seldom observed except when 
disturbed by the collecting net. 

1. This study was aided by National Science Foundation Grant for Under- 
graduate Research Participation No. GY-964, 


Entomology 287 

Area U could be called a transition area between Areas 2 and 5, 
being" located between the two and having: aspects of both. The bottom 
consisted of sandy gravel and was covered by up to 2 inches of detritus. 
A dense growth of Myriophylhun was rooted weakly in it. It was 
shaded in the morning by Salix interior. Area 5 was unique in having 
a growth of Decodon demersum which was surrounded by Typha. The 
bottom material was flocculent and consisted of 9 inches of decaying 
aquatic plants. Only a little shading was provided by the growth 
near the shoreline. Area 6 was similar to Area 2 in being covered with 
dead oak and willow leaves which had accumulated on the bottom to a 
depth of 14 inches and was very odoriferous. The area was in shade 
half of each day. A small amount of Typha near the edge of the area 
was the only plant growth. 

All areas were sheltered from rough water by dense stands 
of Myriophyllum. Only Area 3 was affected by waves, and these were 
no more than 2 inches high. Areas similar to the ones investigated 
but unprotected from waves contained no Coleoptera. The depth of the 
water above the detritus was no more than 6 inches and usually 2 to 3 
inches. Except for Peltodytes and two Eyiochrus ochraceus, no beetles 
were found in open water more than 6 inches deep. 


The collecting was done v/ith a minnow dip net to gather the debris 
from a measured area. Later, the beetles were separated from the debris 
by allowing them to move through a y2-inch wire mesh on which the 
debris was placed. The beetles fell through the mesh into a container 
of water. 


From a total of 39 collections made during the period July 3 to 
August 12, 1966, 1,207 specimens were gathered representing 43 species, 
27 genera, and three families, Haliplidae, Dytiscidae and Hydrophilidae. 
In addition, the gyrinids, Dineutes hornii (Say) and Gyrinus analis Say, 
were sparsely scattered along the lake margin. Semi-aquatic Coleoptera 
were also encountered. Three species of Donacia adults were very 
numerous on the leaves of Nujjhar odorata and Nymphaea adveyia. 
The larvae of the chrysomelid, Scriptes tibialis (Say), were abundant. 
Three species of adult Curculionidae were found crawling on vegetation 
beneath the water surface. 

Table 1 shows the distribution of beetles in each of the habitats. 
Identification has been checked by Dr. Frank Young of Indiana 

The list of species compiled from all of the areas studied was used 
to determine the representative beetle fauna of Dewart Lake. The 
determination of characteristic species is based on frequency of 
occurrence and abundance of beetles in the minor-habitat areas studied. 
A beetle was considered characteristic if it had at least an 80 percent 
frequency of occurrence and a numerical abundance of at least 7 
individuals. The two species of Hydrochus are an exception. They were 
observed in all habitats except Area 1. Because of their habit of 

288 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 1. Distribution of Aquatic Beetles of Dewart Lake. 

Species Habitat Area 

_ _ _ _ _ _ 


Peltodytes edentulus (Lee.) 19 1 3 4 3 2 

Haliplus immaculicollis Harris 1 2 1 


Laccophilus maculosus Say 12 7 8 21 5 4 

Hydrovatus pustulatus Melsh 1 1 4 1 2 1 

Desmopachria convexa (Aube) 1 4 1 

Liodessus affinus (Say) 8 93 47 11 2 

L. lacustris (Say) 2 4 

Hygrotus sayi Balfour-Browne 3 21 15 35 9 

H. nubilis Lee 1 

H. impressopunctatus (Schall.) 1 1 

H. sp 1 

H. sp 1 

Uvarus granarius (Say) 1 

Hydroporus consimilus Lee 1 2 3 10 41 

H. signatus Mann 1 1 

H. striola Gyll 1 1 1 2 

H. laetus Leech 1 

H. dentiger Fall 1 8 3 8 3 

H. niger Say 5 12 39 48 9 1 

Ilybius biguttulus (Germ.) 1 

Agabetes acuductes (Harris) 1 1 

Coptotomus interrogatus (Fab.) 3 1 6 11 14 2 

Colymbetes sculptilis Harris 1 1 1 

Dytiscus fasciventris Say 1 1 1 

Acilius semisulcatus Aube 2 1 

Hygrotus laccophilinus (Lee.) 1 


Helophrus lineatus Say 2 3 1 3 2 

Hydrochus sp 4 2 2 1 

Hydrocihus sp 3 1 2 1 

Tropisternus mixtus (Lee.) 12 2 10 57 17 3 

T. glaber (Herbst.) 16 2 13 17 18 8 

T. lateralis (Fab.) 5 8 11 7 4 

Hydrochara obtusata (Say) 1 3 1 2 1 

Laccobius agilis Randall 1 

Berosus striatus (Say) 19 8 4 1 7 

Hydrobius fuscipes Linne 2 1 3 1 

Paracymus subcupreus (Say) G 3 40 11 2 4 

Anacaena limbata Fab 2 1 

Hydraena pensylvanicus Melsh 5 1 3 

Enochrus cinetus (Say) 3 2 11 19 7 

E. hamiltonli (Horn) 

E ochraceus (Melsh.) 








Number of collections in area 







Entomology 289 

crawling on and clinging- to debris, the method of sampling caused them 
to be omitted. 

Some comments are in order about the following species, which, 
unless otherwise noted, are considered as characteristic of the aquatic 
beetles of Dewart Lake, 

Most striking is the abundance of Liodessus affinus in Area 3 and 
its scarcity in Areas 2 and 6. The beetle apparently prefers sandy 
situations. It was always encountered close to shore in water less 
than 1 inch deep, and it crawled or burrowed in the sand. It is 
doubtful if any other species found in greater numbers in Area 3 
depended on the sandy situation. Many of these could be transients 
from the adjacent Area 4- A large portion of Area 3 was completely 
cleared experimentally of vegetation and beetles. The vegetation was 
then replaced as naturally as possible. A collection a week later 
showed the population near normal except for the scarcity of Liodessus. 

Peltodytes edentalus and Berosiis striatus were found crawling on 
the MyriophyUum that grew in profusion in Area 1. The upright 
Myriophyllwrn probably made the habitat more suitable although this 
is not certain. Peltodytes is usually very common in any body of 
permanent water and is not restricted to upright aquatics, but ap- 
parently here the plant does provide a suitable substrate for the species. 

The presence or absence of detritus plays a dominant role in 
regulation of the lake population, with the probable exception of 
Liodessus affinis, Peltodytes edentulus and Berosus striatus. A lake 
such as Dewart, being a permanent body of water existing over a 
long period, has large amounts of detritus fostering the presence of 
detritus dwelling species. Detritus is probably the most important 
determinant of the characteristic population as exemplified by the fol- 
lowing species. 

Trojjisternus glaber, T. lateralis, T. luixtus, Enochrus cinctus, E. 
hamiltonii and E. ochraceus were the most common and widespread 
species indicating that they have wide limits of tolerance. They are 
found wherever there are heavy accumulations of detritus. Laccophilus 
niaculosus, Hydrovatus pustidatus, Hygrotus sayi, Hydroporus deiitiger, 
Hydropo7iis niger, Coptotomus iiiterrogatus, Paracymus subcupreus 
and the two species of Hydrochus were abundant, detritophilic species 
showing no specialized requirements as to type of detritus. 

A few species exhibited a preference. Llydrochara ohtusata and 
Helophrus lineatus were abundant in Areas 2 and 6 which contain 
large amounts of decaying tree leaves. These are species probably 
common in typical woods ponds. 

Hydroporus consimilus was associated with Typha. Apparently, the 
decaying debris of the plant satisfied the special requirements of the 
beetle. The beetle was numerous in the debris of the plant, which was 
of an unusually fine texture, and was not observed crawling on the 
living plant. The beetle was found in the amassed debris of other 
areas, where Typha was not present, but was notably lacking in the 
foul smelling matter of Area 6 even though Typha was adjacent to it. 
The niche of the organism needs to be determined to discover whether 

290 Indiana Academy of Science 

it is the Typha or the amount and consistency of the debris that is a 
limiting factor for the beetle. 

Of the remaining species collected, Desmopachria convexa, Haliplus 
immaculicollis, Hydroporus striola, Ilybius biguttiilus, Colymbetes sculp- 
tilis, Acilius sewiisulcatiis, Hydrobius fuscipes, and Hydraena pensyl- 
vanicus are probably typical inhabitants but were not present in suffi- 
cient numbers to be considered common and characteristic. Agabetes 
acuductes, Copelatus glyphicus and Dytiscus fasciventris made their 
appearance at the end of the study and apparently have their popula- 
tion density peak later in the fall. 

The remaining species occurred only once or twice and are con- 
sidered rare. One, Laccobiiis agilis, is known to be a stream inhabiting 
species and was a stray. 

Comparing the aquatic Coleoptera population of Dewart Lake 
with investigations of the beetle population from ponds within a 200 mile 
radius of Dewart showed that the lake harbored a more diverse popula- 
tion. Kenk (1) obtained 35 species from four ponds. Needham (2) 
collected 29 species of dytiscids from a permanent pond. Scott (3) 
found 11 species. Young (4), who investigated thoroughly a temporary 
pond, listed 39 species. Comparing these lists of beetles from ponds with 
our list, only 10, 4, 17, and 14 beetles, respectively, were common to 
Dewart Lake. The investigations of the ponds lasted at least a year 
and, except for one, were not exclusively for Coleoptera. 


A midsummer survey of Dewart Lake, located in northern Indiana, 
showed 43 species of aquatic Coleoptera representing the families 
Haliplidae, Dytiscidae and Hydrophiiidae to be present. Twenty-one 
of these species are considered to be characteristic species. Examination 
of six minor habitats of the beetles evidenced most species to be 
detritophilic. Except for three species, accumulation of organic debris 
was the determining parameter for their presence. 

Literature Cited 

1. Kenk, Roman. 1949. The animal life of temporary and permanent ponds in 
southern Michigan. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ. 71:1-6G. 

2. Needham, J. G. and Helen V. Williamson. 1907. Observations on the 
natural history of diving beetles. Amer. Nat. 41:477-494. 

3. Scott, Will. 1910. The fauna of a solution pond. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sei. 

4. Young, F. N. 1959. The water beetles of a temporary pond in southern 
Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 69:154-164. 

Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in 
Indiana During 1966^ 

R. T, HUBER and J. V. Osmun, Purdue University 

Climatic conditions in Indiana during the growing season of 1966 
fluctuated greatly both in time and space. These fluctuations caused 
considerable unevenness in the rates of crop and insect development 
v^hich ultimately resulted in less damaging insect populations and 
lower crop yields in most regions of the state, when compared with 1965. 

With the exception of March (+2.0"F) and the June 22-July 15 
**heat wave," temperatures were mostly below normal throughout 
Indiana from January through September of 1966. May was extremely 
cool with temperatures ranging 3.4°F to 6.4°F below the 30 year average. 
These persistently low temperatures and the ''hard freeze" on May 10 
retarded crop and insect development considerably, as well as doing 
extensive damage to many fruits and vegetables throughout Indiana. 

Precipitation was also below normal during much of 1966, and 
drought conditions prevailed in many areas during June, July and 
August. The most critical time of the summer was from June 22 
through July 15, when extremely high temperatures were coupled with 
little precipitation. Evaporation during this period measured from 8.2 
to 8.7 inches (from standard 4 feet diameter pan evaporimeters) on a 
statewide basis, while rainfall measured approximately 1.5 inches. This 
period of relatively severe moisture stress coincided with the beginning 
of grasshopper population build-ups, most noticeable potato leafhopper 
injury to alfalfa, maximum plant bug populations, the decline of aphid 
densities on most ornamentals, the collapse of pea aphid populations on 
alfalfa, and the decline of deer fly, horn fly and stable fly populations 
to the lowest levels of the season. 

Corn and Small Grains 

Black cutworm (Agrotis i2)silon (Hufnagel)) corn infestations were 
concentrated in the central districts, with the west central area having 
the highest number of infestations reported. In general, infestations 
were fewer and of less magnitude during 1966 than 1965. However, 
adult trap catches were heavier in 1966 than 1965, especially from the 
last week of June through the third week of July, 

Variegated cutworm (Peridroma saucia (Hubner)). Damage was 
very light during 1966, and adult trap catches were well below those 
of 1965. 

Cereal leaf beetle (Oiilema melanopus (L.)). The new county rec- 
ords for 1966 were: Dearborn, Fayette, Franklin, Fountain, Hendricks, 
Johnson, Morgan, Montgomery, Parke, Putnam, Rush, Shelby and Union. 

1. Information for this summary has been provided in part by : L. 
Chandler, J. A. Clark, M. L. Cleveland, R. E. Dolphin, R. T. Everly, J. J. 
Favinger, R. L. Giese, G. E. Gould, G. E. Eehker, D. L. Matthew, D. P. Sanders, 
D. L. Schuder, M. C. Wilson. 


292 Indiana Academy of Science 

In the New Carlisle area of LaPorte and St. Joseph counties, peak 
larval populations of 4-7 /stem were present on oats during June 12-24. 
Adult emergence was mostly completed by July 8, and adults had begun 
going into aestivation by July 15. 

During the week ending June 24, 1966, larval infestation on oats 
averaged up to 1/stem in some scattered fields in extreme northern 
Marshall county. In southwestern LaPorte county and northeastern 
Starke county, larval populations on oats averaged 22/100 sweeps, while 
in the area where the Kosciusko, Whitley and Noble county lines con- 
verge, larval population ranged from 1 per 10 feet of row to 1 per 3 
feet of row in oats. In extreme northeastern Steuben county, larval 
populations on oats averaged 1 per 15 ft. of row the week of June 24, 

The cereal leaf beetle while generally remaining at non-economic 
levels outside the New Carlisle area of LaPorte and St. Joseph counties, 
was more abundant throughout the north central and northeastern 
districts than in previous years. It is also woith noting that the cereal 
leaf beetle (for the first time) was observed to complete its life cycle 
on field corn in the New Carlisle area during 1966. 

Due to the cold, wet weather in May, early activity of the cereal 
leaf beetle was delayed about 10 days from what has previously been 
observed. However, peak oviposition, larval activity, pupation and adult 
emergence occurred about the same time as in other years. 

Chinch bug (Blissiis leucopterus (Say)). Compared with the out- 
break of 1965 (the heaviest in 15 years), chinch bugs were practically 
non-existent in Indiana in 1966. Adults and nymphs combined ranged 
20-60 per border row corn plant (3-4 ft. high) on corn planted adjacent 
to wheat in the east central district. Economic infestations were re- 
ported from scattered areas of Allen, Whitley and Grant counties. In 
the northwestern and west central districts, no economic infestations 
were reported or observed during 1966. 

Three periods of weather from July, 1965, through July, 1966, were 
largely responsible for the sharp decline of chinch bug densities. The 
latter half of the growing season of 1965 was cool and wet (a combina- 
tion unfavorable for chinch bug development), so adult populations 
going into hibernation were not as heavy as would be expected after 
the severe first generation infestations. The adults that went into 
hibernation were subjected to a great deal of stress because very little 
snow cover was available during the winter of 1965-66, and there was 
one period when temperatures were never above freezing for nearly 3 
weeks. Finally, May and early June of 1966 were cool and wet (a ''hard 
freeze" occurred May 10), retarding first generation nymphal develop- 
ment and preventing large population buildups in small grains. These 
three weather periods apparently put enough stress upon the chinch bug 
that populations declined steadily from August 1965 through July 1966, 
and little economic damage occurred. 

Corn earworm (Heliothis zea (Boddie)). Infestations were much 
lower in 1966 than in 1965. The fall corn insect survey revealed that 
2.6 percent of the com sampled was infested in 1966 compared with 
11.6 percent in 1965. The heaviest infestations occurred in the southern 

Entomology 293 

one-quarter of the state in 1966, where an average of 9.1 percent of the 
corn examined was infested. 

With the exception of the northwest district (1.2% infested), all 
other areas of Indiana north of the southernmost one-quarter had in- 
festations of less than 1%. 

Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphimi maidis (Fitch)). On a state-wide 
basis, 4.0 percent of the corn plants sampled were severely infested, 
12.4 percent were moderately infested, and 29.6 percent had light in- 
festations. Maximum infestations (all classes) occurred in the southern 
one-quarter of the state, where an average of 73.3% of the plants 
sampled were infested. The northern three-quarters had an average 
infestation of 36.9%, The 1966 corn leaf aphid infestations were a 
complete reversal of 1965 when the northern three-quarters had an 
average infestation of 74%-, and the southern one-quarter had an aver- 
age infestation of 36%-. 

Because of the cool, wet weather in May, the poorly drained soils 
of the southern one-quarter remained unworkable longer than the 
northern soils and caused corn planting to be delayed longer than in 
the more northern areas. This delay, followed by relatively good grow- 
ing conditions, caused the corn in the southern one-quarter of Indiana 
to be at a stage of development susceptible to aphid attack (tassel in 
whorl) at a time when in most years it is past the attractive stage 
(shooting tassels). 

Droughty conditions throughout most of the northern three-quarters 
of Indiana resulted in much fewer infestations than in 1965 because 
indications are that the corn leaf aphid has a much better survival 
rate under moist conditions than under dry conditions. 

European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)). Densities were 
slightly higher during 1966 than in 1965. On a statewide basis, 30.6% 
of the plants sampled were infested, and there were 44.3 borers per 
100 plants. Com losses due to corn borer were placed at 1.3% for 1966. 
In the southwestern district, first generation corn borer attacks were 
heavier than they have been for a number of years. Infestations ranging 
as high as 68% were common in Posey, Vanderburgh and Gibson during 
late June, 

Garden symphylan {ScufigereUa immaculata (Newport)). This 
centipede has been a serious pest of vegetables and other crops grown 
in greenhouses, but 1966 was the first year it caused losses to field 
corn in Indiana. Infestations ranging from 1 to 8 acres were found in 
field corn in Clinton, Shelby and Harrison counties, and significant yield 
losses resulted from this pest in each instance. In all three infested 
fields, the soil was quite loose and was high in organic content. 

Hessian fly (Mayetida destructor (Say)). Field populations of Race 
B capable of infesting W38 resistant wheats (Dual, Monon, Redcoat, 
Riley) were slightly lower in 1966 than in 1965. Of the 317 certified 
fields sampled, 69% were infested in 1966 compared with an 84% 
infestation during 1965. The average 1966 infestation of W38 varieties 
was 7.6%, while the Race B resistant Knox 62 variety had an average 
infestation of less than 1%. The heaviest average infestations for W38 
resistant wheat occurred in Knox county where 26,7% of the Monon, 
41,7% of the Reed, and 24.0% of the Riley was infested. 

294 Indiana Academy of Science 

Hessian fly research by U. S. D. A. entomologists at Purdue Uni- 
versity has turned up what appears to be a 5th race of the Hessian fly 
in Indiana. However, much more research will have to be done before 
anything definite can be said about the characteristics of this apparent 
new race. 

Japanese beetle {Pojnllia japoiiica (Newman)). New county record: 
Switzerland county. 

Agricultural infestations were found for the first time ever outside 
the Kentland-Ade area of Newton county. Infestations on corn and 
soybeans occurred in areas of Cass, LaPorte, Kosciusko and Wabash 
counties. The Japanese beetle was one of the few Indiana insects which 
showed a population increase during 1966 when compared with 1965. 

Northern corn rootworm {Diahrotica longicornis (Say)). Adult 
emergence began in Wabash River floodplain corn on July 6, while 
emergence in non-floodplain areas of central Indiana did not begin until 
the week of July 22. In late July, adults ranged 6-23 /silk in scattered 
untreated corn fields throughout the central one-third of the state. 
In treated fields adults ranged 1-4 /silk. Adults averaged 1-2/silk on 
20 to 55% of the corn checked in the northern one-third during early 
August. In the southern one-third, adults were very light (0-2/silk) on 
10 to 40% of the corn surveyed. Generally speaking, northern com 
rootworm larval populations were low in 1966, and little corn lodging 

Forage Legumes 

Alfalfa weevil (Hypera pasticci (Gyllenhal) ). During 1966 the 
alfalfa weevil was found in 30 new counties (Ohio, Monroe, Brown, 
Vigo, Vermillion, Parke, Putnam, Hendricks, Marion, Hancock, Henry, 
Wayne, Fayette, Union, Randolph, Delaware, Madison, Hamilton, Boone, 
Montgomery, Fountain, Tippecanoe, Warren, Benton, Newton, Lake, Jay, 
Adams, Allen and Steuben), and economic infestations occurred generally 
throughout the southern one-quarter of the state. 

Larval populations in the Ohio River floodplain area of Harrison 
county reached a peak of 134 per sweep during the week of April 28 
to May 5. In other areas of the southern one-quarter of Indiana, larval 
populations ranging from 50 to 130 per sweep were present during the 
period of May 24 to May 31. In scattered locations in extreme southern 
Morgan, Johnson and Shelby counties, larval populations of up to 33 
per sweep were present during the same May 24 to 31 period. In the 
southern Montgomery and northern Parke and Putnam county areas of 
west central Indiana, larval populations of 3 to 4 per sweep were found 
during the period of June 2-9. In all other newly infested central and 
northern counties, alfalfa weevil populations were in trace numbers 
during 1966. 

Based upon information obtained from county extension agents, it is 
estimated that 1,987,550 dollars were lost due to alfalfa weevil in the 
southern one-quarter of the state in 1966. 

In 1967 it is expected that the alfalfa weevil will spread throughout 
the state and will become economically damaging in most areas of the 
southern one-half of Indiana. 

Entomology 295 

Fall and early winter sampling of alfalfa (at 2 week intervals) in 
the Ohio River floodplain area of Harrison County resulted in total 
alfalfa weevil egg counts of 196 per square foot as of December 21, 1966. 
In the Seymour area of Jackson County, total egg counts of 53 per 
square foot were present on December 21, 1966. 

It should be noted that peak larval densities probably occurred 
somewhat later than will be the case normally, because of the cool 
conditions which existed in Indiana during May of 1966 (see intro- 

Grasshoppers (Melanopliis spp.) were generally more abundant 
during 1966 than they have been for the past several years. Popula- 
tions ranged 8-23 /sq. yd. along roadsides in areas of the southeast and 
south central districts from late July through mid August. Adults and 
nymphs combined average 11 /sweep on clover in the south central dis- 
trict during the same period. The red-legged grasshopper (M. Femur- 
ruhriim (DeGeer)) was the most common on a state-wide basis, while 
the differential grasshopper {M. dijferentialis (Thomas)) was next 
highest in abundance and was heaviest in the southern areas. In the 
northernmost areas of Indiana, the two-striped grasshopper {M. bivit- 
tatiis (Say)) was the most common species in alfalfa during August. 

Meadow spittlebug {Philaeniis spimiarius (L)). During late May 
nymphs ranged 4 per 10 stems to 1 per stem on alfalfa and clover in 
the south central and southeastern districts. Adults were common in 
these same areas during mid June, ranging to 12/sweep on alfalfa and 
up to 70 /sweep in a few wheat fields adjacent to clover or alfalfa. In 
the northern one-third of Indiana, nymphs ranged 1-4/10 stems during 
mid June, and adults ranged 2-11 /sweep on alfalfa and clover in mid 
July, In general, populations were moderate in Indiana during 1966, 
and were slightly lower than those of 1965. 

Pea aphid {Acyrthosi'phon pisum (Harris)). Populations on alfalfa 
and clover were light in the southern one-third throughout the growing 
season, reaching maximum densities of 24 /sweep during the week end- 
ing June 17. In the northern one-half, populations ranged from 
10-78 /sweep during the period from May 27 to June 24. The heat wave 
from June 22 through July 15 caused pea aphid populations to collapse 
in the northern areas, and they remained very low until mid September 
when populations began their annual fall buildups. From late September 
through mid October populations ranged 12-65 /sweep in northern In- 
diana alfalfa. 

Potato leaf hopper (Eynjmasca fabae (Harris)). Indiana populations 
reached maximum densities during the last three weeks of July when 
adults and nymphs combined ranged 6-40 /sweep on alfalfa. In the north 
central and northwestern districts, light yellowing appeared in sandy 
soil areas during the week of July 8. In southern countries yellowing 
was conspicuous in light soil areas and on slopes and high spots during 
the week ending July 15. In the northern one-third, yellowing was 
moderate to heavy in late stage second growth alfalfa during the last 
week of July. Potato leafhopper damage and highest populations oc- 
curred during the extreme hot period in Indiana from June 22 through 
July 18, 1966. 

296 Indiana Academy of Science 

Spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis maciilata (Buckton)), New 
county records (1965 and 1966): Bartholomew, Fulton, Kosciusko, Elk- 
hart, Dearborn, Ripley, Jenning-s, Scott, Ohio, Franklin, and Noble 

Populations were light from May through August (3/5 sweeps- 
5 /sweep) in the southern third of the state. However, during the week 
ending" September 16, populations ranging from 22 to 116 per sweep 
were present in southwest district alfalfa. In southern Elkhart county, 
populations of 10-20 /sweep were found the week of September 9. 

Deciduous Fruits 

Apple aphid (Aphis pomi (DeGeer)). Populations of this species 
were common in commercial orchards during the spring. They were 
readily controlled and reduced to non-economic proportions. 

Apple leafhoppers. Feeding of leafhoppers on terminal branches of 
apple seedlings in a commercial nursery was noted. There was some 
reduction in growth until the grower applied control measures. 

Apple maggot (Rhagoletis jjomonella (Walsh)). On July 25, apple 
maggot adults were observed in an unsprayed orchard in the Vincennes 
area. To date, there have been no reports of any infestations of this 
species in commercially grown fi-uit. In general, this insect was more 
abundant in the northern one-half of Indiana than it has been for a 
number of years. 

Catfacing insects. A low percentage of peach fruit was culled in 
packing sheds, due to catfacing, Catfacing insects include various species 
of stink bugs, tarnished plant bug {Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beau- 
vois) ) , and plum curculio. 

Codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella (L.)). Very little loss to 
apples, grown commercially in Indiana, was reported. It remains, po- 
tentially, one of the major pests of apples in Indiana. 

European red mite (Panonychiis nhni (Koch)). The freeze of May 
9-10 delayed development somewhat but by mid-May most eggs had 
hatched. As in recent years, this pest proved to be of major importance 
to commercial orchardists. By mid-summer, many trees had populations 
sufficient to cause bronzing of the leaves. 

Lesser peach tree borer {Synayithedon pictipes (G. & R.)). This 
insect continues to be the major pest to peach growers in southwestern 
Indiana. The species contributes to the premature decline and removal 
of peach trees which have been injured by winter freezing, crotch 
splitting, pruning, and other injuries. In Knox County, the first male 
of the season was captured on May 3, 1966, The insect has continual 
broods, with one to two generations per year. Peak emergency in 1966 
occurred from June 20 to July 10 and from August 15 to September 4. 

Oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha molesta (Busck)), The fruit moth 
was not a problem on peaches in southwestern Indiana when routine 
sprays were applied. Growers who neglected a spray program, due to 
loss of crop during the May freeze, experienced some flagging of termi- 
nal branches. 

Peach tree borer (Sanninoidea exitiosa (Say)). This species, while 
present, was relatively unimportant in commercial peach orchards dur- 
ing 1966. 

Entomology 297 

Plum curculio {Conotrachelus yiuniiphar (Hbst.)). This insect was 
a minor problem along the edges of commercial apple orchards adjoin- 
ing woodlots. 

Rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) ). Only a few 
reports of injury were received from commercial growers. Small popula- 
tions were noted in unsprayed orchards, but these declined as the 
season progressed. 

San Jose scale {Aspldiotus pcrniciosus (Comstock)). No reports of 
damage were received from commercial growers during the preceding 

Shot-hole borer (Scolytus regulosus (Ratzeberg) ) . While present 
in unsprayed or neglected orchards, this insect is not currently a prob- 
lem in properly sprayed orchards. 

Two-spotted spider mite {Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). This species 
co-existed with European red mite in apple trees in mid-summer. While, 
initially, the population of this species was lower, it persisted for a 
longer time and reached a seasonal maximum at a later date than 
the European red mite. 

Concern over defoliation and reduction in yield, spray costs and 
resistance to the available miticides remained among the most promi- 
nent of problems of the fruit grower. 

Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigeriim (Hausmann)). Small 
colonies were noted in neglected orchards but did no damage in com- 
mercial operations. 

Orientals, Forest and Shade Trees 

Bagworm {Thyridopteryx ephoneraefonnus (Haworth)). This in- 
sect has shown a definite periodicity of abundance through the years in 
Indiana. The most recent heavy infestations occurred in 1956 and 1962, 
with 1956 reportedly having the heaviest populations on record. Since 
1963, bagworm infestations have been increasing steadily, and the 1966 
populations showed a continuation of this trend. 

Columbian timber beetle (Corthylus cohimbianus (Hopkins) ) popula- 
tions, after dropping to very low levels during the years 1961-65, in- 
creased in Dubois county during the summer of 1966. Activity began a 
full month earlier in 1966 than in the previous year (June 11, '66 vs. 
July 17, '65), permitting the development of a third generation brood 
of beetles which did not occur in 1965. Should this generation success- 
fully ovei'M'inter, widespread and intense activity may result in Dubois 
county in 1967. 

Elsewhere in Indiana, the timber beetle seems to have halted and 
even reversed its slow northward spread. No traces of activity were 
observed in northern Owen county and the Bedford area of Lawrence 
county in 1966, both of which areas were first invaded during the heavy 
outbreaks to the south in 1959-60. However, activity was evident in 
Bartholomev/ county during 1966, an area which was also first invaded 
during the 1959-60 outbreak. Evidence of fairly heavy 1966 activity was 
also noted in northern Martin county and in the Tell City area of 
Perry county. 

Elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta liiteola (Muller)). While first and sec- 
ond generation larval infestations on Chinese elm were heavy during 

298 Indiana Academy of Science 

1966, the second generation infestations were more noticeable due to 
generally dry conditions. This represented a reversal of the 1965 situ- 
ation when first generation attacks were more noticeable than second 
generation attacks due to early season dryness. 

Eastern tent caterpillar (Malacasoma americanum (Fabricius) ). By 
April 22, webs were present on wild cherry and unkept apple and peach 
trees throughout the southern one-third of the state. Webs ranged 
5~30/tree in the southermost counties. Larval populations in late April, 
1966 were heavier than those of 1965 in the southern one-third of 
Indiana. However, freezing temperatures on May 10, 1966 and generally 
cool conditions during the rest of May delayed tree development causing 
high larval mortality. These observations were substantiated by much 
lower adult light trap catches in 1966 than 1965. 

Fall webworm {Hyj}hantria cunea (Drury)). Very abundant in the 
extreme northern counties of the state as well as the south central and 
southwestern districts. Infestations during August ranged 2-18 webs 
per tree on walnut, hickory, cherry and sycamore, in the above areas, 
with heaviest infestations occurring in the southern districts. 

European pine sawfly {Ncodiprion sertifcr (Geoffroy)). Populations 
are increasing steadily from low densities of 1964. Heavy infestations 
occurred on pine throughout areas of the northern one-half of Indiana 
during 1966. 

Bronze birch borer {Agrilus anxius) . Heavy infestations caused 
high mortality in white birch throughout Indiana. 

Nursery and greenhouse pests — The eleven most frequently encoun- 
tered pests (found in at least 20 nurseries) throughout Indiana in 1966 
were as follows: 

1. Aphids (124 nurseries); 2. spider mites (84); 3. Bagworms (70); 
4. oyster shell scale (39); 5. bronze birch borer (38); 6. Fletcher scale 
(33); 7. fall webworm (30); 8. mealybugs (26); 9. leafhoppers (24); 
10. Zimmerman pine moth (23); and 11. spruce needle miner (22). 

The walkingstick {Diaphcromera fcmorata (Say)) infestation in a 
40 acre stand of mixed black and white oaks near Grovertown, Starke 
county, merits comment because it has been an annual occurrence since 
1946. (This is in contrast with Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin 
populations which only appear in alternate years). The infestation was 
lighter during 1966 than in the previous 2 years, but 1967 spring 
populations are expected to be very heavy due to a long period of 
weather favorable for e^^ deposition in the fall of 1966. Egg laying 
began September 1, peaked September 15, continued at a moderate pace 
through October 6, and was not completely terminated until substantial 
snow-fall coupled with well below freezing temperatures occurred in 
late November. 

An additional walkingstick infestation was discovered during the 
summer of 1966 in a 25 acre stand of mixed black and white oak 2 miles 
south of the 40 acre stand mentioned above. 

Man and Animals 

Mosquitos (species not reported) were reportedly quite annoying in 
many areas of Indiana during late May and early June, especially in 
the Evansville area. 

Entomology 299 

Bloodsucking: conenose {Triatoma sanguisuga (LeConte)). Adults 
and nymphs were collected in a cabin in Jackson county. Adults re- 
corded biting a man on the hand May 21, and again on July 10, with 
resulting- painful swelling and urticaria. Tests proved negative for 
Chagas disease. 

Deer flies {Chryso-ps spp.). Very common and annoying throughout 
the state during the last 2 weeks of June. After July 5, populations 
declined and were no longer a problem. 

Stable fly (Stomoxys calcifraus (L)). In contrast with the heavy 
middle and late season buildup during 1965, populations in 196G were 
very light throughout Indiana. 

Lone star tick {Amhlyonmia americannm (L)). The first Indiana 
occurrence of this tick on a human host was reported June 14 in Tippe- 
canoe county. In addition, a heavy infestation was present on deer at 
the Crane Naval Depot, Martin county. 

Face fly (Musca autiiifmialis (DeGeer)). This insect was generally 
scarce until mid August when population ranging 8 to 31 /face (average 
12) were observed on pastured cattle in the north central and north- 
eastern districts. Infestations were light for the remainder of August 
through mid September in the northern one-half of the state, and popu- 
lations ranged to 15 /face on pastured cattle. 

Horn fly (Haematobia irritans). By June 10, 1966 population ranged 
26-180/animal in west central Indiana. Infestations remained low until 
July 8 when populations peaked at 100-400/animal on pastured cattle 
in the Ohio River area, and 20-200 /pastured animal in the northwest, 
north central and west central districts. 

Household, Structural and Miscellaneous 

Carpenter bee (Xylocopa virginica (L)). Infestations and damage 
reports in homes and out buildings were more numerous throughout 
Indiana during 1966 than in recent years. 

Brood emergence began August 14 in Tippecanoe county, and exten- 
sive meconial staining occurred around nest entrances in timbers. 

Crickets {Ne^nohius spp.). Extremely abundant from late August 
to mid September in the northern one-half of the state. Field populations 
as high as 20 per square foot were observed in corn, soybeans, and along 
roadsides. Movement into homes caused considerable annoyance in many 

Brown-banded cockroach {Supella supellectillium (Serville)). Re- 
ports of infestations in homes throughout Indiana increased during 1966. 

Boxelder bug {Leptocoris trivittatns (Say)). Populations were very 
low in 1966, and reports of adult migrations into homes were rare. 


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Records of Indiana Coleoptera, III 

N. M. DOWNIE, Purdue University 
C. E. White, Indianapolis, Ind. 

In two previous papers, Downie (4,5) presented lists of species of 
Coleoptera either new to Indiana or not frequently encountered. The 
present paper, covering the results of eight years of intensive collecting", 
adds appreciably to the number of beetles known to occur in Indiana. 
The writers have compared their finds against Blatchley's Coleoptera of 
Indiana (2), Blatchley and Leng's Rhynchophora of North Eastern 
America (3), and the Leng Catalogue of North American Coleoptera 
and its supplements (6). In the list included here appear approximately 
260 species representing 49 different families. No attempt is made here 
to discuss any of the findings. This may be done in a later paper. 

The writers are indebted to various coleopterists for assistance. 
Foremost among these is the late C. A. Frost of Framingham, Mass., a 
long-time friend of both of the writers. Then we mention R. H. Arnett, 
Jr., O. L. Cartwright, J. A. Chesmak, M. C. Lane, I. Moore, F. G. Warner, 
D. P. Wooldridge, and F. Young for their help in the families in which 
each specializes. Also White acknowledges permission granted by the 
Division of State Parks of the Depai-tment of Natural Resources for 
assistance in collecting in the Dunes State Park, 

In the list below the names of the counties in which extensive collect- 
ing was carried out are abbreviated: Br. — Brown, Cr. — Crawford, Fl. — 
Floyd, M — Marion, Pk. — Parke, P — Posey, and T — Tippecanoe. ID stands 
for the Indiana Dunes, the entire sandy beach area of southern Lake 
Michigan in northern Indiana. The months are also abbreviated — Ma, 
Ap, My, Je, Jl, Au, S, and N. Species followed by (CW) are in White's 
collection, those noted (ND) are in Downie's and those without any 
such label are found in both collections. The arrangement of families 
follows that of Arnett (1) and the numbers preceding some of the 
entries are those of the Leng catalogue (6). 


7743a Cupes oculatus Csy. T; Je (ND) 


91 Cicindela celeripes LeC. P (Hovey Lake Survey) 


166 Cm-alms tneander ¥i?ii^\\. T; My (ND) 

184 Calosoma alteriians sayi Dej. P; Je-Au (CW) 

295 Nebrialacusti'is Csy. M;My-0(CW) 

377 Clivina postica LeC. M;Je-Jl(CW) 

Bemhidion obscurellmn Mots. ID; Jl (CW) 
1560 Agonum picticorne (Newn.). Cr,ID,M,P; My-Jl (CW) 
{A.albicrum. Dej. was taken in Posey Co. in June) 
Pterostichus (Omasens) melavarius (111.) ID; Je (ND) 
1604 Eupho7-ticus pubescens (Dej.) M;Ap(CW) 
1643 Lebia tricolor Say Cr,Fl,P; Je (CW) 


Entomology 309 

1649 L.pulcheUa Dej. Cr,ID,M,P; My-S 

1654 L. marginicollis Dej. Fl; Jl (CW) 

1659 L. pleuritica LeC. ID, T; Je (ND) 

1623 Zuphium americanum Dej. Cr,P; My-Jl (CW) 

1628 Pseudapti7ius pygmaeus (Dej.). Cr,Fl,P; My-Au (CW) 

1766 Helhimorphoides ferruginea (LeC). Cr; Je-Au (CW) 


Peltodytes dimavani Young Monroe; My (CW) 


2398 Bidessus granarms (Aube) Cr,M,P; My (CW) 
Hydroporiis vittatipennis G. & H. P; Jl (CW) 
H.laetus Young Monroe; (CW) 

2440 H. pulcher LeC. Cr; Je-Jl (CW) 

2452 H. clypealis Shp. P; Je-Au (CW) 

2461 H. hyhridus Aube P; My-Au (CW) 

Mains ovatus Leech ID,P; Jl-Au (CW) 


2340 Suphisellus pimcticollis (Cr.) . Cr; Jl (CW) 


2772 Berosus piignax heC. Cr,P; Je-Au (CW) 
2774 B.aculeatus heC. M,P; My-Jl (CW) 
2781 B. exigims (Say). ID,P; Je (CW) 
2783 B.infuscatiisheC. Cr,P; My-Au (CW) 
2788 D er alius alius (LeC.) . P;Au(CW) 

Paracyrnus con fusus Wold. Cr,P; MyJe (CW) 
2842 Enochrus dijfusus (LeC). Cr; Jl (CW) 

E. consortuus Gr. Cr; Jl (CW) 
2868 SphaeridmmhipnstulatumY. Pk,T;My-S (ND) 

S.lunaiumY. T; Ap-0 (ND) 


3496 Carpelinus bilineaius Steph. T; Ap-Au (ND) 

Oxytelus fuscipennis Mann. Pk,T; Ap-S (ND) 
3596 Plaiysiethus americaniis Er. T;Ap-S(ND) 
3622 Bledius semiferrugineus LeC. T; My-Au (ND) 
3643 B. opacus Block. T; My-Au (ND) 
4631 Oxypo7'us 7najor Grav. T; Jl-Au (ND) 
4027 Laihrohium (Teiaropeus) nigrum LeC. T; Jl (ND) 
3936 Lissobiops serpeniiniis (LeC). Pk; My (ND) 
3906 Hoviaeoiarsus pime7Hanus (LeC). Pk; Au (ND) 
4427 Philonihus alumnus Er. T;My-0(ND) 
P. reciangulus Shp. T; My-0 (ND) 
19346 P. c7-uentaius Gmel. ID,Pk,T; My-0 (ND) 
4536 Staphylimis femoratus F. Pk; Au (ND) 
4549 S.exulans Er. Pk; Ap-My (ND) 
4716 Lordiihon 7iiger (Grsiv.). Pk,T; My-Au (ND) 
4668 Tachimis limb at MS Melsh. T;0(ND) 
5750 Co7'diola obscura Grav. T;N(ND) 


Indiana Academy of Science 


6612 Hister curtahis heC. T; My-S (ND) 

6661 Cylistrix cylindrica (Payk.). Monroe on white pine (CW) 






Aegilia opifex Horn. ID; My-Je (CW) 

Aphodius erraticus (L). ID,T; My Je (ND) 

A.rufipes (L). M; Jl (CW) 

A. p^'odromiis (Brahm). T; Ap-0 (ND) 

Ataenius strigatiis (Say). Pk,T; Ap-0 (ND) 

A.spretiihis (Hald.). ID; Je (ND) 

Psammodius laevipennis Costa. ID; Je-Jl (CW) 

Pleurophorus atlanticus Cart. T; Ap-M (ND) 

Hybosorus illigeri Reiche. Cr,P; Je (CW) 

Bolboceras liebecki Wallis. Fl; Je (CW) 

Glaresis knaiisi Brown. ID; Je-Jl (CW) 

Trox striatus Melsh. Cr,M; Ap-My (CW) 

r. affinis Robn. Cr; Jl (CW) 

TJoveicollisU'dTT. Cr.P; Je-S (CW) 

T. hamatus Robn. Cr; (CW) 

T. spinulosus Robn. M; Je (CW) 

T. variolatus Melsh. Monroe; O (CW) 

Phyllophaga forbesi Glas. P; Jl (CW) 

P. fosteri Burm. Br,Fl; (CW) 

P. longispina Sm. ID; Je (CW) 

P.quercus (Knoch). Cr; Jl-Au (CW) 

P. prolonga Davis. P; My (CW) 

Popilla japonica Newn. General; Jl-Au. 

Trigo7iopeltastes delta (Forst.). P; Hovey Lake Survey 

bred from hickory 


Eurypogon harrisl (West.). Cr,ID,T; M-Jl. 


9688 E lodes fuscipemiis Guer. T;My-Jl(ND) 
9680 Microcara explmiata heC. ID; Je (CW) 


9640 Macronychus glabratus (Say). T; S-N (ND) 


Actenodcs simi Fish. Clay, ID; My-Je; 
21062 Agrilus gemimatiis Say. T ; Je-Jl (ND) 
21036 A. atrico7'7iis Fish. T; My-Je (ND) 
9548 A. vittaticollis Rand. Br,T; My-Jl. 
21064 A. quadriguttatus Gory. T; Je (ND) 
9541 A. crataegi Frost. T; My-Je (ND) 
9522 A. cephalicus LeC. Br; Je; on dogwood 
19664 A. psendofallax Frost. T; My-Je (ND) 


8576 HemirhipHs fasciculans (F). Cr; Je-Au (CW) 

8983 Megapcvthes mfilabrls (Germ.)- Cr,Fl; Je-Au (CW) 



8991 M. angiilaris LeC. Cr,ID,P,T; Je-Au 

8972 M. insignis (LeC). Southern half of state; Je-Au (CW) 

8942 Ampediis militaris (Harr.). Monroe; Ma (CW) 

8670 Athous posticus (Melsh.). T; My-Je (ND) 

8699 D enticollis denticornis (Khy.). ID; Je (CW) 

8897a A griot e s isabellinus (Melsh.) . M,Pk,T; My-Je 

9055 Melanotus opacicollis LeC. T; Je (ND) 


9145 Dromaelus piisillus Horn. Pk, T; My (ND) 

9146 Fornax badius (Melsh.), Cr,ID,T; Jl 
9148 F, bicolor (Melsh.). Pk,T; Ap-My (ND) 

9161 Entomophthalmus rufiolus (LeC). Cr,ID,T; Je-Au 

9173 Hylis terminalis (LeC). Br,T; My-Je (ND) 

9164 Sarpedon scabrosus BoTiY. T; Jl (ND) 


7022 Phengodes fusciceps LeC, P; My-Je (CW) 

7024 P. laticollis LeC. Br,Cr; My-Je (CW) 





Plater OS avians Green. T; Jl (ND) 

P. batillifer Green. T; Jl-Au (ND) 

P. bispiculatus Green. T; Je-Jl (ND) 

P. capitatus Green. T; Jl-Au (ND) 

P. fiavoscutellatiis Blatch. Br,Cr,T; Jl-Au 

P. subfurcatus Green. Br,Cr,ID; Jl (CW) 

P. timidus (LeC). Br,Cr; Je (CW) 

Calopteron discrcpans (Newm.). Br,Clark,Cr,T 

Cocnia dimidiata (F.). ID,P; Je-Jl (CW) 



Phofinus consimilis Green. ID; Je (CW) 


Trogoderma glabf'um aerhst. T; Je-Jl (ND) 







Coelostethus notatus (Say). Br,Monroe, T; My-Au 
Stagetus profunda LeC T; Je (ND) 
Prothecahispida heC. T;My-Jl(ND) 
Dorcatoma pallicornis LeC T; My-Je (ND) 
Eutylistus hicomptiis (LeC). ID,T; Je-Au (ND) 
E. tristriatus (LeC). Br,T; M~Je (ND) 
C ae7iocer a blanchardi Fall. T; Jl (ND) 
C.iyiepta Fall. T; Jl (ND) 

Ptirius falli Pic. T; Jl (ND) 


Lichenophanes mutchleri Belkin. Cr,M,T ; My-Jl 
12873 Scobicia bidentatus (UorYi) . T; Je (ND) 

312 Indiana Academy of Science 


12939 Lyctns cavicoUis LeC. Monroe on bamboo (CW) ; T; Je 


7573 LcconteUacancellata (LeC). Cr; Jl-Au (CW) 

7691 Wolcottia pedalis (LeC.) . Br,T; Je-Jl 

7717 CregyaimxtaheC. Pk,T; Je-Au 

7722 Lcbasiella paUipes (Klug). T; Je-S (ND) 


Malachius bipunctaf us Harr. Clark; (ND) 


19608 MordcUa obliqua LeC. Pk,T ; Je~Au (ND) 
7825 Tomoxiau7idulata {Me\sh.). Br,Cr,Pk,T; Je-Au 

7805 T. lineela LeC. ID,T; Je-Au 

7806 T. inchisa LeC. T; Je-Jl (ND) 
Mordellistena rnhrifasciataluiV]. Br,M,T; Je~Jl 

7857 M. militaris LeC. P; Je (ND) 

7869 M.picilabr is Helm. T;J1(ND) 

7870 M. infima LeC. T ; Jl (ND) 
7881 M. ruficeps LeC. T; Jl (ND) 
7884 M. rufa Lilj. M; Je-Jl (CW) 

M. hebraica LeC. Br,Cr,P,T ; JeAu 

M. lejjorina LeC. Bartholomew; Jl (CW) 

7904 M. vera Lilj. Cr,P,T; Je-Au 

7907 M.pulchraUlj, Boone,T; Au-S 

7925 M.attenuata {Say). Br; Je (CW) 


7946 Pelecotoma flavipes Melah. T;Je(ND) 


12339 Cyyioens angustafus LeC. Cr,M, Pulaski ; My~Au (CW) 


11254 Hymenorus curticollis Csy. T;My~Au (ND) 

H. obesus Csy. Br,T; Je-Jl (ND) 
11317 Isomira ruficollis Ham. Br; My-Je 


12568 Ser7'opalpus substriaUis Hald. LaGrange; (ND) 
12579 Anisoxy a glaucula LeC. M,Monroe,T; My-Jl 


7747 Cephaloon Icpturides Newn. Br; Je 


Xanthochroa erythrocephala Germ. P; Jl (CW) 
X. lateralis (Melsh.). P; (CW) 
Oxacis trimaculatus Champ. P,T ; My-Jl 
O. trirossi Arnett. P; Jl (CW) 

Entomology 313 


8318 Notoxus calcaratus tioYia. Cr; Au (CW) 
8340 Amblyderus grannlaris (LeC). ID; My-Au (ND) 
Anthicus tobias Mars. M,P; Je-Au (CW) 
Sapintus caudatus Werner. P; Ap-My (CW) 


8486 Zonantes ater heC. Br,T; Je-Aii 

8492 Vanonus piceoiis (LeC). T;J1(ND) 

8493 Pseudaniderus tiibercidifor'tn Horn. P; (CW) 
8505 Gmidscus ventrocosns (LeC). P; Je (CW) 


10029 Colopterus maculatus 'E.Y. Br,M; My-Je (CW) 
10121 Cy nodes biplagiahts heC. Monroe; Ap (CW) 

Thaly era orient alis Howden. Monroe; My (CW) 
21855 GlischrochilHs siepmanul Br. Monroe, T; Ap. 


12947 Odontosphindus denticollis LeC. T; Je (ND) 


10179 Europs pallipennis (LeC). T; My (ND) 

10196 Oryzaephiliis viercator Fauv. T; Dec; in English walnuts 

10237 Laemophloeus filiger Csy. T; My-Je (ND) 
10265 Lathropus vernalis LeC. T; Je-Au (ND) 


Byturus sordidiis Barber. Clark, M, T; My 


10736 Epipocns bivit talus Gerst. P; Je-Au (CW) 


11112 Scymnus viyrmidonMwX^. T;J1(ND) 

11196 Mulsayitia picta (Weise). ID,Pulaski ; My-Jl 

11192 Olla abdominalis (Say). M,P; Jl-0 (CW). This includes 

the form plagiata Csy. and an unnamed form. 
11231 Epilacfuta vanvestis Muls. T;My (ND) 


10530 Sy nchita fnUgjiosa Me\sh. Br,M,T;My-S 
10536 Bito7na carinat a LeC. M;My(CW) 
21117 B. creyiata F. T; Ap-S (ND) 
10601 Cerylo7i sticticum Csy. Pk,T; My-S (ND) 
10607 MycJioceins depressHs (LeC). Br; Je (CW) 


14457a Gravimoptera haemitites (Newn.). Br; My-Je 
14459a G.ruficeps (LeC). M,Pk,T; My-Jl 
14456 Typocerus con fluens Csy. Starke; Jl (CW) 
21283 T.deceptns KnuU. T,Pulaski; Je-Jl (ND) 
14445 Ayiophdera circnmdata (OUv.) . Br; My-Je 


Indiana Academy of Science 

14315 Centrodera sublineataLeC. P; Ap (CW) 

14719 Hesperophanes pubesce7is (Hald.). ID; Jl (CW) 

21277 Ty Imiotus masofii KnuW. M,T;J1 

14217 Elaphidionoides parallelus (Newn.). Cr,ID,M,Monroe,P,T; 

14241 Anelaphus jjumiliis CNewn.) . Monroe,P.T; My-Je 

Micranopliinn unicolo7- (Hald.). Cr,T; My-Jl 
14635 Phymatodes aereus (Newn.). T; My (ND) 
14640 P. dimidiatus (Khy.). Allen; (ND) 
14684 Xylotrechus aceris Fish. T; Jl (ND) 

Cacophila nehulosa (Hald.). Br; Je (CW) 
14954 Amniscus collaris Hald. T; Je-Jl (ND) 
15023 Urographis triangulifer (Hald.). P; Je (CW) 

15022 Graphism^s despectus (LeC). Br,T; Jl; on hickory 

Lepturges pictus (LeC). T; Je-Jl; on Celtis 
15047 Hoplosia yntbila (LeC). T; Je-Jl; on basswood (ND) 
15069 Eupogonhis tomentosns (Hald.). M,Pk, Pulaski; Je-Jl; on 

15071 E.puhescens'LeC. T;J1(ND) 
15088 Oncideres cingulatus (Say). M; S-0 (CW) 
15112 S aper da Candida F. Boone; Au (CW) 
20156 Oberea ulmicola Chit. P,T ; Je-Jl 

O. delo72gi Knull. ID; Je (CW) 







Crioceris asparagi (L.). T; Ap (ND) 

C. duodecimpunctata (L.). T; My-Je (ND) 

Oulema melanopa (L.). T; Je (ND) 

Exerna canadensis Pierce. Br.T ; My-S 

E. pennsylvanica Pierce. Johnson, M, Pulaski, T; My-S 

Myochrous sqnarnosus LeC. T; My-Au (ND) 

Paria opacicollis LeC. P; Je (CW) 

P. frageriae Wilcox. Johnson,T; My 

CaUigrapha pnirsa Stal. T; Je-Jl; on basswood 

C. liinata F. Pulaski; Jl (ND) 
Chrysomela knabi Brown. T; Ap-Je (ND) 

Pyrrhalta luteola Mull. Over the state; My-0; on elm 
PhyUecthris dorsalis (Oliv.). Br; Je-Jl 

Distigmoptera apicalis Blake. Jasper, T, Warren ; Je-Jl 

D. borealis Blake. P,J1 (CW) 

Altica subplicafa LeC T; Ap; on willow 
A. litigata Fall. T; Je-Jl (ND) 
Glyptina brunnca Horn. T; Jl-Au (ND) 
Anoplitis rosea (Web.). M,T;My-S 


16188 Semiins crueyitatus Rom. T; Au (ND) 

Bruchiis brachialis Fahr. ID; Je (ND) 

16251 Zabrotes siibn it ens Rom. Br; My (CW) 

Entomology 315 


E upar ills jmgarius GyW. T; Je-Jl (ND) 
Tropideres tricarhiafAis Pierce. T; Je-Au (ND) 


16677 Brachyrhimis sulcatusF. M,T; Je-Au 
16672 Barypeithes pelhicidus {Boh.) . M,T;My-Je 

Cyrtejyistovms castancus Roelfs, Cr,Pk,T; Ap-N 
16767 Lepyrus palustris Scop. Pulaski; Jl (ND) 
16845 Pissodes strobi (Peck). Monroe; Apr; on white pine 

Sviicronyx (Desmoris) compar Dietz. T; Jl-Au (ND) 

16940 S.fulvusheC. Boone, M; Au-S (CW) 
16938 S. sordidus LeC. T; S (ND) 

16941 >S. flavicmis LeC. T; Jl (ND) 

17734 Ellesclms scanicus (Payk.). Br,T; Jl (ND) 
17258 A7itho7io mus rufipe s heC. T;Je(ND) 

Conotrachelus buchanani Schoof. T; Je-S (ND) 
17861 C.aratus (Germ.). T; My-S (ND) 
17712 Cylindrocopterus binotatus (LeC). Br,T; Jl (ND) 
17727 Psomus armaUis (Bietz) . Pk,T ; Je-Jl (ND) 
17595 Ce7itrinaspis falsus (heC). Pk; Au (ND) 
17602 C entrinopii s alternatus Csy. Pk,T; Jl-S (ND) 
17616 Centrinites strigollis Csy. Pulaski,T,White; Je-Jl (ND) 
17662 Biichaninus striatiis (IubC.) . T;Je(ND) 
18108a Sphenophorus australis Chitt. ID;Je(ND) 

S. rectus (Say). ID; Je (ND) 
18060 Hexarthnim ulkei Horn. T; Ap-My; in house (ND) 
18047 Phloephagus apionides Rom. T;Je(ND) 
18049 P. minor Horn. Pk; Je (ND) 


18165 Platypus quadridentatMS (Oliv.). P; My (CW) 


18642 l2)s caUigrapha (Germ.). Porter; Au; on pine (ND) 
18503 Anisandrus minor ^^ . M,Pk,T;Ap-0 
18506 Xyleborinus saxGseniVv^tz. T;S,ND 

The following two species were entered in error on the 1958 list and 
are not, as far as is known, found in Indiana: 

9584 Actenodes fiexicaulis Schf. 

9134 D eltometopiis rufipes (Melsh.) . 

Literature Cited 

1. Arnett, R. H., Jr. 1960. The Beetles of the United States. Catholic Uni- 
versity of America Press, Washington, D. C. 

2. Blatchley, W. S. 1910. Coleoptera of Iiuliaiin. Bull. 1, Dept. Geol. and 
Nat. Res., Indianapolis. 

3. Blatchley, W. S. and Leng, C. W. 1916. Rhynchophora or Weevils of 
North-Eastern America. Nature Publishing- Co., Indianapolis. 

4. Downie, N. M. 1956. Records of Indiana Coleoptera I. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Science 66:115-124. 

316 Indiana Academy of Science 

5. Downie, N. M. 1958. Records of Indiana Coleoptera II. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Science 68: 155-158. 

6. T^eng', C. W. 1920. Cataloieiie of ilio Coleoptera of America North of 

Mexico. J. D. Sherman, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. Plus later supplements. 


Chairman: Lee Guernsey, Indiana State University 
Allan F. Schneider, Indiana University, was elected chairman for 1967 


Geology and Mining of Gypsum in Southwestern Indiana^ 

Robert R. French, Indiana Geological Survey 


Gypsum in southwestern Indiana was first noted by Logan (3), who 
described a layer of selenite a few inches thick in the vicinity of Huron, 
Lawrence County. Many hundreds of oil and gas wells were subsequently 
drilled in southwestern Indiana, but not until about 30 years later were 
relatively thick beds of gypsum and anhydrite recognized in the lower 
part of the St. Louis Limestone (Meramec, Mississippian). 

Intense exploration for commercial quantities of gypsum began in 
1951. McGregor (4) later delineated the approximate limits of the 
evaporite deposits. By late 1955 the National Gypsum Co. and the 
U. S. Gypsum Co. had established mines and fabricating plants and were 
shipping gypsum products from the Shoals (Martin County) area. In 
1958 the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. discovered a potentially commercial 
deposit in T. 9 N., R, 5 W., Owen County, and in 1964 the Indiana 
Geological Survey discovered another potentially commercial deposit 
in sec. 10, T. 7, N., R. 4 W., Greene County. The deposits in Owen and 
Greene Counties have not been developed. 


Gypsum and anhydrite have been observed in well cuttings from 
a broad band that extends northwestward from Perry and Harrison 
Counties to Vigo and Clay Counties and then southwestward along the 
Indiana-Illinois border (Fig. 1). Evaporites are found in the lower part 
of the St. Louis Limestone and are associated with carbonate rocks that 
are characteristically less cherty than the upper part of the St. Louis. 
The lower St. Louis Limestone ranges from less than 100 feet thick at 
the outcrop to more than 270 feet thick in the extreme southwest corner 
of the State. The strata dip approximately 35 feet per mile to the 
southwest but do not increase regulary in thickness from northeast to 
southwest as might be expected in this part of the Illinois Basin, A 
northward-trending belt of lower St. Louis rocks, about 150 to 200 feet 
thick, separates a belt of slightly thicker rocks in Martin, Daviess, 
Dubois, and Perry counties from the major part of the basin. The 
known commercial deposits of gypsum appear to be coincident with 
small embayments along the eastern flank of the belt of greater sedi- 
mentation (Fig. 1). 

The lower part of the St. Louis Limestone in the evaporite area is 
largely composed of brown carbonaceous limestones alternating with 
gypsum and anhydrite. Black, gray, red, and green shales are found 
near the top of the unit. Dolomite is present as continuous tan to 
brown fine-grained strata; dolomite also is found in lenses associated 
with minor structural highs. Traces of chlorides are found within the 

]. Submitted with approval of the State Geologist, Dept. of Natural Re- 
sources, Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana. 




Owen County deposit, 
sec. 1, T.9N., R.5W. 

S.D.H. 131, 
sec. 10, T.7N., R.4W. 
°^ Greene County 

Stioals deposit, 
T.3N., R.3W. 
Martin County 

30 40 Miles 

Figure 1. Map of southwestern Indiana showing- thickness of lower part of St. 
Louis Limestone and approximate distribution of evaporites. 

evaporites, and fluorite crystals are present in vugg-y carbonate rock 
above and below the evaporite unit. 

In the western part of the Shoals deposit a bed of shale, 1% to 2 
feet thick, lies near the top of the main g-ypsum bed. X-ray analyses 
indicate that the shale is largely composed of quartz, illite, chlorite, 
and dolomite. 

The evaporites are present in four or fewer beds, none of which is 
known to exceed 16 feet in thickness. Most of the gypsum is gray to 
white and is largely crystallized in the tabular selenite form. Some pink 
to brown selenite is present near the top of the unit. Secondary gypsum 
that has recrystallized in near-vertical fractures and along bedding 
planes is mostly of the fibrous "satin spar" variety. This secondary 
material is white to transparent and in places contains inclusions of 
shale or carbonate rock that have been displaced from the surrounding- 
material. Blue-gray anhydrite is present in lateral and vertical con- 
tinuity with the gypsum. Inclusions of dolomite are common within the 
anhydrite, and conversely, anhydrite veins and crystals are commonly 

320 Indiana Academy of Science 

found in the dolomite. Bundy (1) stated that much of the anhydrite was 
recrystallized from older anhydrite or g-ypsum. 

The St. Louis Limestone is exposed at the surface a few miles east 
of the present major evaporite beds, but only traces of nodular gypsum 
have been noted in the outcrop area. Breccia within the section suggests 
that the g-ypsum, if formerly present, was probably leached by ground 
water. In Illinois, Saxby and Lamar (6) also recorded the presence of 
breccia and the absence of gypsum in the outcrop. 

Depositional Environment 

It is generally accepted that a restricted environment in which 
normal marine circulation has been modified by a sill or barrier is 
required for the deposition of gypsum. The mechanics of developing 
such an environment may be multiple and are not fully understood with 
respect to the evaporites of southwestern Indiana. McGregor (4) postu- 
lated that epeirogenic movements periodically caused sills to form within 
the basin. Pinsak (5) suggested that sills were caused by differential 
compaction in the strata overlying- Silurian reefs. 

Some structural relief does exist on the underlying Salem Lime- 
stone, but the relief may not be due to compaction over Silurian reefs. 
Certainly, the configuration of the evaporite distribution is not well 
enough known to allow definite conclusions to be drawn about the true 
depositional environment. Topog-raphic barriers separating shallow la- 
g:oons or estuaries from the sea could produce features similar to those 
resulting from compaction. Calcareous mudbars having some subaerial 
or underwater relief at the top of the Salem Limestone (5) support 
such an interpretation. 

Commercial Deposits 

The Shoals deposit is mostly in T. 3 N., R. 3 W., Martin County. 
The National Gypsum Co. has opened an inclined shaft in the SWVi 
sec. 21, and the U. S. Gypsum Co. has opened a vertical shaft in the 
NW^/4 sec. 23. The main ore body at Shoals has a maximum known 
thickness of about 16 feet. Commercial-grade gypsum is present over 
several square miles at depths ranging from about 350 feet in the east 
to more than 500 feet below the surface in the west end of the deposit. 
The deposit averag'es approximately 75 to 95 percent gypsum, and the 
remainder is limestone, dolomite, shale, and anhydrite. Recent tests 
indicate that waste ore containing G7 percent gypsum can be upgraded 
to 80 percent purity with a recovery of approximately 82 percent of the 
gypsum (2). Hydration of the evaporites appears to be more complete 
on the east (updip) side of the deposit where ground water is abundant 
in fractures and in the porous overlying strata. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Co. and the Compton Development Corp. 
have drilled more than 30 core holes in sees. 1, 2, 11, and 12, T. 9 N., 
R. 5 W., and sees. 6 and 7, T. 9 N., R. 4 W., Owen County. The ore 
body in this area has a maximum thickness of about 15 feet and lies 
at a minimum depth of 400 feet below the surface. Analyses of the 
main ore body from 13 locations indicate an average grade of 84 to 
86 percent gypsum; the remaining- 14 to 16 percent is carbonate rock 



and anhydrite. The evaporites contain traces of chlorides (.067 to .014 
percent) throughout the area. Gypsum in the main bed grades laterally 
to anhydrite toward the south and west. Abrupt termination of the 
main gypsum bed on the east and northeast is probably due to leaching 
by ground water (Fig. 2). 






Figure 2. North-south cross section of lower part of 
Owen County, Indiana. 

Dolomite | | Limestone 

St. Louis Limestone, 

Because of the apparent correlation between slightly greater sedi- 
mentation and commercial gypsum concentrations along the eastern 
flank of the basin, the Indiana Geological Survey drilled Survey Drill 
Hole 131 in the NW^i NWy4 sec. 10, T. 7 N., R. 4 W., Greene County. 
The lower part of the St. Louis Limestone contains three evaporite zones 
in this area. In Survey Drill Hole 131 the first evaporite bed, at 277 
feet depth (248 feet above sea level), consists of 13 feet of gypsum, 
anhydrite, and shale; the upper 8 feet of this unit averages 75.5 percent 
CaS04.2HiO. The second evaporite bed, at 314 feet depth, consists of 
11.3 feet of gypsum and anhydrite. The third bed, at 363 feet depth, 
consists of 12.6 feet of gypsimi and shale (averaging 80 percent 


The National Gypsum Co. uses an inclined shaft 25 feet wide, 12 
feet high, and 2,052 feet long to exploit the evaporite deposit at Shoals. 
Underground facilities include a maintenance and truck service shop, 
spare parts, explosive storage depots, and a mine superintendent's 
office. A power substation with three 250kva transformers is maintained 
near the shaft, and three 100 kva skid-mounted transformers are used 
near the working face. Recovery of the rock is by the room-and-pillar 
method with 40-foot-wide rooms, 20- by 30-foot pillars, and 25-foot 
crosscuts. The face is drilled with two Joy CD-42 double-boom l^A-inch 
drills. Ammonium nitrate and electric caps are used to blast the ore. 
A 91/2 -foot pull produces about 350 to 400 tons per shot. The ore is 

322 Indiana Academy of Science 

loaded by three Michigan front-end loaders and transported to the 
primary crusher by two 20-ton and two 10-ton side-dump tractor trailers. 
The primary Allis-Chalmers 30- by 60-inch roll crusher reduces about 
250 tons of ore per hour to minus 12-inch size. The ore is carried to 
the surface at 278 fpm by a 30-inch conveyor belt and is reduced to 
about 1-inch diameter by a hammer mill. Two Raymond roller mills 
grind the ore until about 90 percent passes 100 mesh at a rate of 30 tph. 
The gypsum then enters the manufacturing processes to become wall- 
board and plaster. Twenty-four types of wallboard, 10 types of plaster, 
and raw gypsum and anhydrite (for cement) are produced at the plant. 
Approximately 200 people are employed at the plant; about 21 of these 
are employed underground. 

The U. S. Gypsum Co. uses a 430-foot vertical shaft at its mine 
in sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 3 W., Martin County. Recovery of the rock is 
by the room-and-pillar method with 25-foot rooms and 30-foot pillars. 
Three Joy CD-42 double-boom 1%-inch drills are used to develop a 
7-foot pull. Ammonium nitrate and blasting caps are used to obtain 
about 170 tons of ore per shot. Three Joy BU-11 conveyor-loaders load 
two LeTourneau trailers of 10 tons capacity and three Wagner tele- 
scoping trucks of 15 tons capacity; these trucks transport the ore to 
the primary crusher. A single-roll 30- by 48-inch 200-tph McClanahan 
and Stone crusher near the shaft reduces the ore to minus 6 inches. 
After primary reduction the ore is carried to the surface in 100 cu. ft. 
(5 ton) capacity skips, which discharge into hoppers for secondary 
crushing. A double-roll McClanahan and Stone crusher reduces the ore 
to minus 3 inches and a 3-foot Traylor gyratory crusher reduces the 
ore to about 1 inch before final grinding. Three Raymond (60-inch 
bullring) roller mills grind the ore to about 95 percent passing 100 
mesh. More than a hundred wallboard and plaster products are manu- 
factured at the plant. Raw gypsum is also marketed for portland cement, 
agricultural uses, and the glass industry. Approximately 200 people 
are employed above ground and 25 are employed in the mine. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bundy, W. M. 19 5G. Petrology of gypsum-anhydrite deposits in south- 
western Indiana. Jour. Sed. Petrology 26:240-2 52. 

2. French, R. R. 1966. Dry beneficiation of gypsum. Am. Inst. Mining Metall. 
Engineers Trans. 235:157-161. 

3. Logan, W. N. 1922. Economic geology of Indiana. In: Handbook of Indiana 
g-eolog-y. Indiana Dept. Conserv. Pub. 21; p. 571-1058. 

4. McGregor, D. J. 1954. Gypsum and anhydrite deposits in southwestern 
Indiana. Indiana Geol. Survey Rept. Prog. 8 ; 24 p. 

5. Plnsak, A. P. 1957. Subsurface stratigraphy of the Salem Limestone and 
associated formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Survey Bulletin 11; 62 p. 

6. Saxby, D. B., and Lamar, J. E., 1957. Gypsum and anhydrite in Illinois. 
Illinois State Geol. Survey Circ. 226 ; 26 p. 

Perennial and Ephemeral Streams and Lakes Map of Indiana 

Robert Miles, Purdue University 

The Airphoto Interpretation and Photogrammetry Laboratory has 
compiled from about 12,000 aerial photographs a series of detailed drain- 
age maps. The State map has been completed. The Perennial and Ephem- 
eral Streams and Lakes Map has been prepared as a four color map 
48 inches by 76 inches in size. The map has been developed at the 
same scale as the 1932 Geological Map of Indiana, one inch representing 
four miles. 

The Perennial and Ephermeral Streams and Lakes Map was the 

third and final map in the drainage map series compiled by tracing 
gully systems identified by stereoscopic examination of aerial photo- 
graphs. Individual county maps (1:63,360) were prepared by drafting 
reductions from the aerial photographs. An Atlas of all 92 counties 
was developed by photographic reduction to a scale of 1:126,720. The 
State map was prepared by tracing minute detail from photographic 
reductions at a scale of 1:253,440. 

Gully systems are shown on the map as are sinkholes, kettles, 
kettle lakes, creeks, and rivers. Gullies a few hundred feet long are 
shown in minute detail. The drainage sytsems related to geomorphic 
forms are striking. 


Indiana is blessed with a great natural resource-water. Where is 
this located? What patterns of drainage prevail? These questions are 
asked by civil engineers. 

The civil engineer's interests embrace all aspects of surface drain- 
age. They assist in development of local water supplies and are respon- 
sible for the design of the system and the impounding resei^voirs. Civil 
engineers are greatly concerned with pollution of streams and they 
design the corrective measures for industries and municipalities. All 
engineering site selection problems to control the environment or fulfill 
a need of man are concerned with drainage. Not only are perennial 
streams and lakes of importance but also ephermeral streams and lakes. 
It is estimated that in the United States 500 million dollars are spent 
annually on highway drainage exclusive of bridges (7). To the designer 
of highways, railways, pipelines, transmission lines, etc., the location 
of surface drainage forms has significant influence on the economies of 
the project. 

Civil engineers, geologists, pedologists, and geographers frequently 
use drainage patterns and drainage densities to infer land forms, parent 
material types and soil types by remote means such as aerial photo- 
graphs. Drainage patterns and their significance are dependent not only 
upon the high order streams and rivers but also the low order gullies 
and rills (2, 3, 4, 5). The location, length, number, form and relative 
gradient of perennial and ephermeral streams and lakes is important 
not only in the visible spectrum but also in the infrared and microwave 



Indiana Academy of Science 


Geology 325 

regions in which high resolution remote sensors are used. Drainage 
patterns are primary elements of interpretation for aerial photography 
and radar imagery. 

The Airphoto Interpretation and Photogrammetry Laboratory at 
Purdue University has been engaged in developing remote sensor appli- 
cations for over 25 years. For approximately 20 years the group has 
been concerned with mapping the detailed drainage systems within the 
State. The project has been completed this year. The final map com- 
pilation — Perennial and Ephemeral Streams and Lakes Map of Indiana 
has been published during this the Sesquicentennial Year. 

It is the purpose of this presentation to announce to the scientific 
community the publication of the map. Geologist, geographers and 
pedologist may find the minute detail on drainage systems of value in 
their terrain evaluations. 

History of Development 

The drainage map series was compiled at three publication scales. 
The first series was prepared by directly tracing the drainage detail 
identified by stereoscopic study of aerial photographs. M. Parvis de- 
veloped the drainage map of Parke County at a scale of one inch repre- 
senting one mile (3). Parke County was compiled from about 275 aerial 
photographs. The effort involved 318 man hours of work (3). This was 
approximately 0.7 man hours/square mile. 

Individual county drainage maps at a scale of one inch representing 
one mile for all 92 counties were completed during the period 1946 to 
1956. This series of maps used the existing county transportation maps 
as base maps. The minute detail of drainage detected in stereoscopic 
study of about 12,000 aerial photographs was reduced from a scale of 
three inches per mile to one inch per mile by projection. Section corners 
were used as control and detail was traced section by section. These 
maps were made available to the public as they were developed. Mar- 
shall County was the last county to be completed in July 1956. 

The ATLAS of county drainage maps was prepared during the 
period 1956 to 1959. The ATLAS was prepared by photographic reduc- 
tion of the county maps to a scale of one inch representing two miles. 
A brief description of the drainage systems, geology, and soils of each 
county was prepared on a facing page to make the ATLAS complete. 
The ATLAS was published in July, 1959. 

Individual county drainage maps were photographed and reduced 
to a scale of one inch representing four miles to compile the complete 
State map. A base map was prepared from the 1932 Geology Map of 
Indiana published in publication number 112, by Division of Geology, 
Department of Conservation. Tracings were made by hand from the 
photographic prints to the cloth base map. Tracing was performed sec- 
tion by section, township by township, and county by county. Section 
lines formed the basic control. Extremely fine point inking pens were 
used. At frequent intervals the draftsman had to sharpen the pens to 
keep a fine point. The delineation of all the detail was extremely 
exacting and tedious. 

The Perennial and Ephemeral Streams and Lakes Map was com- 
pleted in 1966. The final map in the drainage map series is 48 inches 

326 Indiana Academy of Science 

by 76 inches. It is published with counties, cities, towns, highways and 
stream names annotated in three colors. 

The map is a study in contrasts. Drainage systems and drainage 
densities are related to land form types, parent material types and soil 
types. Extreme contrasts in drainage are shown for the glaciated 
versus the unglaciated region. The greater densities and the stronger 
local control of runoff are visible in the unglaciated sections particularly 
the areas of clastic rocks. The sinkhole drainage pattern of the non- 
clastic rocks contrasts with the rectangular drainage pattern of the 
clastic rocks. Harrison County shows the distinct drainage system 
associated with the carbonate rocks. 

The ground moraines of Illinoian age contrast in dendritic drainage 
development with the various ground moraines of Wisconsinan age. A 
few measurements of stream densities were made in the various ground 
moraines of Wisconsin age to determine differences related to quantifi- 
cation of drainage in airphoto interpretation studies (1). Results of 
this study are summarized in Table 1. 


Drainage Pattern Analysis in Wisconsinan Ground Moraines (1) 

Average Drainage Densities 

Miles per square mile 

Stage Natural Man-Made % Man-Made 

Early 6 0.3 5 

Middle 3 0.8 25 

Late 2.5 0.7 30 

Additional work of this type is needed to further define the element 
of drainage system as a diagnostic feature in airphoto interpretation. 
The Perennial and Ephemeral Streams and Lakes Map of Indiana will 
be of significant value in this respect. 

Contrasts in drainage systems and densities are readily determined 
between the ridge moraines, the outwash plains and the terraces. Par- 
ticular details of the terrace face or bench face are well illustrated in 
the reach of the Wabash River from Lafayette to Attica. 

The discussion of contrasts in drainage shown on the map could 
continue. Our purpose though is to announce the availability of the 
map for further studies in understanding and controlling our great 
natural resource — WATER. 

Literature Cited 

1. James, W. P. 1961. ClJissilication of ■W^iscoiisin Ground Moraine by Air- 
photo Interpretation. MSCIC Thesis, School of Civil Engineering", Purdue 

2. Miles, R. D., et al. 19(;3. Forecasting Trafficability of Soils: Airphoto Ap- 
proach. Technical Memorandum, No. 3-331, Report 6, U. S. Army Engineer 
Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. 

Geology 327 

Parvis, M. 1946. Airphoto 1nteri>retati<»ii of Soils and Hraiiiage of Parke 

County, Indiana. MSCE Thesis, Scliool of Civil Engineering, Purdue Uni- 

Parvis, M. 1946. Development of Drainage Maps from Aerial Photograplis. 
Proceedings, Highway Research Board, Volume 26. 

Parvis, M. 1947. Regional Drainage Patterns of Indiana. CE Thesis, 
School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University. 

Parvis, M. 1950. Drainage Pattern Significance in Airphoto Interpretation 
of Soils and Rocks. Bulletin 28, Soil Exploration and Mapping, Highway 
Research Board, Washington, D. C. 

Thorstenson, Frederick W. 1965. Function and Organization of Highway 
Drainage Sections. J. Highway Division, Amer. Soc. Civil Engineers, Volume 
91, Number HWl, Proceedings Paper 4207. 

Late Wisconsin Glacial History of the Area Around 
Lake Maxinkuckee^ 

Allan F. Schneider and Gerald H. Johnsons 
Indiana Geological Survey- 

The g-lacial geology and soils of the area around Lake Maxinkuckee 
formed the theme of the geology-soils field trip of the 1965 spring meet- 
ing of the Indiana Academy of Science held at Culver, which is at the 
north end of Lake Maxinkuckee. The area traversed on this trip is in 
southwestern Marshall County, northwestern Fulton County, north- 
eastern Pulaski County, and southeastern Starke County within a 12- 
mile radius of Culver (Fig. 1). The present paper summarizes the 
glacial history of this area and thus more or less outlines the itinerary 
of the field trip, the details of which may be found in the guidebook 
(1). Incorporated are several new ideas that amplify the basic sequence 
of events worked out by Frank Leverett (2) and other geologists, includ- 
ing Malott (3), earlier this century. 

The Maxinkuckee Moraine and Extent of the Saginaw Lobe 

One of the largest lakes in the State, Lake Maxinkuckee^ occupies 
a huge ice-block depression at the western edge of the massive Maxin- 
kuckee Moraine (Figs. 1-3). This moraine is one of the most prominent 
physiographic features of north-central Indiana, trending in a general 
north-south direction for a distance of about 40 miles between South 
Bend and Rochester (Fig. 3). Like most of the glacial features of the 
Lake Maxinkuckee area, the Maxinkuckee Moraine was formed during 
the latter part of the Wisconsin Age, probably fairly early in the Gary 
Subage. It owes its origin to the advance and subsequent stagnation 
of the Saginaw Lobe, a tongue-shaped protuberance of ice that entered 
Indiana from the northeast after crossing southern Michigan from its 
source in the basin now occupied by Saginaw Bay. 

The terminus of the Saginaw Lobe on the southeast stood along the 
present course of the Eel River from western Whitley County south- 
westward through Kosciusko, Wabash, Miami, and Cass Counties to 
the vicinity of Logansport. Stagnation of the glacier in its marginal 
zone produced the belt of hills and kettle holes known as the Packerton 
Moraine, whose outer edge follows the river in this area (Fig. 2). 

The western limit of the Saginaw Lobe is not definitely known, 
partly because it is not represented by any known moraine. The termi- 
nus may have trended in a northwesterly direction through Pulaski and 

1. Publication autliorized by the State Geologist, Department of Natural 
Resovirces, Geological Survey. 

2. Present address : Department of Geology, College of William and Mary, 
Williamsburg, Virginia. 

3. Lake Maxinkuckee covers an area of 1,854 acres and thus is second in 
size only to Lake Wawasee among the natural lakes in Indiana. It is also one 
of the deepest (8S feet). 






Figure 1. Map showing- glacial geology of the area around Lake Maxinkuckee 
and route of the 1965 geology-soils field trip. 


Indiana Academy of Science 


outwash belt 

. Delong 


Tippecanoe outwash belt 

Moxlnkuckee Moraine 

Figure 2. Diagrammatic cross section showing landforms and glacial deposits 
in the area around Lake Maxinkuckee. 

Starke Counties, but thick deposits of outwash and windblown sand 
(Fig. 3) effectively obscure the evidence. Zumberge (10), however, has 
argued that the Saginaw Lobe reached farther west; he contends that 
a narrow tongue of ice pushed entirely across Indiana into eastern 
Illinois. According to this interpretation, two nearly parallel morainic 
ridges — one extending across Jasper and Newton Counties and the 
other across northern Benton County (Fig. 3) — respectively define the 
northern and southern limits of the ice. The morphology of these two 
moraines, our inability to trace one moraine into the other in Illinois, 
and certain outwash patterns leave us unconvinced that this interpreta- 
tion is the correct one. 

Retreatal Features of the Saginaw Lobe 

Northeastward retreat of the Saginaw Lobe from its terminal posi- 
tion was apparently punctuated by a series of pauses, as suggested by 
several linear to very gently arcuate ice-marginal features beyond the 
Maxinkuckee Moraine in parts of Starke, Pulaski, Fulton, and Cass 
Counties. These features are short segments of end moraine that trend 
northwest-southeast and shallow elongate troughs, many of which have 
a similar trend. 

Most of the troughs are between 10 and 30 feet deep, but some are 
shallower. The typical depression is probably about 15 feet deep and 
between 500 and 1,000 feet across, but the features range in width from 
200 feet to perhaps 2,000 feet. Because of their low relief, the troughs 
are not conspicuous features in the field, nor are they immediately 
apparent from a casual inspection of topographic maps of the area. 
They are more readily detectible, however, on air photographs and 
soil maps. They are best displayed on soil maps of Fulton and Cass 
Counties (5, 7), which show the troughs to be underlain by poorly 
drained mineral soils of the Brookston, Kokomo, and Maumee series 
and partly filled with muck or other organic soils mapped as Carlisle 
and Wallkill. The depressions are generally discontinuous, but a few 
can be traced for distances of several miles. Commonly they are crossed 





Figure 3. Map showing glacial geology of northern Indiana. Modified from 
Indiana Geological Survey Atlas Map 10 by W. J. Wayne, 195S. 

332 Indiana Academy of Science 

or joined by even less conspicuous transverse to oblique depressions, 
also having very low relief; thus, the overall pattern, though weak, 
resembles the fracture pattern that characterizes the marginal zone of 
present-day glaciers (4, 8). Certainly it is much unlike the east-west 
topographic lineation in southern Cass County and in much of Carroll 
and Howard Counties that was described and interpreted by us at a 
previous meeting of the Academy (6). Even a casual examination of 
the Cass County soil map (7) reveals a marked difference in soil patterns 
north and south of the Wabash Valley. 

The short end-moraine belts, though not so numerous, are much 
more distinct than the troughs. The two most prominent morainic seg- 
ments are about equidistant south and west of Lake Maxinkuckee near 
DeLong and Bass Lake, respectively (Fig. 1); consequently, they are 
descriptively referred to here as the Belong and Bass Lake morainic 
segments. Their similar trend (northwest-southeast), their virtual align- 
ment along this trend, and their similarity in position just beyond the 
Maxinkuckee Moraine suggest that these segments are correlative — that 
they were deposited simultaneously as parts of a more or less continuous 
moraine, a low part of which was subsequently breached and eroded by 
sediment-laden meltwaters when the terminal zone of the Saginaw Lobe 
stood along the Maxinkuckee Moraine or farther east. 

The DeLong morainic segment is composed largely of calcareous 
loam till (Fig. 2) leached of carbonates to a depth of about 4^2 feet 
(Fig. 1, stop 5). The Bass Lake segment also contains till but in 
addition is made of stratified ice-contact sand and gravel deposits. The 
north end of the moraine, for example, terminates in a kame complex 
(Figs. 1 and 3), from which commercial gravel is currently being re- 
moved from at least one of several large pits. Kame deposits are also 
being mined farther south in the moraine. Both the DeLong and Bass 
Lake segments have been modified by the deposition of eolian sand, 
which partially obscures their morainic morphology. 

The Delong and Bass Lake morainic areas were recognized by 
Leverett (2), who interpreted them in much the same way as we do: 
recessional morainic belts deposited at the snout of an ice lobe retreating 
to the northeast. Leverett also mapped as morainic a slender arcuate 
belt of land that trends in a general north-south direction through 
western Fulton County and northwestern Cass County between the 
Delong segment and the Wabash Valley. This belt was later considered 
to be part of the Maxinkuckee Moraine by others (3, 9), but it appears 
to us to have been misinterpreted. More probably the Maxinkuckee 
Moraine swings eastward in the vicinity of Rochester and merges with 
the Packerton Moraine in eastern Fulton County. 

Construction of the Maxinkuckee Moraine 

Continued wastage of ice caused the front of the Saginaw Lobe to 
recede farther to the northeast, possibly first to the position of the 
Maxinkuckee Moraine and then to some unknown position well behind 
the moraine. The ice apparently soon readvanced, however, as suggested 
by a cap of calcareous loam till that overlies stratified sand and gravel 
in much of the area. This relationship (Fig. 2) is demonstrated by 
several exposures in the moraine east of Lake Maxinkuckee as, for 

Geology 333 

example, in a pit of the Standard Materials Corporation {Fig. 1, stop 3), 
where the till cap is as much as 12 to 15 feet thick. The stratified 
deposits are thought by one of us (Johnson) to represent an extensive 
high-level proglacial outwash plain deposited as the ice receded from 
the position of the moraine and probably also as it readvanced. 

Most of the Maxinkuckee Moraine in the area of Lake Maxinkuckee 
probably owes its origin to this later advance of the Saginaw Lobe. A 
fairly long stillstand of the ice is indicated by the massive character 
of the moraine in this area and by several kinds of stagnant-ice features. 
Between Culver and Rochester, for example, the moraine is marked by 
numerous small kames (Fig. 1, stop 1), meltwater troughs (traversed 
between stops 1 and 2), undrained ice-block depressions filled with 
water (Lake Maxinkuckee) or with organic accumulations of muck, 
peat, and marl (Fig. 1, stop 2; Fig. 2, Eddy Lake), and a very striking 
massive kame complex (Fig. 1, stop 4). Some of these features, par- 
ticularly the larger kames, may have formed during the earlier period 
of stagnation, but the evidence for this is not conclusive. 

Outwash and Dune Deposition 

Debris-laden glacial streams flowed through the troughs, winding 
over, around, and through stagnant ice masses toward the Tippecanoe 
sluiceway, and thence continued westward and southward toward the 
Wabash Valley far downstream (Fig. 3). As the meltwaters poured 
through the sluiceway, they dropped their load of sand and gravel 
(Fig. 1, stop 7) to build up a broad outwash belt of low relief (Figs. 1-3). 
Because the outwash belt heads well behind the Maxinkuckee Moraine 
(Fig. 3), the Tippecanoe sluiceway must have been used for some time 
after the construction of the moraine. It was undoubtedly used at least 
until stagnant ice in the moraine had largely melted away and the 
Saginaw Lobe had retreated from the Tippecanoe drainage basin. 

Strong westerly winds subsequently reworked the sandy materials 
of the Tippecanoe outwash belt, and large crescentic sand dunes were 
constructed on its surface (Fig. 2). Although these dunes asume differ- 
ent shapes and many sizes, the great majority of them are parabolic 
or U-shaped dunes. In plan they are convex to the east, and in cross 
section they are distinctly asymmetric; the steeper slip faces or lee 
sides face east to northeast — positive proof that the prevailing winds 
were, as now, from the west (or southwest). The morphology of many 
of the dunes (including those at stops 6 and 8) is virtually perfect. 

Much windblown sand was, in addition, swept eastward onto the 
Maxinkuckee Moraine, so that the front of the moraine in many places 
is now largely obscured (Fig. 1, stop 6; Fig. 2). The topography and 
composition of the interior of the moraine were also considerably 
modified by the deposition of sand. With the establishment of vegeta- 
tion and the development of soils, however, most of the dunes eventually 
became stabilized, but in places where the protective vegetative cover 
is absent loose sand continues to be drifted about by the wind. 


The known glacial history of the Lake Maxinkuckee area centers 
about the Saginaw Lobe, which entered Indiana from the northeast 

334 Indiana Academy of Science 

during the Gary Subage of the Wisconsin Age. On the southeast the 
terminus of the ice was along the Packerton Moraine; the western 
limit of the lobe is not represented by any known moraine but probably 
trended northwestward through Pulaski and Starke Counties. 

Northeastward retreat of the Saginaw Lobe was apparently spas- 
modic, as suggested by several linear to gently arcuate ice-marginal 
features that trend northwest-southeast; these include short end-moraine 
segments composed partly of kame deposits and shallow elongate 
troughs underlain by poorly drained mineral soils or partly filled with 
organic sediments. Continued withdrawal of the ice front, possibly first 
to the position of the Maxinkuckee Moraine and then farther northeast, 
was apparently followed by a readvance to the moraine, as suggested 
by the cap of calcareous till that in many places overlies stratified drift. 
Most of the Maxinkuckee Moraine was built at this stage; a fairly long 
stillstand of the ice is indicated by numerous small moulin kames, melt- 
water troughs, undrained ice-block depressions, and the massive kame 
complex near Rochester. 

Debris-laden meltwaters poured through the troughs, winding over 
and around stagnant ice masses toward the Tippecanoe sluiceway, along 
which they dropped their load of sand and gravel to form a broad out- 
wash belt of low relief; thence they continued westward and southward 
to the Wabash Valley. Prevailing westerly to southwesterly winds 
subsequently whipped across the sandy outwash belt, and large crescentic 
sand dunes were constinicted on its surface. Much sand was swept east- 
ward onto the Maxinkuckee Moraine, considerably modifying its char- 
acter and obscuring its distal boundary in many places. With the 
establishment of vegetation and the development of soils, most of the 
dunes became stabilized; but where the protective cover is absent, loose 
sand continues to be drifted about. 

Literature Cited 

1. Johnson, G. H., A. F. Schneider, and H. P. Ulrich. 1965. Glacial geology 
and soils of the area around Lake Maxinkuckee. Guidebook for joint 
geology-soils field trip, Indiana Acad. Sci. 2 7 p. 

2. Leverett, Frank, and F. B. Taylor. 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana and 
Michigan and the history of tlie (ireat Lakes. U. S. Geol. Survey Mon. 
53, 529 p. 

3. Malott, C. A. 1922. The physiography of Indiana. In: Handbook of In- 
diana g-eology. Indiana Dept. Conserv. Pub. 21, pt. 2 : 59-256. 

4. Meier, M. F. 1960. Mode of flow of Saskatchewan Glacier, Alberta, Canada. 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 351, 70 p. 

5. Rogers, O. C, and others. 1946. Soil survey of Fulton County, Indiana. 
U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Bur. Plant Industry, Soils, and Agr. Eng., ser. 
1937, no. 17, 82 p. 

6. Schneider, A. F., G. H. Johnson, and W. J. Wayne, 1963. Some linear glacial 
features in west-central Indiana (Abstract). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72: 

7. Smith, L. R., and others. 1955. Soil survey of Cass County Indiana. U. S. 
Dept. Agriculture, Soil Conserv. Service, ser. 1939, no. 24, 129 p. 

8. Taylor, L. D. 1963. Structure and fabric on the Burroughs Glacier, south- 
east Alaska. Jour. Glaciology 4: 731-752. 

9. Wayne, W. J. 1958. Glacial geology of Indiana. Indiana Geol. Survey Atlas 
Map 10. 

10. Zumberge, J. 11. 1960. Correlation of Wisconsin drifts in Illinois, Indiana, 
Michigan, and Ohio. Geol. Soc. America Bull., 71: 1177-1188. 

Some General Aspects of the Physical Geography of the 

Southeastern Portion of the Canon City 

Embayment, Colorado 

Henry E. Kane, Ball State University 


The southeastern portion of the Canon City Embayment is situated 
in south-central Colorado and covers parts of Custer, Fremont, and 
Pueblo Counties. The north boundary is 38° 23' 45" North latitude; the 
south, 38° 07' 30" North latitude; the east, 105° 00' 00" West longitude; 
the west, 105° 07' 30" West longitude. This region, comprising all of the 
Canon City 4NE and Florence SE topographic quadrangles, covers 
approximately 128 square miles. Florence, Colorado, situated in the 
southwestern part of the Florence quadrangle and along the Arkansas 
River, is the major city in the area. 


The climate of the area is a semi-arid, continental temperate type 
with long, warm summers and short, cold winters. The region, lying in 
the rain shadow of the adjacent mountains, is characterized by an eiTatic 
distribution of rainfall and an abrupt changeability in the weather. The 
average precipitation is low and the evaporation high; the relative 
humidity is 52 per cent. 

Precipitation in the region is light, with the average over a pine, 
juniper, and ponderosa pine on the south slopes. Scrub oak, a shrub, 
is found on the south slopes; grasses include the blue grama, the 
mountain muhly, wheatgrass, and fescue. 


Two perennial streams and many ephemeral streams drain the plains 
section of the study area. The Arkansas River, an eastwardly flowing 
stream, is the major perennial stream of the region. Hardscrabble 
Creek, discharging into the Arkansas River from the south, is the 
other perennial stream. 

Ephemeral streams, such as Mineral and Newlin Creek, are power- 
ful erosive agents, particularly in the spring. During the remainder of 
the year, these streams carry no surface flow except after torrential 
downpours. Such heavy precipitation of short duration over a limited 
area may cause rapid nmoff to the streams in a short period of time, 
resulting in destructive flash floods. 


Pre-Quatemary rocks include Precambrian crystalline rocks and 
Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The Precambrian rocks in- 

1. No weather station with complete and long--term records is located in 
the study area. Hence, data on temperature were taken from the Canon City 
records, data on precipitation from Penrose, and data on wind, relative humidity, 
and evaporation from Pueblo. Little discrepancy in the records was indicated 
where comparisons of data could be made wtih short-term records from Florence. 


336 Indiana Academy of Science 

elude granite and pegmatite which enclose and intrude various gneisses 
and schists. Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks consist of marine sandstone, 
shale, and limestone along with continental conglomerate, sandstone, 
shale, limestone, and coal. 

Alluvium, colluvium, windblown sand, rockslides, and a slump block 
are the major Quaternary surficial deposits found in the southeastern 
portion of the Canon City Embayment. In the mountains, alluvial de- 
posits occur along some of the larger streams. Colluvium also occurs 
in the mountains, but it is generally quite thin. Pleistocene deposits 
which are quite prominent in this part of the Embayment are of alluvial 
origin and consist of brown to reddish brown sand and gravel of 
various sizes. The deposits occur as alluvial covers on pediments, as 
covers on pediment remnants, and as caps on isolated hills and knobs. 
Most of the recent deposits is also of alluvial origin and lithologically 
similar to the Pleistocene deposits; however, these deposits occur as 
veneers on rock-terraces and as alluvial-fill terraces, all occupying low 
topographic positions within present stream valleys. Some recent 
alluvium occurs as remnants of fill within arroyos. 

The major geologic structures of the southeastern portion of the 
Canon City Embayment are the Canon City-Florence syncline, the Wet 
Mountain anticline (2) and the Wet Mountain fault system (personal 
communication, John Logan, University of Oklahoma). These structures, 
along with minor folds and faults, have influenced the geomorphic de- 
velopment of the region. 


Landforms of the study area lie within two physiographic provinces 
(1): the Canon City Embayment of the Colorado Piedmont section of 
the Great Plains physiographic province and the Wet Mountains of 
the Front Range of the Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic 
province. Within the study area, elevations of the Embayment range 
from 5,000 to 6,500 feet while those of the Wet Mountains range from 
6,000 to 9,600 feet. Major landforms of the region are mountains, 
affected by Tertiary and is 40 miles per hour. The highest monthly 
average wind velocity over a 10-year period is 58 miles per hour (Janu- 
ary, 1943) while the lowest monthly average is 26 miles per hour 
(October, 1944). Winds exercise a drying influence on the soils, which 
are not well supplied with moisture due to low precipitation. Dust devils, 
small spiral winds, are fairly common, but tornadoes are relatively rare. 
In Fremont County, mountain-and-valley winds are strong enough to 
modify the climate considerably. 


Vegetation of dift'erent and characteristic types occurs in three 
subdivisions of the study area: (1) the river bottom, (2) the range- 
lands consisting mainly of pediments, and (3) the mountains. The 
vegetation of these subdivisions is strongly influenced by the amovmt 
of water available, which in turn aflTects the economic utilization of 
these areas. 

In the river bottoms, water is relatively abundant and some irri- 
gated farming is conducted. Vegetation consists of the plains cotton- 


00 i 

wood, tamarack, and willow, and introduced pasture grasses such as 
orchard grass, timothy, fescue, crested wheatgrass, tall wheatgrass, 
clover, alfalfa, and brome. 

On the rangelands, water is scarce and the vegetation is mainly 
xerophytic. Vegetation includes pinyon pine and juniper, shrubs such 
as the yucca, prickly pear, tree cactus, sagebrush, rabbitbrush, scrub 
oak, greasewood, and salt brush, and grasses such as the buffalo, blue 
grama, and the mountain muhly. 

In the mountain, water is somewhat more plentiful, and spruce (wet 
sites) and Douglas fir are found on the north slopes, and pinyon 31-year 
period slightly above 12 inches annually (table 1). Slight rainfall 
combined with the high summer evaporation rate (maximum average 
evaporation rate, July with 10.9 inches) places the climate well within 
the semi-arid type. Maximum average rainfall occurs between April 
(1.40 inches) and August (1.80 inches). Extreme maximum precipitation 
for a 10-year period was 6.25 inches (August) and the extreme minimum, 
0.01 inches (November). Winter precipitation is mainly snow which 
lingers in the mountains until the spring thaw. Some hail, accompanied 
by strong winds, may occur in the summer. Within the area, precipita- 
tion varies, with the greatest amount in and adjacent to the mountains 
and the least amount in the plains. 

Temperature extremes occur within a relatively short period of time. 
The average annual temperature over a 31-year period is 54.5°F, 
(table 1). The maximum monthly temperature occurs in July (73.3°F.) 


Composite Record of Average Precipitation and Temperatures 

for the Southeastern Portion of the Canon City Embayment 

for a Thirty-one Year Period 

(From records of the U. S. Weather Bureau) 


Precipitationi Temperature- 
( inches) C¥) 









September . . . . 































1. From Penrose Station. 

2. From Canon City station. 

338 Indiana Academy of Science 

and the minimum in January (36.7°F). The extreme maximum tempera- 
ture for a 20-year period was 107'"F. (July) and the extreme minimum 
— 16°F. (January and February). 

The average date of the first killing frost is October 10 while that 
of the last is May 10. The average number of days without killing frosts 
is approximately 120 days (3). The average annual frost penetration 
is approximately 20 inches, with the extreme frost penetration ranging 
as high as 35 inches. 

Winds blow mainly from the northwest and west, with occasional 
winds from the north and southwest. Spring and winter are the periods 
of maximum wind. The average annual maximum wind velocity over 
a 10-year period Quaternary erosion, and hogbacks, pediments, terraces, 
canyons and valleys, which have been either influenced or produced by 
Quaternary erosion controlled by rock hardness and geologic structure. 

One of the most conspicuous landforms of the study area is the 
pediments. Six pediments and an intermediate surface of one of the 
higher and older pediments are recognized, ranging in age from prob- 
able early to late Pleistocene. These surfaces truncate the soft shale 
of the Smoky Hill and Pierre formations of Cretaceous age. Present-day 
older surfaces are only a vestige of once extensive pediments which 
were gradually reduced in areal extent by stream erosion in the later 

The pediments are associated with three drainage systems; Hard- 
scrabble-Low Back Creeks, Adobe-Mineral-Newlin Creeks, and the Ar- 
kansas. The highest and oldest pediment of the drainage systems lies 
between 320 and 420 feet above modern stream level; the next oldest, 
with its intermediate surface at 280 feet, occurs between 220 and 240 
feet above modern stream level; the remaining four occur between 160 
and 180 feet, 100 and 120 feet, 70 and 90 feet, and 40 and 50 feet, 
respectively, above modern stream level. The slopes of the pediments, 
as estimated from the slopes of their alluvial cover, are variable, ranging 
from a maximum of 250 feet per mile at the headward portions of some 
pediments to a minimum of 75 feet at their distal ends. The pediment 
covers, consisting of coarse alluvium deposited by streams, are variable 
in thickness with an average thickness of approximately 10 feet. The 
origin of the pediments is ascribed primarily to lateral corrosion by 
streams with slope retreat caused by weathering and mass wastage of 
the valley walls considered to be a secondary contributor to pediment 

Literature Cited 

1. Fenneman, N. M. 1931. Physiography of the AVestern United States. 

New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 534 p. 

2. Geological Society of America et al. 196 0. Guide to the geology of Colorado. 
Denver, The Rocky Mountain Assoc, of Geologists, 310 p. 

3. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1941. Climate and Man. Yearbook of 
Agriculture, 1248 p. 

Notes on a New Pattern and Process of Physical City 
Development: The Web Theory 

Thomas Frank Barton, Indiana University 


During" the past few decades, urban geographers and specialists in 
other fields have been referring to, using in their research, and repub- 
lishing three theories (or generalizations) of city development. These 
theories are: 1. concentric zone 2. sector and 3. multiple-nuclei (4, 5). 
But in these decades another pattern of physical growth has evolved 
that needs to be identified, described, and interpreted. This new pattern 
and process is now conspicuous and distinctive both in the urban land- 
scapes of large political cities, in metropolitan areas and in megalop- 
olises where cities have coalesced or are now coalescing and also in 
the countryside between the cities. Tentatively, the author has labeled 
this new pattern and process, the web theory (Fig. 1). This development 
is oriented to the transportation-utilities-communication systems form- 
ing the circulatory arterials of urban and rural areas. The adjacent ur- 
ban land use associated with primary circulation systems results in two 
landscapes. Within the agglomerated cities and megalopolises the trans- 
portation-utilities-communication arterials are paralleled by business- 
industrial land use with the spaces between the threads of the web or 
net occupied by less intensive land use, primarily residential. In the 
countryside, the arterial threads are paralleled by urban use, often pri- 
marily residential, and the interspaces or meshes are occupied by rural 
land uses such as cultivated land, pasture, haylands and forests. Both 
patterns of development produce web or net landscapes of contrasting 
intensive and extensive land use. 

The Web within Cities 

The web threads or corridors of this new pattern consist of primary 
free-access arterials and their associated businesses and industries. 
Primary arterials with their associated types of transportation, utilities 
and communications are the lifelines of a city. Fronting on the arterials 
are strips of commercial, service and industrial structures which vary 
in widths from half a block to several. In some places these strips or 
corridors (1) may be wide for several blocks and then may pinch out 
in the next two or three. Sometimes the corridors of intensive business- 
industrial use are so wide that in some places they become wider than 
the meshes of the web. 

Parking lots in these corridors of business-industrial use are inter- 
spersed and in many places appear to occupy over fifty percent of the 
land surface. Sometimes these lots have frontages on the primary 
arterial but often they are located behind the structures. 

The meshes between the threads or corridors of the web are occu- 
pied by less intensive uses of land such as single-house residential areas, 
schools and their playgrounds, churches and graveyards, parks and other 
recreational uses, and also by vacant land. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Business -industrial Web 


Residential Meshes 





ui'e 1. 

In the core of this city pattern, like the web of a spider, the 
arterials and their associated intensive uses form a solid nucleus. Ad- 
jacent to the core the web is more closely meshed. Branching- out, 
there seems to be a tendency for the interspaces to become wider and 
wider. The writer has observed that generally as the meshes become 
wider the threads or corridors of business-industrial use often become 
narrower. Corridors are especially narrow or pinch out in recently 
constructed residential areas — especially in those developed since the 
end of the Second World War. However, the business-industrial corri- 
dors not only reappear but become wide near the urban fringes where 
large blocks of land are occupied by shopping and service centers and 
industry. Here in the peripheral areas or former peripheral ones now 

Geology 341 

engulfed by urban expansion, large blocks of land have been occupied 
since 1945 or are zoned for business and industrial use. However, regard- 
less of the widths of the strips in the business-industrial corridors, the 
web or net they form does enclose or nearly enclose residential areas. 
The number of these enclosed areas increases as they are subdivided by 
present discontinuous corridors that join to form another mesh in the 
web or net. 

Viewed from the air. When viewed from a low flying plane (a few 
thousand feet above the earth's surface) this web of intensive land use 
is conspicuous whether seen in the dark of night or the light of day. 
At night the headlights of cars and trucks, the flashing electric adver- 
tising signs, and the lights of streets, stores, offices and industries 
brilliantly illuminate the arterials and their parallel bands of intensive 
land use. The lights of major streets, freeways and expressways are 
quite vivid on aerial photographs taken at night. These almost treeless 
areas stand out in sharp contrast with the poorly illuminated and often 
tree covered meshes between the threads. In the daytime the threads 
are again distinctly visible partly due to the moving traffic and the 
treeless band of intensive land uses appearing as corridors through the 
wooded residential areas. Residential areas in arid land cities are not 
always as obscured by trees as residential areas in humid lands. 

Viewed on aerial photographs. Aerial photographs of urban areas taken 
during the day or at night clearly and unrefutably substantiate the 
writer's observations that both the threads or bands of the intensive 
land use web and their less intensively used interspaces can be mapped 
from aerial photographs. 

Viewed on urban maps. Land use maps substantiate the presence of a 
web pattern. On maps showing land used or zoned for residential use, 
one notices that the residential areas are often surrounded by other 
uses of land. And maps of large cities showing business and/or indus- 
trial land uses also indicate the threads or corridors. The web often 
becomes more distinct if an acetate map showing land zoned for com- 
mercial and industrial uses is superimposed upon one showing only that 
of the commercial and industrial. 

Less visible elements. Some elements of the urban web development 
show up on maps that cannot be seen by one driving a car along the 
threads of the web, flying about cities or reading aerial photographs. 
Water, gas, sewage, storm water, telephone, electric and subway systems 
are often located under pavements or under the unpaved right-of-ways. 
Distribiition. The writer has examined land use maps for most of the 
cities with over a million population and the web pattern is conspicuous. 
Although not as extensive, the web or net pattern of urban physical 
growth is also distinct in cities with populations from 500,000 to one 
million. This pattern, in addition to being obvious in Indianapolis where 
the writer noticed it nearly two decades ago, also shows up distinctly 
in Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Denver, Atlanta and other cities of this size. 
In Indiana cities with populations of over 100,000 but less than 
500,000 (Fort Wayne, Gary, South Bend and Evansville) the web pattern 

342 Indiana Academy of Science 

is present but not as extensive as in larger cities. Terre Haute, Indiana, 
with a population of only 72,500 in 1960, has a well-developed net 

The pattern appears to develop best in cities that have compara- 
tively level sites and are surrounded by or located on extensive plains. 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, aparently because of its rugged terrain does 
not have such a pattern. 

The Urban Web in the Countryside 

The threads of the web which are enmeshing huge blocks of the rural 
land also consist of major circulation systems flanked by corridors of 
intensive land use. The arterials here are major and all-weather roads. 
Since the end of the Second World War, strips of non-farm structures 
fronting on highways extend for miles and miles along both trunk 
highways and what were once country roads serving the farm families. 
This growth, sometimes called ribbon or strip development, parallels 
one or both sides of a highway between larger cities and surrounding 
smaller ones and villages. 

Whereas in the cities the primary uses of land fronting on the 
arterials are business and industrial, in the countryside, residences 
occupy most of the land in the corridors. In contrast with the situation 
in the cities where single-family residences are a less intensive use of 
land, in rural areas the residential use is a relative intensive one. The 
value of land for residential purposes is greater than if it were used 
for cultivation, hay, pasture and forests. 

In the rural areas most of the parcels of land fronting on the 
arterials are occupied by non-urban and non-farm dwellers. These daily 
nomads sleep in the country in houses modernly designed and furnished, 
but they work in cities. Small businesses, services, and light industries 
are interspersed among the residences. 

Paralleling the all-weather highways are telephone and electric 
power lines and more recently gas, water and sewer mains. 

The threads of the web development occupy a very small percentage 
of land in the countryside. But already the non-farm dwellers living 
in these urban corridors outnumber the farmers living in most of the 
counties east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio. In fact, 
there are fev/, if any, states in the United States in which full-time 
farmers and their families make-up over half of the population (2). 

Interpretation of City Web Pattern 

The web pattern of intensive land use in cities is related to economic 
factors, the flow of people and goods, and the metabolism of a city. 

1. Economic factors. Land fronting on good transportation arterials 
will have higher values and will in turn support more intensive uses of 
land. Most strip-located businesses and industries rely primarily on 
truck transportation and are often associated with adjacent or nearby 
supporting activities in the strips which have their own or use public 
trucking lines. 

2. Flow of people and goods. Prior to the industrial revolution people 
who daily went to work in the countryside returned to the city at night 

Geology 343 

for protection bringing with them food, animals, fuel, raw materials 
from forest and mines and sometimes water. Government and cultural 
structures and uses occupied the center of the cities. Markets and 
cottage industries were scattered throughout the residential areas. 

During the industrial revolution in most countries, factories and 
businesses located in cities adjacent to the central market place; or in 
the United States these were found around the village green and later 
around the courthouse. 

But all-weather roads, the gasoline motor age and electronics have 
freed man from a center-focused city with its central core and traffic 
congestion. During the last half of this twentieth century, the spread 
of the city not only involves suburban subdivision spread and sprawl 
but the migration of business-industrial use of land to circulation sys- 
tems with numerous transportation, utilities and communication facilities 
resulting in business-industrial corridors. Residential areas fronting 
on these ''zones of flow" were and still are often quickly rezoned for 
more intensive land use. Today many city dwellers seldom fight the 
traffic which focuses on a core of the city; rather, they drive to work 
or shop in the peripheries of cities or in the non-core business-industrial 
corridors. Many if not most of the intracity and intercity trucks never 
enter the central core of large cities. 

Technological improvements, such as central heating and air condi- 
tioning, odor, smoke, noise, and waste control, and landscaping, all help 
make ribbon development of business and light industry less objection- 
able to low and middle income residential owners. The enclosure of 
residential islands by ribbons of business-industrial development is no 
longer as obnoxious as formerly. Today many city, county and metro- 
politan planning commissions are deliberating zoning land for business 
and industrial use along primary arterials which enclose residential 
areas. Consequently, in the future, the process of residential island 
development will quicken in tempo. 

3. Metabolism. The flow of water, gas, electricity, food and raw 
materials into the city and that of manufactured products, wastes, and 
rubbish out of it is sometimes called the city's "metabolism" or its 
"input" and "output." This flow, whether in trucks or pipes, is obviously 
the greatest along primary routes. As these materials move into the 
residential areas from all sides the size of the distribution systems, 
whether water pipes or streets, logically become smaller and smaller 
when servicing single-family houses in a residential area. The collecting 
systems of wastes such as sewage and storm sewers become larger and 
larger as the wastes from individual houses and then from entire blocks 
are collected and conducted to the primary pipe along the arterials. 

Interpretation of Web Pattern in the Country 

The urban land use webs, which continue out from the city into 
the countryside engulfing extensive areas of the rural land near cities, 
appear to thrive in a habitat based upon and encouraged by increment 
in land values; access to "city" services; accessibility of electric power 
and machines; relatively low-priced land; and attitudes of people. 

344 Indiana Academy of Science 

1. Increment in land values. The state and federal government builds 
all-weather hardsurfaced highways without taking title to the adjacent 
land which fronts these roads. Consequently, the fortunate owners with 
land abutting these publicly-financed highways have the value of their 
property increased far above its original cost without their investing 
in the improvement. Moreover, since the primary roads are built with 
state and /or federal taxes, the local landowners are not taxed. In 
reality the road becomes a street for ribbon or strip urban development. 

2. Access to the city and its services. Flow on these arterials is in 
both directions. These all-weather highways are helpful in emergencies 
enabling city ambulances and city firemen and police to help non-farm 
and non-urban people who are in distress whether they support the 
services with inadequate taxes or any at all. Also these all-weather 
roads permit trucking services to daily deliver food products, news- 
papers, gasoline and other necessities from the political city to these 
ribbons of development. Along these rural ''streets," workers and school 
buses drive into the cities in the morning and out in the evening. Re- 
gardless of the weather, whether it is clear or raining, the gasoline- 
powered vehicle carries the traffic and only a rare blizzard or ice storm 
creates an emergency. The highway has brought many of the assets of 
living in the city to the countryside. 

City services have also been or are being brought to these nets of 
"rural-urban" growth. Both privately-owned and city-owned service 
systems parallel the highways and occupy the right-of-ways. First 
came rural telephone systems. Next, in the 1930's the federal govern- 
ment encouraged the construction of electric systems to service people 
living along the highways. Now in the 1960's the federal and state 
governments are subsidizing rural water and sewage systems. The cities 
often own and operate the water and sewage treatment plants and 
provide these services to the rural systems. The rural systems are 
primarily used and owned by the non-farm urban people living in the 
urban ribbons or threads of this web pattern superimposed on a rural 
landscape. These people and their structures form a "city" but its 
shape is a net or web, not a compact area as the conventional city that 
developed during the past several thousand years. 

As the primary lines of telephone, electricity, water, gas and sewer- 
age are extended out from the city parallel to the all-weather highways, 
the potential number of their users skyrockets. 

3. Electric machines and machinery. In this electronic age, industries 
can and are moving out of the cities and occupying sites in the ribbons 
or strips along the primary arterials. Apparently, in the future, settle- 
ments may well be an infinite variety of retail, service, industrial and 
communication centers appearing as nodal areas on a web of countryside 
urban land use. In a truly capitalistic society distances and relative 
costs of distribution and collection systems might have deterred this 
development, but today government subsidies at federal, state, and 
sometimes county and city levels only accelerate the process. 

4. Low priced land. Although the construction of the trunk highway 
has added "unearned" value to the adjacent farm land, its value for 

Geology 345 

urban purposes is much lower than that of the building sites in the city. 
An acre-size residential lot in the city fronting- on a paved street 
paralleled by water, sewage, gas, electric and telephone lines may be 
listed on the market at $10,000 or more. In the country the same size 
lot with the same services might only cost one-half or one-third as much. 

5. Attitude of people. The white "flight to the suburbs" has been 
going on for several decades and has been the object of numerous 
research papers. Many of these articles, bulletins and books stressed 
the economic and social reasons for this abandonment of older residen- 
tial areas adjacent to or surrounding the old business-industrial core. 
It was not until 1966 that the Gallup Poll indicated that 40 percent 
of the Americans interviewed ''look wistfully on the small town and 
farm as the ideal place to live" (3). The poll indicated that although 
only about a third of the people in the United States live in rural areas 
or in small settlements of 10,000 or less, 49 percent of those surveyed 
said "they would like to live in a small town or on a farm if they 
could live anywhere they wished" (3). Only 28 percent expressed a 
desire to live in suburbs, 22 percent in large cities (more than 10,000) 
and 31 percent in small towns. It is obvious that 49 percent of the 
Americans cannot and should not live on farms or in small towns. 
However, more and more people are substituting "acreages" fronting 
on major highways for their ideal — "living on a farm." These acreages 
often have accessibility to city living on one side and a farm view 
on the opposite. There is always the danger, of course, that the land 
to the rear of one's property may be sold to an urban developer. The 
acreage owner sometimes attempts to protect himself against this 
possibility by buying an area large enough so that he can subdivide 
his holding into smaller parcels or sell it to a developer. Some potential 
owners prefer to spend $6,000 for ten acres of land with a 660 foot 
frontage on a highway rather than $6,000 for a lot in a city with a 
hundred foot frontage, especially if the city lot is serviced by a macadam 
road with no curbs or sidewalks. 


This article is written primarily to call attention to and identify a 
new theory or generalization concerning the physical pattern of city 
growth. To show how the urban web pattern with its business-utilities- 
industrial threads or corridors encloses and as growth continues sub- 
divides residential areas and produces residential ''islands" of various 
sizes. The partially-enclosed residential areas both within and on the 
periphery of the web pattern indicate that additional residential subdi- 
vision will occur. 

Even in its initial step of formation, this theory may aid city 
planning by: 1. helping to justify the planning and constructing of 
both city and private services in the new primary arteries on fringes 
of the geographic city before the construction of stores, offices and 
factories begin; 2. supplying a defense for the zoning of land along 
the primary arterials for business and industry; and 3. zoning the 
location of business-industrial corridors to regulate the size of residen- 
tial islands or communities so that these may be more economical and 

346 Indiana Academy of Science 

In fact, the development of multiple distribution systems — of streets 
and transit lines; water, storm water and gas mains; below-surface 
telephone and electric wires and other forms of transportation, utilities 
and communication both public and private — may provide the means of 
controlling patterns of urban development. 

Or should this web growth be malignant, techniques need to be 
made and implemented to arrest, stop and, if possible, destroy and even 
remove part of the present web pattern. However, the writer feels that 
the present web growth and pattern are so extensive and well entrenched 
in numerous large cities in the United States, that they will remain as 
challenges for decades. 

Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1956. Industrial Renewal: A Comparative Study of the 
Tendency Toward Obsolescence and Deterioration in Major Industrial Areas 
in the City of Detroit. Detroit City Planning Commission Master Plan 
Technical Report Second Series. 

2. Anonymous. 1965. Will the non-farmer have a greater voice in farm policy? 
Econ. Market. Info. Indiana Farmers, August 31. 

3. Gallup, George. 1966. City follv still yearn for hamlets. The Courier- 
Journal, March 23, Sect. 4, p. 9. 

4. Mayer, Harold M. and Glyde F. Kohn. 1959. Reading's in Urban Geography. 
Univ. Chicago Press. 

5. Murphy, Raywond E. 196 6. The American City: An lirban Geography. 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 

Factors Affecting the Location of Steam-Electric Generating 
Plants of the American Electric Power System 

George W. Webb, Indiana State University 

The literature on the subject published in the past, for example by 
Deacy and Griess (4) and Zimmermann (7), in dealing with the relative 
importance of coal and market in the location of steam-electric gener- 
ating plants, concluded that coal was unimportant, but that, given a 
water supply, market was the dominant factor affecting plant location. 

The purpose of this paper is to point out how technological im- 
provements have brought about changes in the relative importance of 
factors affecting the location of steam-electric generating plants. Ex- 
amples employed to inquire into the question are the more recently 
installed plants of the American Electric Power System, a system which 
operates in a region where market, fuel, and water, the three most 
important locational factors, are found in ample amounts. 

New Technology of Thermoelectricity Production 

A change of emphasis in location of thermoelectricity production 
has followed from four technological advances: 1, the development of 
long-distance high-voltage transmission; 2, the substantial increase in 
the size of turboalternator sets; 3, the "cyclone furnace" which burns 
pulverized fuel or even the "slurry" from the coal washing plants now 
installed at almost all modern collieries; and 4, advances in boiler design 
which allow for pressures in excess of 2,000 pounds of steam pressure 
per square inch as compared with 500 pounds per square inch prior to 
World War II (5). 

Modern 100 megawatt turboalternators attain a thermal efficiency 
of almost 33 per cent, compared with 26 per cent realized by the 30- 
megawatt sets common before World War II. The British Central 
Electricity Board operates a 550-megawatt set, an operation that attains 
an efficiency of almost 37 per cent (5). 

The high-presure boilers and enormous new turboalternator units 
have reduced the capital cost of producing a kilowatt of electric power 
to almost half of that of 30 years ago; not only have they greatly 
improved the competitive position of thermoelectricity as compared with 
hydroelectricity, but they have also had consequences for the location 
of thermal stations (5). 

High-voltage and D. C. Transmission 

The most important of the above four technological advances, with 
respect to the relative importance of fuel and market in determining the 
location of thermoelectric generating plants, is the improvement in 
high-voltage transmission. 

Fryer (5) points out that: ". . . with the anticipated increase in 
the demand for power, substantial cost reductions per unit should be 
possible from the use of very high-voltage lines. Apart from economies 
of scale in transmission, very high-voltage lines make possible the 


348 Indiana Academy of Science 

interchang-e of large blocks of power in giant netv/orks, for in very 
larg*e quantities, transmission of power becomes feasible over distances 
greater than those normally regarded as the limit of economic transmis- 
sion. . . . For many years the longest and highest-voltage line in the 
United States was the 285-kilovolt line between Hoover Dam and Los 
Ang-eles, but Sweden has a 380-kilovolt line connecting: the Harspranget 
Hydroelectric station within the Arctic Circle with Halsberg in central 
Sweden, a distance of over 600 miles, and even higher voltages are 
employed in the U.S.S.R." 

With the development of higher transmission voltages, electricity 
can now be transmitted hundreds of miles economically. United States 
electric utilities now operate more than 100,000 miles of transmission 
lines that carry power at 138,000 volts and more than 20,000 miles of 
lines that transmit power at 230,000 volts. In 1953, the American 
Electric Pov/er System commissioned a 345,000 volt network that now 
interconnects electric systems in seven states and has more than 1,600 
miles of 345,000 volt lines (2). 

An incredible amount of condensing water is needed to accomplish 
the desired spread between the temperature of the steam entering and 
that leaving the turbine for efficient operation. According to Fryer a 
station uses about 50 gallons of water per hour per kilowatt of power 
generated (5). At this rate of water use, the Breed Plant located on 
the Wabash River south of Terre Haute would require 25-million gallons 
per hour. A body of water large enough to supply this prodigious 
amount of condensing water thus becomes a major factor in determining 
the location of modern giant steam power plants. 

The American Electric Power System 

The American Electric Power System is a group of six investor 
owned electric utilities operating companies, each interconnected with 
the others by high-voltage transmission lines, permitting their opera- 
tions to be fully integrated and thus forming a single major power 

All of the plants and the company's load centers are tied together 
by a network of some 14,000 circuit miles of transmission lines, extend- 
ing from Lake Michigan to the border of North Carolina. 

Steam Plants of the American Electric Power System 

The following are some of the more recently installed plants of the 
American Electric Power System (2). 

BREED PLANT. The Breed Plant is located on the Wabash River 
in Sullivan County, Indiana, aproximately thirty miles south of Terre 
Haute. Coal is supplied by the new Thunderbird Mine developed nearby 
by Ayrshire Collieries Corporation and transported via its new shorthaul 

The Breed Plant houses a single 500,000 kilowatt, cross-compound 
turbine-generator unit. At the time it was placed in commercial opera- 
tion in 1960 it was the largest and most efficient unit ever operated. 
This plant is so efficient that it genei'ates a kilowatt hour of electricity 
with only seven-tenths of a pound of coal. 

Geology 349 

BIG SANDY PLANT. The Big Sandy Plant, placed in commercial 
operation in 1963, is located on the Big Sandy River at Louisa, Ken- 
tucky. This is the American Electric Power System's newest steam- 
electric power station. This plant houses a single 265,000 kilowatt 
generating unit. 

The unique feature of Big Sandy is its giant cooling tower which 
will provide the cool water required by the plant's condenser. The hyper- 
bolic shaped, natural-draft concrete tower, first of its kind in the 
Western Hemisphere, rises 320 feet above ground, wtih a base diameter 
of 245 feet and a top diameter of 140 feet. 

CLINCH RIVER PLANT. The Clinch River Plant, the three units 
of which went into operation during the period 1958-61, is located on 
the Clinch River near Carbo in southwestern Virginia. 

This plant has three 225,000 kilowatt generating units. Coal for 
the Clinch River Plant is supplied by a nearby Clinchfield Coal Com- 
pany mine. 

A special feature of the plant's operation is its use of six wooden 
cooling towers to furnish cool water for steam condensation. Among 
the worlds largest, they have a combined cooling capacity of 330,000 
gallons a minute. 

KAMMER PLANT. The Kammer Plant is located on the Ohio River 
at Captina, West Virginia, south of Wheeling. The Kammer Plant has 
three 225,000 kilowatt generating units. All of Kammer's coal needs 
are furnished by the adjacent Ireland Mine of Consolidation Coal Com- 
pany and delivered via conveyor. 

MUSKINGUM RIVER PLANT. The Muskingum River Plant is 
located at Beverly, in southeastern Ohio, on the Muskingum River. This 
plant has a total generating capacity of 889,000 kilowatts. Its two 
215,000-kw units went into operation in 1953-54, and its two 225,000-kw 
units in 1957-58. 

Through the years, Muskingum River has been rated as one of 
the lowest production cost steam plants in the world. Its entire coal 
supply, some 2^/2 million tons a year, is delivered via a unique 4 ¥2 
mile belt conveyor system directly from Ohio Power Company's nearby 
Muskingum Mine. 

PHILO PLANT. The Philo Plant is located on the Muskingum 
River near Zanesville, Ohio. This plant has a generating capacity of 
497,000 kilowatts. The number six unit at Philo Plant which went into 
operation in 1957 operates at the steam pressure of 4,500 pounds per 
square inch. Unit six was also the first unit to use a steam temperature 
as high as 1,150°F. and to reheat the steam twice during its passage 
through the unit. This *'break-through" of the "steam barrier" paved 
the way for later super-critical units at other American Electric Power 
System plants. 

WINDSOR PLANT. The Windsor Plant is located on the Ohio 
River in West Virginia, about ten miles north of Wheeling. This power 

350 Indiana Academy of Science 

plant has a generating capability of 300,000 kilowatts. Although it is 
an old plant, it is an example of the importance of proximity of coal. 
The coal supply for Windsor comes from an adjacent mine, located in 
a hill near the plant, and is delivered by belt conveyor. 

Location of the Steam-electric Generating Plants of the 
American Electric Power System 

The major steam power plants of the American Electric Power 
System have broad general similarities, but each one has some distinct 
characteristics peculiar to that individual plant. With respect to factors 
affecting location of the plants certain specific factors are more promi- 
nent at some plants than at others. 

It cannot be correctly generalized that fuel was unimportant in the 
location of steam-electric generating plants of the American Electric 
Power System as was concluded by Deasy and Griess (4) in the case 
of the Pennsylvania plants. The plants of this system are located in 
the heart of American's bituminous coal area with the Appalachian 
Field on the east and the Eastern Interior Field on the west. 

In the selection of a site for a steam electric generating plant, the 
quality of coal available in a particular area is important. Generally, 
the coal found in the Appalachian Highlands is of a superior quality. 
Goal within the area of the American Electric Power System's steam 
generating plants, however, does vary in caloric value. This variance 
is important to the efficiency of an electric power generating plant. 

Prices of coal vary according to the source and type. Power com- 
panies are interested in the cost of coal delivered to generating plants. 
Consequently, freight rates, as well as prices at the mine, will enter into 
the calculations of site selection. It can safely be stated that the trans- 
porting of coal to the steam generating plants of the American Electric 
Power System is a definite factor of consideration in the selecting of a 
site for a proposed steam plant. Some of the plants are located only a 
few hundred yards from the mouths of coal mines, and in the cases 
of the Kammer plant, at Captina, West Virginia, the Muskingum River 
plant in southeastern Ohio, and the Windsor plant just north of Wheel- 
ing, West Virginia, a conveyor system is all that is required for coal 
delivery. Other plants receive coal by low-cost river barge, and still 
others are supplied by short-haul company-owned railroads. Only one 
of the fourteen existing steam-electric generating plants of the Ameri- 
can Electric Power System, the Twin Branch Plant at Mishawaka, 
Indiana, is not located on or near coal reserves. 

As stated previously, an abundant water supply is essential for 
electric power generation. All of the generating plants of the American 
Electric Power System are located on streams from which they draw 
their water supply. With the possible exception of three or four plants, 
depending upon an arbitrary definition of what is large, they are located 
on large rivers such as the Kanawha, the Muskingum, the Ohio, and 
the Wabash. 

Although water is an essential raw material for generating electric 
power by steam plants, it is possible to devise equipment to counteract 

Geology 351 

a deficiency of water when other factors are over-powering;. Two of 
the fourteen plants of the American Electric Power System have such 
undependable water supplies as make necessary the use of cooling: 
towers in order to recycle the water. The Clinch River Plant, located 
on the Clinch River, at Carbo, Virg'inia, is one such plant. To offset 
this deficiency, a series of six cooling- towers, built of treated redwood, 
were constructed. Each tower is equipped with ten fans with twenty-two 
foot blades which can cool water a maximum of nineteen degrees at 
the rate of 55,000 g-allons per minute. Another plant located on a river 
with a flow too small to meet the plant's water requirements is the 
Big- Sandy Plant, located at Louisa, Kentucky. This plant overcame 
the condensing problem by constructing the world's largest capacity 
natural draft cooling tovi^er (2). 

Economic conditions of the area and political considerations played 
an important role in the locating of the Big Sandy Plant. The plant 
was located in that region partly because it was an economically de- 
pressed area. The many unemployed coal miners in the area were a 
factor in the cost of coal. The presence of an abundance of low-cost 
coal allowed the location of a plant in the area to be in agreement 
with the above conclusion about the importance of fuel as a locational 

The American Electric Power System does not now have a plant 
using nuclear fuel and, at the present time, it has no plans for building- 
one. It does, however, now have under construction three new coal- 
burning steam-electric generating plants, one of which is a 1,230,000-kw 
unit, and is developing plans for three more 800,000-kw units, all of 
which are located in the Appalachian region (1). The principal factors 
affecting the location of these plants are proximity to large amounts of 
cooling water, nearby coal resources, and nearness to load centers. 

Within the area involved in this study, though not a part of the 
American Electric Power System, it might be mentioned that Public 
Service Indiana unveiled plans September 28 to build a $119 million 
coal-fired generating plant on the Wabash River in Vermillion County, 
Indiana. When the plant is completed it will be capable of producing 
a million kilowatts of electrical power. 

When in full operation, the plant is expected to consume three 
million tons of Indiana coal a year. Public Service has bought 866 acres 
of land for the new plant. According to the Terre Haute Star, company 
officials said the site was picked after consideration of such economic 
factors as fuel, transportation costs, and local taxes (6). 


The steam-electric generating plants surveyed in this study, espe- 
cially the more recently installed plants of the American Electric Power 
System, show a decided change in the relative importance of fuel and 
market as locational factors. Technological improvements, particularly 
in high-voltage transmission, now allow coal-burning plants to be located 
closer to the fuel supply while sending the power over greater distances 
by higher-voltage lines. 

152 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. American Electric Power Company. 196G. American Electric Power — An- 
nual Report 1965, New York, N. Y. 

2. American Electric Power Service Corporation. 1966. Power For Progress — 
The Major Plants of the American Electric Power System, New York, N. Y. 

3. Barthold, L. O. and H. G. Pfeiffer. 1964. High-Voltage Power Transmission. 
Sclent. American. 210: 39-47. 

4. Deacy, George F. and Phyllis R. Griess. 1960. Factors Influencing the Dis- 
tribution of Steam-Electric Generating Plants. The Professional Geog- 
rapher 12: 1-4. 

5. Fryer, D. W. 19 65. World Eoonomic nevelopiiieiit. McGraw-Hill Book 

Company, New York, N. Y. 

G. The Terre Haute Star, September 29, 1966. 

7. Zimmermann, E. W. 1951. World Ttesoiiroes juiid Indu.siries. Harper and 

Brothers, New York, N. Y. 

An Example of Consumer Control of Location: 
Service Stations 

Dennis R. Crowe and James R. Norwine, Indiana State University 


Geographers have long recognized the dynamic nature of man's 
physical and cultural environments. Lay observation has often substan- 
tiated the descriptions of change within the urban environment as stated 
by urban geographers. This paper deals specifically with the change in 
location and distribution of automative service stations over a twenty 
year period within the 1965 corporate limits of Terre Haute, Indiana, 
as an example of consumer control of location. 

The study was initiated in the Spring of 1965 with a field survey 
of locations of service stations within Terre Haute. A sample of the 
total number of stations was used which corresponded to those stations 
located along certain subjectively chosen main highways and through- 
routes. In addition to the field data acquired in 1965, city telephone 
directories were consulted for locations of service stations along the 
same routes for the years 1945 and 1955. Thus, a distributional-change 
trend can be shown for service station locations over the twenty year 
period of 1945 to 1965. 

The Sample 

An assumption was made that a great percentage of the total 
number of service stations would be located along highways and major 
through-routes, simply because of the greater traffic flow past points 
located along these routes. Twelve streets oriented both north-south 
and east-west were selected after field observation indicated an apparent 
service station gravitation toward these routes. All service stations 
located along these twelve streets were included in the sample. The 
validity of the assumption and hence the reliability of the sample were 
substantiated by the following observations: in both 1945 and 1955 
approximately 98 per cent of the city service stations were along these 
twelve routes, while in 1965 more than 90 per cent of the stations were 
along these selected routes. 

Results of the Study 

Numbers of service stations: 1945-1965 

As would be expected, the number of service stations in Terre Haute 
did not remain constant during the twenty year period between 1945 
and 1965. The study results indicate that during this period there has 
existed a general trend toward increasing numbers of service stations. 
Specifically, in 1945 there were 44 stations within the city limits, while 
in 1955 the number had increased to 85 — an increase of approximately 
96 per cent. Between 1955 and 1965 the number of stations increased 
to 108, for an increase of about 27 per cent in this ten year period. 
Obviously, although there was a sizeable increase in numbers in this 
last ten year period, the rate of increase was much reduced from the 



Indiana Academy of Science 

rate for the period 1945-1955. Perhaps this decreasing rate is a reflec- 
tion of the approach of a service station "saturation level" with the 
existing economic and land-use factors within the city after a post-war 
boom. It will be noted, however, that regardless of the rate of increase, 
there did occur an approximate 246 per cent increase in the numbers 
of stations between 1945 and 1965, most of which occurred in the post 
war period in the first ten years of this study. 

Service Station Distribution: 1945-1965 

Just as the total number of service stations did not remain constant 
in the twenty year study period, there also was variation in numbers 
of stations located along the sample routes. The distribution of stations 
varied in two ways: 1. the actual numbers of stations along each route 
increased or decreased and 2. the proportion of stations on each sample 
street of the total sample fluctuated. 


Service Stations Along 12 Selected Routes 
in 1945, 1955, and 1965* 










Ft. Harrison 










































































Margaret Avenue 





Percentages do not total 100% because of "rounding-off." 

Table 1 presents the number of stations and their proportionate 
values for each of the sample routes. The table shows the change in 
station distribution by route for the three year sample years of the 
twenty year period. 

Of the twelve routes, only the following four sustained notable 
station losses or gains (relative to the total number of stations in Terre 
Haute) during the twenty year period. 1. Seventh Street, the primary 
north-south access route in Terre Haute in 1945 ("Old Highway 41"), had 
26 per cent of the entire sample at that time. This dropped to 19 per 
cent by 1955, and to 10 per cent by 1965. This seems to be a reflection 
of the shift in traffic flow from "Old Highway 41" to ''New Highway 41" 
(Third Street) and to other routes. 2. In accordance with this hypothe- 



sis there has also been a slow decrease in the percentage of stations 
located along Lafayette (''Old Highway 41" north of Wabash Avenue). 
Service stations located along Lafayette accounted for 18 per cent of the 
sample in 1945, 14 per cent in 1955, and 13 per cent in 1965. Furthermore, 
field interviews indicated that many of the stations still located along La- 
fayette exist mainly because of what might be termed "capital inertia," 
and should expire in the near future. 3. As might be expected. Third 
Street ("New Highway 41"), the present major north-south throughway 
in Terre Haute, has become a focus of station location. Third Street 
percentages rose drastically from 3 per cent in 1945, to 19 per cent 
in 1955, and dropped slightly to 17 per cent by 1965. 4. Twenty-fifth 
Street has also sustained rather significant gains in numbers of stations, 
having 3 per cent of the total in 1945, 5 per cent in 1955, and 10 per 
cent of the total sample by 1965. This seems to be a reflection of the 
expansion of suburban population and industrialization in Terre Haute. 
Interestingly, all four of these "dynamic routes" are north-south streets. 
None of the east-west through-routes in Terre Haute has been the scene 
of major station-location changes. This phenomenon seems to be a 
result of there having been no major route changes in east-west streets 
during this period. 

Directional- Access Orientation of Stations: 1945-1965 

A third distributional characteristic of service stations which this 
study investigated was the directional orientation of stations. In other 
words, an examination of the proportion of north-south and east-west 
street access of the stations in 1945, 1955, and 1965. Table 2 shows the 
total number of stations oriented in each direction for each sample street. 


Number of Stations by Primary Street Access; 

North-South and East- West 











Ft. Harrison 














































































Considered N-S, although NE-SW. 

356 Indiana Academy of Science 

As the table indicates, little shift in service station directional access 
occurred in the period 1945 to 1965. As the numbers of stations increased 
in Terre Haute, the numbers having north-south and east-west access 
increased, but with the same directional orientation being dominant in 
each sample year. A moderate general trend can be observed, however, 
toward increasing proportionate dominance of north-south street-access. 
Table 3 indicates the percentages of stations oriented in each direction 
for each sample year. 


Percentages of Total Stations Having North-South 
and East- West Access 

1945 1955 1965 

N-S 72% N-S 68% N-S 80% 

E-W 60% E-W 53% E-W 59% 

Thus, though basically there has been little change in total directional 
orientation, there has been a slowly widening gap between the propor- 
tion of stations oriented east-west and north-south, with north-south- 
oriented stations increasing in importance more rapidly than stations 
having primary access to east-west streets. 


1. The absolute number of service stations increased greatly in the 
post-war period of 1945-1955 and then became more nearly stable 
from 1955 to 1965. Over the 20-year study period the number of 
stations in Terre Haute increased by 2 ¥2 times. 

2. Only four of the 12 routes sustained notable station losses or 
gains — all of which were north-south extending streets. These 
changes seemed to be direct results of changes in traffic flow 
through Terre Haute (i.e., "consumer control"). 

3. There has been little change in directional orientation or street 
access of the stations, though north-south access has been and 
continues to be of prime importance (a reflection, in this view, 
of the greater traffic flow along this axis). 

4. This paper is not definitive — further work remains to be done 
on the subject — but the results as stated above seem to indicate 
a distinct cause-eff"ect relationship between consumer control (in 
this case traffic flow) and service station location and distribution 
in Terre Haute, Indiana. 


Chairman: Robert E. Wise, Purdue University, Fort Wayne 

KONSTANTIN D. KoLiTSCHEW, Indiana Central College, was elected 

chairman for 1967. 

Teaching the Feed-Back Theory, II. 0. L. Kern and K. Miyakawa, 
Indiana Institute of Technology. — A consistent method to teach the feed- 
back theory was presented previously, by considering a time lag for a 
signal to propagate through net-works. A further application of the 
method on AC circuits is presented. 

Suggestive Approach to Unified Theory. K. Miyakawa, Indiana 
Institute of Technology. — Recent disappointment of geometridynamics, 
or already unified theory by Rainich, Misner, and Wheeler, may tempt 
us to re-examine the conventional approaches. One approach is sug- 
gested to examine the four-dimensional surface divergence term gen- 
erated by Einstein's X-transformation. When affine connection has a 
reducible part which satisfied the X-transformation and which has a 
certain form made of a vector field and its derivative, one obtains an 
appropriate form for the unified field by applying a modified variation 
method on the action integral. 


Comparison of Two Techniques for Determining 
Linear Absorption Coefficients 

Donald E. Tiano, Indiana Central College and John F. Houlihan, 
DePauw University 

The work to be considered in this discussion was undertaken to 
explain unexpected results which were obtained when two different tech- 
niques were used to determine the linear absorption cofficient of gamma 
rays of some sandstone blocks (3). The experimental design of the 






Figure 1. 

first method is shown in Figure 1. In this "fixed distance" method the 
distance, d, remains constant. For the second method, the "variable 
distance," is shown in Figure 2, the detector was placed on top of the 
attenuating material. As the thickness of the material varies, the dis- 
tance between the source and the detector also varies. 

A rather large discrepancy remains when both methods are em- 
ployed and the inverse-square correction for the difference of the distance 
is applied. This discrepency is shown in Figure 3 which shows the inten- 
sity of the gamma radiation for a Co^o source plotted as a function of 
the thickness of the attenuating sandstone block. 





M m -ea- 




r _ 

'■-.X- — ':::::^iiy: 

<:.>;>•.- -•-'-ai::;v' 

- ~ ; . . ■ - ■ , ■ • 

igure 2. 





The inverse-square correction is applicable only for a point source, 
thus it was necessary to determine the proper correction factor for the 
variation of distance in order to obtain a correlation between the two 
methods. This paper discusses the planning of an experimental procedure 
whereby such a correction factor can be determined. The need for a 
"solid angle of scattering" correction factor is also discussed. 







In the experimental work, aluminum was used instead of the sand- 
stone blocks. This substitution of attenuating material was made be- 
cause the original blocks were very large and handling them caused 
other problems. 

It has been shown empirically that in any given material, a homo- 
geneous beam of gamma rays is absorbed exponentially. If a beam of 
gamma rays has an intensity / at a distance x in an attenuating ma- 
terial and there is a decrease of intensity due to the attenuation of the 
gamma ray beam in a thickness rf.r, one obtains, 

dl = — ludx 1. 

where u is is a constant of the attenuating material and is termed the 
linear absorption coefficient. Separating the variables and integrating 
equation 1 between the limits O and t we obtain, 

It / t / 

8 dl/I = — j udx 
lo ^ 7 

or ln(It/Io) = 



Indiana Academy of Science 

where t is the total thickness of the attenuating material and L and It 
are the initial and final intensities of the beam respectively. From 
equation 2 it can been seen that if ln(It/Io) is plotted as a function 
of the thickness of the absorber in centimeters, the linear absorption 
coefficient is given by the slope of the curve (1). 

To determine the correction factor for the variation of distance, 
the follov^ing procedure was used: a source shield and collimator were 
constructed to obtain a nearly parallel beam of gamma rays. The 1/100 
value thickness of lead was determined for the Co-60 source using the 
following expression: 



where It = 0.01 
lo = 1.0 
u = 0.537 

The 1/100 value thickness of lead was found to be approximately nine 
centimeters. The source shield and collimator were constructed with 
the dimensions shown in Fig. 4. 



Shield and collimator 

Hollow center of collimator 

Figure 4. 

After consideration of the geometry of the shield and collimator 
and the scintillation detector crystal, the maximum distance the detector 
could be located from the shield while still detecting all of the incident 
beam was determined so that the solid angle considerations could be 

A plateau was taken to determine the best operating voltage. Ob- 
servations were made using a Picker Compact Scaler and gamma crystal. 
The intensity of the beam as a function of distance above the top of 
the lead shield and collimator is recorded in Fig. 5. The "best fitting 
curve" was found by applying the statistical analysis method of least 
squares. This data and most of the subsequent data was analyzed with 
an IBM 1620 computer. The flags on the graphs represent the probable 
error due to fluctuations in background (4). 






900 - 

The decrease in intensity of the beam as a function of distance 
above the shield can be determined for any point desired. The decrease 
due to distance considerations as found in Figure 5 is thus added onto 
the observed count as a correction factor. The reason for this variation 
of beam intensity as a function of distance of the counter from the 
source is primarily due to the inability of the collimator to produce a 
truly parallel beam of gamma rays. 

The source of gamma rays used in the experimental v^ork under 
discussion v^as cobalt-60. When cobalt-60 decays by emission of a 0.314 


Indiana Academy of Science 

MeV beta particle it results in the formation of nickel-60 in an excited 
state, or a nickel-60 isomer. The Ni-60 isomer decays by emission of a 
1.17 MeV gamma ray to form another lower energy Ni-60 isomer. This 
Ni-60 isomer then decays by the emission of a 1.33 MeV gamma ray 
to form the stable nickel-60 isotope. During the experimental procedure 
the Co-60 is emitting 0.314 MeV beta particles and 1.17 and 1.33 MeV 
gamma rays as well as trace amounts of other beta and gamma energies 
(1). There are two 1.17 MeV gamma rays and one 1.33 NeV gamma 
ray from each nucleus that disintegrates (2). 

Observations were made using both the fixed distance and the vari- 
able distance techniques. Fig. 6 shows the resulting curves with no 
correction applied and Fig. 7 shows the resulting curves with the 
correction obtained from Fig. 5 applied. Figs. 8 and 9 show the 




y ■ 



- ^iv 

3 ^ 

Figure 6. 

uncorrected and corrected plots to determnie the linear absorption 
coefficients respectively. Both Fig. 7 and Fig. 9 suggest that there 
is some systematic error operating in the results since in both cases 
the corrected values for the variable distance curve are all higher than 
the corresponding value of the fixed distance curve. This systematic 
error is probably due to a difference in the "solid angle of scattering/' 



Figure 7. 

i.e., the solid angle subtended by the detector crystal with respect to 
the random direction of the scattered particles and photons. This sys- 
tematic error could be almost completely eliminated by the use of a 
discriminating type of circuit. 

It might be well to point out that a comparison of the values of 
the linear absorption coefficient of Al as obtained in Figure 9 with the 
commonly accepted value of 0.15 cm^i (5) reveals an error of 50%. 
This error is due to two factors. First, to approach the accepted values, 
the geometry of the equipment should consist of a very narrow beam 
of gamma rays incident on a detector that has a surface area no greater 
than the diameter of the beam. Finally, and most importantly, the 
detector should be adjusted to discriminate against all secondary emis- 
sion, that is, adjusted to record only those pulses at or very near 1.17 
or 1.33 MeV. 

An effort is being made to obtain the necessary equipment to allow 
this latter correction to be made. This correction will improve the 
correlation of the relative values of u for the fixed and variable distance 
methods through the elimination of the difference of the ''solid angle 
of scattering," while at the same time bringing the absolute value of 
Uf and Uv much closer to the accepted value for the linear absorption 
coefficient of aluminum. 


Indiana Academy of Science 


-0.8 - 






-0.3 - 

-Q.k - 

Literature Cited 

1. Bleuler, Ernst, and George J. Goldsmith. ]9r)2. Ex|H*riitient;il Nuolt'onifs. 
New York. Rinehart and Company, Jnc. 

2. Hanson, Blatz, Editor. Radiation Hys-it-iie Handhook. McGraw-Hill. 

?,. Houlihan, John F. 19GG. Unpublished Research Report. DePauw University. 

4. Radiological Health Handbook. 1960. Public Health Service. U. S. De- 
partment of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

5. Radioisotope Training Manual, Part No. 1. 1960. Picker X-ray Cor- 


Chairman: Thomas R. Mertens, Ball State University 
Fr. Damian Schmelz, St. Meinrad, was elected chairman for 1967 


A Preliminary Investigation of Polygonum, sect. Polygonum (Avicu- 
laria) in Wisconsin and Indiana. Thomas R. Mertens and Argyle D. 
Savage, Ball State University. — A study of over 400 specimens of Poly- 
gonum, sect. Polygonum from three Wisconsin herbaria revealed the 
presence of five species in that state: P. arenastriim, P. aviculare, P. 
huxiforme, P. erectum, and P. ramosissimum. Identification was based 
primarily on achene and calyx characteristics. Preliminary field studies 
reveal the same five species of sect. Polygonum in Indiana. Polygonum 
tenue, usually erroneously included in sect. Polygonum., is also found in 
both states. 


Some Taxononiic Problems with Viburnum dentatum and 
Observations of Blephilia ciliata 

Gayton C. Marks, Valparaiso University 

What seemed to be a mere identification has now become a nomen- 
clatorial problem. Three years of waiting became fruitful when a shrub 
found in a black gum association finally flowered. Opposite leaves 
pointed to the Caprifoliaceae and the inflorescence determined it to be a 
species of Vihurniiin known as Arrow-wood or Northern Arrow-wood. 

The shrub may be described as typical for the Viburnum group 
except for the leaves which are critical in identification. This particular 
species is "variable in morphology and habitat" (8), a characteristic 
which further complicates the already overtaxed problem of nomen- 

Leaf description is as follows: exstipulate, lanceolate ovate to 
round, sharply acute to short acuminate to broadly rounded, sharply 
dentate and pubescent only in the axils of veins on the lower surface. 

This foliar description agrees with the Vib2trnum dentatum variety 
lucidum of Britton and Brown (7) and Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum 
of Gleason and Cronquist (the common northern form being recognized 
as V. recogyiitum) (8). 

In 1927 H. Pepoon, presumably quoting Professor C. J. Hill, states 
in his annotated Flora of the Chicago Area with reference to Viburnum 
pubescens, "Probably all specimens collected as Viburnum dentatum L. 
are of this species" (11). 

Deam reported V. pubescens in the 1940 Flora of Indiana with 
varieties Deamii and indianense (4). Earlier in his Shrubs of Indiana 
(3), he reported V. pubescens with both varieties and V. pubescens as a 
synonym for V. affine. In 1930 Peattie had published, "Reports of V. 
dentatum. and V. pubescens may be largely assigned to the foregoing 
species" {Viburnum affine) (10). An examination of the 1912 Proceed- 
ings of the Indiana Academy of Science divulges the existence of a 
Viburnum Canbyi reported by Deam (2). In same report was a state- 
ment "it is believed" that V. molle should be referred to the same species. 

In vol. 53 of the Academy Proceedings, Indiana Plant Distribution 
Records IV show the existence in Indiana of V. dentatum variety Deamii 

In his Manual of Cultivated Plants, Bailey still recognizes as sep- 
arate species V. dentatum and V. pubescens (1). Fernald used V. pubes- 
cens as a synonym for V. dentatum, and V. recognitum synonymously 
for V. dentatum variety lucidum (6). Jones and Fuller have listed V. 
recognitum for the only valid bonomial of this plant with species 
pubescens and dentatum as being synonymous (9). 

Viburnum dentatum has not been reported from any northern county 
and V. dentatum variety lucidum (7) {V. recognitum) (8) (6) (9) 
from any part of the state although it has been reported from central 
and southern Illinois counties. A small stand has been found in the 
town of Schererville in Lake County. 


Plant Taxonomy 369 

Blephilia ciliate forma alhifiora (6) may not have reported from 
any part of the state because of the superficial resemblance to Nepeta 
cataria (catnip). The common form of woodmint has a blue corolla and 
it may be easily distinguished from the white petals of catnip. Forma 
alhifiora, however, has the same color pattern complete to the dark 
purple spots. The median oblong lobe in the lower lip of woodmint dis- 
tinguishes it from catnip upon closer examination. The odor of both 
plants is strikingly similar and other vegetative characteristics quite 

Systematic observations reveal the flower clusters of Nepeta to be 
terminal, continuous or interrupted while those of BlephiJia to be crowded 
in dense verticils. Nepeta' has four stamens, Blephilia has two. 

While leaf size and shape may be very similar, the dentations of 
Ne}}cta, are more rounded than those of Blephilia. 

Blephilia ciliata forma alhifiora has been found in Bartz woods 
about four miles northeast of Valparaiso. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bailey, L<ibekty H. 1;J63. Maiiiml uf CiiHivntetl Plauls. iNUu'inillaii Co. 

'2. DiOAM, Charles C. Plants not hitherto reported from Indiana. Proe. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 1912:84. 

3. Deam, Charles C. 102-1. Shrubs of Indi.-nia. Department of Conservation. 
State of Indiana. 

4. Deam, Charles C. 1!J4<L r^lora of Iiidi:iii:i. Department of Conservation. 
State of Indiana. 

5. Deam, Charles C, Kriebel, Yuncker and Friesner, (State P^lora Commit- 
tee). 1943. Indiana plant distrihution Records IV. Proe. Ind. Acad. Sci. 

6. Fernald, AiEKKiTT L. 1930. ^iruy's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American 
Book Co. 

7. Gleason, riENRY A. ]i)'>2. The Ne^v Hrilton and Brown ElhiKlrated Flora 
of the Northesistern Ifnited States :ind Adjacent Canada. New Yorlv 
Botanical Garden. 

S. Gleason, PIenry A. and Arthur Cfionqufst. 1963. Manual of Yaseular 
Plants <>f Northeastern Unitefl States and Adjacent Canada. D. Van 

Nostrand Co., Inc. 

9. Jones, George N. and George Fuller. 19.[i5. Vascular Plants of Illinois. 
University of 111. Press, Urbana. 

10. Peattie, Donald C. 1930. Flora of the Indiana Dunes. Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago. 

11. Pepoon, Herman S. 1927. Flora of the Chicago Region. Cliicago Acad, 
of Sci. 


Chairman: James M. Smith, Wright University 
A. Zachary, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1967 


Soils Portion of Geology Course. James Mitchell Smith, Wright 
University, Dayton, Ohio. — Soils information is introduced as a single 
laboratory session and soil observations are made on field trips as part 
of total trip. 

Soils information, often presented in beginning geology classes as 
part of the weathering process, or as general sedimentary material, is 
presented at Wright University as a subject within the content of the 
course. An entire laboratory period of two hours is devoted to soils 
which follows other subjects in this sequence: 

1. Contour maps 

2. Air photos 

3. Soils 

Often soils study follows lecture on glacial geology. 

Scott County, Indiana, soil survey report is used as text material. 
Emphasis is on well drained Cincinnati soils as compared to poorly 
drained Avonburg and similar examples of drainage groups, slope and 
erosion. Catena differences are illustrated with glacial and nonglacial 
soils with attention to map sheets 4, 5, and 6. 

Field trips make possible field study of soils during trips to sites 
of geological interest. 

Good student response in past leads this writer to believe that soils 
will be retained as portion of total course, and that the plan will be 
discussed in other Ohio Universities. 


Conductive Heat Exchanges at Terrestrial Surfaces as 
Influenced by Changing Air Density^ 

Paul A. Miller and James E. Newman^ 


This study is limited to some considerations of heat exchanges by 
conduction between the free atmosphere and surfaces submerged in it. 

There are many articles dealing with the effects of conduction with 
respect to plant and animal bodies. The literature on heating and venti- 
lating is full of tables and text concerning heat exchange between ob- 
jects and the surrounding air. There are, also, numerous expositions of 
so-called "comfort indexes" and the like: all worthy within themselves, 
but none of which seem to have covered the subject from the viewpoint 
of the effects of differing air density, i.e., changes in atmospheric density 
occurring with increasing altitude above sea level and the resulting 
effects on conductive heat exchanges at living and terrestrial surfaces 
submerged in this less dense atmosphere. 

General physics texts, such as Semat (5), confme most of their dis- 
cussion of conduction to what may be termed "closed" systems — systems 
in which the amount of available heat and the masses of the interacting 
materials are fixed throughout. While these models state the basic facts 
of conduction in mathematical form, these equations must be modified 
for application to conditions which exist in the out-of-doors. Specific- 
ally, they must be modified to encompass the action of conduction be- 
tween the open environment and an object located at any point therein. 

Fritz (2) gives a model for use of an atmospheric pressure ratio 
as a satisfactory replacement for computing a density ratio. This char- 
acteristic of the conductive process was recognized by Buettner (1), 
when he included a density factor as an essential part of his equation 
for conductive heat exchange between living organisms and the atmos- 
phere. Application of these general physical principles of conduction to 
specific biological situations have been made possible by the previous 
writings of Waggoner (7), Buettner (1), Stacy et al. (6), Piatt and 
Griffiths (4), and others. Adaptations have been made by the authors 
from facts gleaned from these writings. 


"Conduction" is defined as the exchange of heat between two dis- 
tinct masses in contact with one another assuming that one is warmer 
than the other. In accordance with the kinetic theory of conduction 
such heat exchanges are the integral of energy exchanges of the mole- 
cules composing the two different masses in contact. In the atmosphere, 
air molecules surround objects located therein. Therefore, conductive 
heat exchanges are continuous so long as a temperature gradient exists. 

1. Paper No. 2 921. Purdue University, Agricultural Experin-ient Station. 

2. Respectively, Meteorologist, Retired, U. S. Weather Bureau, and Asso- 
ciate Professor of Agricultural Climatology, nepai'tnient of Agronomy, Purdue 


Soil Science 373 

But the rate of exchange between solid masses surrounded by air depends 
on the conductive characteristics of that mass, plus the temperature 
gradient and the mass contact of air molecules over a given time. It 
follows that the conductive heat exchange will be affected by both 
motion (wind) and the mean density of the motion or air density. 

At sea level and for a surface standing vertically at right angles 
to the wind direction, the relationships are as expressed in Equation 1 
introduced by Waggoner (7) as modified from Buettner (1). 

H =r 1.2V^'Mt,> — U) Kcal/m-Vhr. (Eq. 1) 

where — 

H = amount of heat exchange from the warmer to the cooler body 
in kilocalories per square meter per hour. 
1.2 = a constant. (Used when results in Kcal/m-7hr. are desired). 
V = wind speed in centimeters per second. 
tb = temperature of the body in degTees Centigrade, 
ta = temperature of the ambient air in degrees Centigrade. 

Equation 1 in its existing form does not account for the important 
factor of decreasing densities with increased elevations above sea level. 
At lower densities, and a given wind speed, fewer molecular contacts will 
be made at any given air-object intersurface within a given time period. 
Because it is these molecular contacts which are the agents of conduction, 
it follows that the conductive rate at higher elevations will be less than 
at sea level. From this line of reasoning, Equation 1 was changed by 
Miller (3) to the existing form of Equation 2. 

H = — [0.002V'-(t„ — t,)][p/p.,] cal/cm2/min. (Eq. 2) 

where — 

0.002 = is the constant for cal/cm2/min. 

p = is the measured barometric pressure at a given elevation. 
Po := is the normal sea level pressure. 

Other symbols are the same as those mentioned in Equation 1. The 
proper mathematical derivation and the use of a pressure ratio in com- 
puting air density values is illustrated by Fritz (2). 

As a final change, the right side of the equation has been made 
negative to insure that its solution will always carry the proper sign 
with respect to whether heat is being gained or lost by a given surface. 
That is, heat losses will show the negative sign, heat gains the positive 
sign with respect to a surface. 

To aid in obtaining the proper numerator for the element "p/p..", 
Figure 1 gives the percentages of average air density at various surface 
temperatures and at various heights above sea level (3). To use, merely 
take off the percentage applying to the elevation above sea level at 
which the study is taking place. These percentage values were derived 
from an adiabatic chart entitled, "Arowagram" published by the Air 
Transport Association of America, Meteorological Committee, Chart 17. 
They are, as stated, only averages. For more accurate results it would 
be best that a mercurial or aneroid barometer from which readings of 
"station" pressure, "p.,", can be taken be available at the site of the 


Indiana Academy of Science 

°F-58 -40 -22 

-10 10 

14 32 50 



40 50 

104 122 

Figure 1. Average percentag"es of sea level air density at various altitudes. 

If no wind measuring equipment is available, wind speeds can be 
estimated with reasonable accuracy by use of the Beaufort scale. To 
convert wind speeds to centimeters per second, multiply miles per hour 
by 45, or kilometers per hour by 28. 


The following results were obtained by solving Equation 2, assuming 
a vertical surface, densely shaded, standing at right angles to the direc- 
tion of the wind flow and possessing a constant temperature of 40"C. 
Further, assuming the surface is insulated from conductive action on 
its leeward surface and all edges, the negative or positive conductivity 
with respect to a square centimeter of such a surface would be as 
follows : 

A. Effects of changes in temperature differences: 

Air temperature: —30°, 0°, 20°, 45° C; wind, 5 mph; elevation, 
sea level. 

Results: —2.10, —1.20, —0.60, and +0.15 cal/cm-Vmin., re- 

B. Effects of changes in wind speeds: 

Wind speeds: calm, 5, 10, and 15 mph; air temperature, 0° C; 
elevation, sea level. 

Results: —0.16, —1.20, —1.73, and —2.08 cal/cm^/min., re- 

C. Effects of changes in elevation: 

Elevation: sea level, 1000, 2000, and 3000 meters; wind, 5 mph; 
air temperature, 0° C. 

Results: —1.20, —1.08, —0.95, and —0.85 cal/cm^/min., re- 

Soil Science 


Further examples of results from Equation 2 are graphed in Figure 2 
using 40° C. as the temperature of the surface at which the conduction 
is taking place. Graphs for any other sets of temperatures, wind speeds, 
and elevation data are similarly computed. 


-3.0 -2.0 -1.0 

Energy exchange in col. cm".^ mia"' 

Figure 2. Examples of changes in conductive rates as functions of decreasing 
air density. 

It is possible to make comparisons between any two or more sets 
of environmental conditions. For example, suppose that an animal, such 
as a dairy cow, is exposed at sea level and 1000 meters (about 3300 
feet), the air temperature being 0° C. and the wind speed 12 mph. at 
both elevations. Assume that the cow's coat temperature under full 
insolation is 10° C. on a portion of the coat that is oriented normal to 
the wind on the windward side of the cow, then for this fraction of the 
body surface: 

At sea level: H = - 

At 1000 meters: H — 

[0.002(23.2) (10 — 0)] [100/100] = — 0.464 

[0.002(23.2) (10 — 0)] [89.6/100] = —0.417 

Thus, under these prescribed conditions, the cow at sea level loses 
from this stipulated area of her coat 0.047 cal/cm2/min. more by con- 
ductive heat exchange than she does at 1000 meters, solely because of 
the difference in atmospheric density. 


Air density can make significant differences in conductive heat ex- 
changes between the air and surfaces of differing temperatures sub- 
merged therein when the latter are subjected to changing elevations 
under certain environmental conditions. 

376 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Buettner, K. J. K. 1951. Physical Aspects of Human Bioclimatology. In: 
Coiiipentliiiiu of Meteorology, edited by T. F. Malone. American 
Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass. 

2. Fritz, S. 1951. Solar Radiant Energy and Its Modification by the Earth 
and Its Atmosphere. In: Coinpendliiin of Meteorology, edited by T. F. 
Malone. American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass. 

3. Miller, P. A. 1905. The Energy-Balance Concept As It Applies to the 
Analysis of Climatic Data in Biological Response Studies. Thesis, Master 
of Science, University Library, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. 

4. Piatt, R. B. and J. C4riffiths. 1964. Kiiviroiimental Measurements mid 

Interpretation. Rlieinhold Publishing Co., New York City, N. Y. 

5. Semat, H. 1957. Fundamentals of Pliysies. Third edition, Rhinehart and 
Company, New York City, N. Y. 

6. Stacy, R. W. et al. 1955. Kssentials of Biological and Medleal Physics. 

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. New York, N. Y. 

7. Waggoner, P. E. 1963. Plants, Shade and Shelter. Connecticuts, Agric. Exp. 
Sta. Bulletin 656. New Haven, Conn. 

Electrokinetic Measurements of Colloidal-Laden Flow 
Through a Sand Column ^ 

E. J. MoNKE and D. M. Edwards, Purdue University 

The flow of colloidal-laden water into or through porous media 
occurs repeatedly in nature. With water infiltration into soil, seepage 
through deeper aquifiers and drainage into tile drains, retardation of 
flow caused by clogging of pores is not desirable. In other instances, 
however, with sealing of reservoir bottoms or irrigation canals and 
filtration of raw water for domestic use, retardation of flow becomes an 
indication of effectiveness. Further complications arise when the surface 
of a porous media is subject to extended periods of inundation. When 
this happens there is evidence of bacterial growth assisting the clogging 

In this study (7), electrokinetic measurements were made to deter- 
mine the reaction of a sand column to the inflow of colloidal-laden flow 
at different pH levels, periods of operation, and depths within the column. 

An electrokinetic effect occurs when one layer of the electric double 
layer surrounding a particle moves relative to the other. Four electro- 
kinetic phenomena are possible, but only two were used in this study. 
One, electrophoresis, is the movement of a suspended solid in a liquid 
by means of an applied electrical force; the other, streaming potential, 
is a potential which is established when an applied mechanical force 
moves a liquid relative to a stationary surface. 

Literature Review 

Ever since Helmholtz and Smoluchowski presented their theoretical 
treatment of the properties of the electric double layer as reported in a 
translation by Bocquet (4), numerous investigators in soil science, col- 
loidal chemistry, biology, medicine, and other disciplines have applied 
the theory of electrophoresis to their research. In their classical presen- 
tation of electrophoresis, Helmholtz and Smoluchowski considered a two- 
phase system in which some ions would move with a suspended particle 
in an electrical field toward one pole while other ions, the counter-ions, 
would migrate toward the opposite pole. An electrical potential, the 
zeta-potential, was thereby established at the boundary between the 
two phases which was proportional to the particle velocity and the vis- 
cosity of the fluid and inversely proportional to the applied electric 
field strength and dielectric constant of the fluid. 

Clay colloids which are suspended in a fluid, when energized, mi- 
grate toward the positive pole because they normally carry a net nega- 
tive charge. This charge as stated by van Olphen (12) is brought about 
in two different ways: (1) imperfections within the interior of the 
crystal lattice of a particle which gives a net positive or a net negative 
lattice charge, and (2) preferential adsorption of certain ions on the 
particle surface. The charge on montmorillonitic clay particles originate 

1. Journal Paper No. 2942, Agr. Kxp. Sta., Purdue University. 


378 Indiana Academy of Science 

both from lattice imperfections and ion adsoii)tion. The face surface is 
negatively charged mainly by an isomorphous replacement of trivalent 
aluminum by divalent magnesium ions. The charge on the broken edges 
of a clay crystal depends upon the pH of the surrounding solution. In 
acid solutions, both the silica and alumina surfaces may carry a positive 
charge. In alkaline solutions, the alumina surfaces will likely be nega- 
tively charged. In total, however, the net charge on the clay particle 
is negative. 

Early development of the electrokinetic phenomena was summarized 
by Abramson (1). Recently, Black (3) has reviewed the application 
of electrokinetic theory to coagulation for the period of 1923 to 1960. 
In coagulation, other than by gravity, movement of colloidal particles 
in suspension is mainly brought about by Brownian movement (thermal 
effect) and van der Waals forces (molecular cohesive forces); stabiliza- 
tion is due primarily to particle hyration (attraction of solvent mole- 
cules) and particle zeta potential. When a colloidal sol is moving 
through a porous media. Hunter and Alexander (9) concluded that 
movement of colloidal particles and the resulting filtration is also ac- 
complished by diffusion into areas where the shear rate is low. 

Surprisingly little use of the electrokinetic concept of streaming 
potential, also developed by Helmholtz and Smoluchowski, has been 
made until recently. When a liquid is forced through a capillary tube or 
porous diaphragm by an external pressure, the counter-ions are forced 
to flow with the liquid. A convection current is established which causes 
a potential difference called streaming potential across the tube or 
diaphragm. Some recent studies all since 1960 dealing with the flow 
of clay colloidal sols through porous media in which streaming potential 
measurements were made are those by Curry, Barker, and Strack (6), 
Hunter and Alexander (9), Ives (10), and Jorden (11). Ives (10) also 
summarized the work of these investigators as well as some others, 
notably foreign. 

Experimental Procedure 

The electrokinetic properties of a colloidal clay-silica sand system 
were studied in the laboratory by introducing a bentonite clay suspen- 
sion onto a 20-inch silica sand column. 

The silica sand used in the column was a graded silica sand ranging 
from 300 to 700 microns with an effective size of 0.35 mm. and a uni- 
formity coefficient of 1.43. Before use, the sand was washed with 
detergent, rinsed, dried and acid leached. 

One-half percent clay colloidal suspensions were prepared using 
Wyoming bentonite and deionized water. An analogous uniform sus- 
pension was first produced by passing a hydrated suspension from which 
the larger particles had been removed through a cation exchange resin 
for replacing exchangeable cations with hydrogen ions and through an 
anion exchange resin for replacing exchangeable anions with hydroxyl 
ions. The pH of the suspension was adjusted to 5.1, 7.0, 7.8 and 8.4 
levels by the addition of NaOH. Final clay suspensions were then pro- 
duced that had hydrogen saturated clay at pH less than 7.0 and sodium 
saturated clay at higher levels. 

Soil Science 379 

A transparent acrylic cylinder, 4 inches in diameter, was fitted with 
inflow and outflow head controls, manometer taps, extraction ports, and 
platinum electrodes. The cylinder was also connected to a flow meter 
and manometer board. Streaming potential measurements were made 
with a high input impedence (10i4 ohms) vacuum tube voltmeter. Both 
the cylinder and voltmeter were shielded with brass screening to stabilize 
subsequent voltage readings. A Briggs cell, as originally developed by 
Briggs (5), was used for the determination of the mobility of colloidal 
particles. Other equipment included a pH meter, a microscope, a con- 
ductance cell, a spectrophotometer, and numerous electrical components. 
All apparatus and instruments were contained in a small room which 
was thermostatically controlled at 29 zt 1.0° C. 

After silica sand was compacted uniformly into the cylinder, flow 
was begun with deionized water until a steady rate occurred. An inflow 
rate of the clay suspension at one of the four pH levels was then main- 
tained at 30 milliliters per minute by periodically adjusting the height 
of the outlet to the sand column. This rate was continued for 60 hours 
or until over twenty inches (the height of the sand column) head was 
needed to maintain the flow rate. 

The zeta potential of the clay particles was calculated using a 
working form of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation for electropho- 
resis with the Briggs cell: 

1.129 X IOOt? d A 

^ D t IR 

where ^e is the particle zeta potential in millivolts, 77 is the viscosity of 
the fluid in poises, D is the dielectric constant, d is the distance in 
centimeters over which a particle moves, t is the time in seconds for 
the particle to move this distance, A is the cross-section of the Briggs 
cell in square centimeters, I is the applied current to the electrodes of 
the cell in amperes, and R is the specific resistance of the suspension in 
ohm-centimeters. The zeta potential of the clay particles was determined 
by periodically extracting samples of the interflow along the column, 
by making other measurements necessary to the solution of the above 
equation, and by observing the mobility of the particles in a Briggs 
cell under an applied voltage. 

The zeta potential of the colloidal clay-silica sand column was cal- 
culated using a working form of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation 
for streaming potential: 

11.55 X 10!^ V K AE 

^ DP 

where ^s is the column zeta potential in millivolts, 77 is the viscosity of 
the fluid in poises, K is the electrical conductivity of the fluid in the 
porous medium in mhos per centimeter, AE is the streaming potential 
in millivolts, D is the dielectric constant, and P is the pressure difference 
across the column in centimeters of water. Platinum electrodes consist- 
ing of 2-inch square 52-mesh platinum screen were placed at the top, 
bottom, and 3/16-inch below the surface of the silica sand column. The 
zeta potential of the silica sand column or portions of the column was 
then determined by measuring the streaming potential between any 

380 Indiana Academy of Science 

two electrodes with the voltmeter and making other measurements nec- 
essary to the solution of the above equation. The equation involving 
the streaming potential is valid for porous media with intricate net- 
works so long as the basic assumptions which were used in developing 
this equation, notably laminar flow and negligible conductivity through 
the solids, occur (4). 


The zeta potential of the column as determined by the streaming 
potential measurement changed upon the addition of a clay suspension 
as shown in Figure 1 for pH = 7.0. For all four pH levels the initial 
zeta potential values when only deionized water flowed through the 
column were approximately the same. These values were — 133 milli- 
volts for the total column, +850 for the top 3/16 inch, and —200 for 
the bottom 19 13/16 inches. At pH = 7.0, the zeta potential for the 
total column approached an isoelectric condition (zero zeta potential) 
in about 10 hours and afterwards remained steady. This was not the 
case for the other pH levels. At pH = 5.1, the total column zeta poten- 
tial increased to — 50 millivolts becoming steady after about 20 hours; 
for both pH = 7.8 and pH = 8.4, the column zeta potential increased 
rapidly to around -|^-200 millivolts in about 10 hours and then reversed 
to a value at the end of 60 hours of around +100 millivolts. 

The zeta potential of the particles as determined from their observed 
mobilities in the Briggs cell varied with pH, generally increasing as the 
pH level of the solution increased. The zeta potential values did not 
change appreciably with column depth. The zeta potential tended to 
increase slightly in the first two inches and then a systematic propaga- 
tion wave was exhibited which did not vary over 3 millivolts at any of 
the pH levels. The average particle zeta potential value at pH = 5.1 
was —77 millivolts; at pH = 7.0, —52 millivolts; at pH = 7.8, —56 
millivolts; and at pH = 8,4, — 42 millivolts. 

The column head loss as a function of column depth and period of 
operation for pH =: 7.0 is shown in Figure 2. The total head loss in- 
creased rapidly and at the end of 40 hours was 15.2 inches of water. 
At the end of 45 hours, the flow through the column was stopped be- 
cause the total head loss was approaching the limit imposed by the 
column length. In contrast to the high head loss at pH = 7.0, the total 
head loss for the column at the other pH levels after 60 hours of oper- 
ation was only around 4 inches as shown in Figure 3. 

Deposition occurred throughout the entire column for a short period 
of time after the clay sol was introduced onto the column surface. After 
this initial period, depending upon the pH of the solution, most of the 
remainder occurred in the top two inches of the column. At the end of 
the 40 hour period for pH = 7.0, the head loss in the first two inches 
was 13.5 inches out of 15.2 inches for the total column as shown in 
Figure 2. The total head loss for the column at pH = 5.1, 7.0, 7.8, and 
8.4 were 2.9, 15.2, 2.3, and 3.9 inches, respectively; the head loss for the 
top two inches were 0.8, 13.5, 1.1 and 2.5 inches, respectively; and the 
head loss for the bottom 18 inches were 2.1, 1.7, 1.2, and 1.4 inches, 

Son. Science 
























a 1-2 
A 2-3 
o 1-3 

SURFACE 3/16" 
BOTTOM 19 13/16" 

10 20 30 40 

TIME, hours 

50 60 

Figure 1. Column zeta potential from streaming 
function of time at pH :== 7.0. 

potential measurements as a 

Not to be expected, the column zeta potential for the top 3/16 inch 
carried a positive charge in all experiments. The performance of the 
top layer as shown in Fig-ure 1 for pH = 7.0 was reasoned to be the 
result of biological activity. Studies by Allison (2) and later by Gupta 
and Swartzendruber (8) have shown the high reduction in hydraulic 


Indiana Academy of Science 


Figure 2. 

4 8 12 16 20 

Column head loss as a function of column depth and period of 
at pH = 7.0. 

conductivity of soil surfaces under prolonged submergence is due pri- 
marily to the accumulation of bacteria and their metabolic products in 
the surface layer. Quite recently Jorden (11) had hypothesized that 
under field conditions a positively charged schmutzdecke may be formed 


X 16 








Ji 4l»»-«H^t 


7.8 8.4 


Total column head loss as a function of pH. 

Soil Science 383 

on a slow sand filter. To provide proof that bacteria accumulating in 
a surface layer may indeed be positively charged, one of the experiments 
in this study was followed by alternately dosing the column first with a 
disinfectant (0.1 percent phenol solution by weight) and then with 
deionized water. Although the magnitude of the zeta potential values 
varied, in all cases, the sign of the zeta potential became negative after 
the addition of the phenol solution and, in all cases, the sign of the 
zeta potential returned shortly to positive after deionized water was 
used. Further studies concerning this phenomenon are planned. 


The flow of a bentonite clay suspension through a silica sand column 
is highly complicated. The bentonite clay may carry both a net positive 
and a net negative charge on portions of its surface. The magnitude of 
these charges depends on the pH of the system. Adsorption, van der 
Waals forces, electrokinetic forces, and diff'usion into low shear areas 
are the most probable mechanisms for the retention of clay colloids by 
a silica sand column. However, a colloidal clay-silica sand system may 
be further complicated by the accumulation of bacteria and their meta- 
bolic products in the interfacial zone between the porous medium and 
the ponded water above the medium. The eff'ect of the accumulation of 
bacteria on the flow system may be pronounced but it is also likely to 
be erratic and difficult to predict. 

There is strong evidence that these bacteria carry a net positive 
charge possibly as a food intake or anchorage mechanism in their 
largely, negatively charged environment. The net result may be to 
accentuate the electrokinetic forces in these regions. Actually the 
bacteria may be providing an electrical link between the net negatively 
charged silica sand and bentonite clay particles. 

The zeta potential of the column changed because the column was 
altered by the retention of clay colloids and the accumulation of bac- 
teria at the inlet portion of the column. Of the four pH levels investi- 
gated, filtration of the clay colloids was most effective at a pH = 7.0. 
This value satisfied best the amalgamated conditions for clogging im- 
posed by the silica sand column, clay colloids, and bacteria. The greatest 
difference by far in the operation of the column at any of the pH levels 
occurred in the top two inches of the column when the pH = 7.0. At 
the end of 40 hours of operation, the head loss in the top two inches 
was 5 to 15 times greater than the head loss across this zone in experi- 
ments at other pH levels. 

The zeta potential of the clay colloids in general increased (de- 
creased in negative charge) as the pH of the suspension was increased. 
Rapid coagulation of colloidal sols usually take place shortly before 
the zeta potential has been completely neutralized. Although high base 
exchange capacity clays are easier to coagulate and may be done over 
a wider pH range, coagulation was not much of a factor with the range 
of zeta potential values used in this study. Also a relationship between 
the zeta potential of the clay colloids, remaining almost the same 
throughout the length of the column, and the zeta potential of the 
column was not found. 

384 Indiana Academy of Science 


The operation of a colloidal clay-silica sand system was studied by 
introducing a bentonite clay suspension onto a 20-inch silica sand 
column. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pH, 
period of operation, and depth within a column on the electrokinetic 
properties of the clay colloids and total colloidal clay-silica sand system. 
It soon became quite apparent that another ingredient to the system, 
the accumulation of bacteria and their metabolic products principally 
in the surface layer of the column, could not be discounted. 

The zeta potential of the column changed because the column was 
altered by the clay colloids and bacteria which accumulated in the sur- 
face layer. The column zeta potential approached an isoelectric (neutral) 
condition quickly at a pH level of 7.0 thus indicating its propensity for 
rapid clogging. This was subsequently verified in terms of head loss. 
The total head loss for the column at pH = 5.1, 7.8, and 8.4 at the end 
of 60 hours was around 4 inches of water as compared to the head loss 
at pH = 7.0 at the end of 45 hours of nearly 18 inches. Almost all of 
this difference occurred in the top 2 inches of the column. pH control 
in systems where suspensions containing colloidal particles are intro- 
duced onto porous media is very important. The control level, however, 
would depend on whether the system is used to promote or inhibit the 
rapid clogging of pores. 

The zeta potential of the clay colloids changed little regardless of 
where a sample was withdrawn from the column. In the range of zeta 
potential values used, the clay colloids had little tendency toward rapid 
coagulation. The dominant reaction therefore was that of the silica 
sand column and the accumulated bacteria to the clay colloids. 

Perhaps the most important finding was that bacteria, at least of 
the type accumulating on soil surfaces, may exhibit a positive electrical 
charge. Whether this charge serves as a food intake mechanism, a 
method of anchorage, or some other function, the net result is to 
accentuate the electrokinetic forces in the regions influenced by bacteria. 
The positively charged bacteria may attract the net negatively charged 
clay colloids and bind them to the negatively charged silica sand. Elec- 
trokinetic forces thus augmented by the charge orientation of bacteria 
may well be the principal mechanism by which colloidal particles are 
retained in porous media. 

Literature Cited 

1. Abraiiison, H. A. ino4. F^leftrokinetio plieiiomeiin ;iinl their application 

to hiolog-y and miMlicinf. The (^'heniical Catalog Company, Inc., New York. 

2. Allison, L. K. 1947. Effect of mici-oorsanisms on permeability of soil under 
prolonged submergence. Soil Science. <{3:43 9. 

3. Black, A. P. 1961. Theory of coagulation. Water & Sewage Works: R19l'- 

4. Bocquet, P. K. 1951. Two monographs on electrokinetics. Res. Bull. 33, 
Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

5. Brig-gs, D. R. 1940. A pyre.K all-glass micioelectrophoresis cell. Anal. Edit., 
Ind. and Eng". Chem. 32:703-705. 

Soil Science 385 

6. Curry, R. B., G. L. Barker, and Z. Strack. 19G5. Interrelation of physical 
and chemical properties in flow of colloidal suspensions in porous media. 
Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Bngi'. 8:259-273. 

7. Edwards, D. M. 1966. Electrokinetic Studies Applied to the Slow Sand 
Filtration Process. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

8. Gupta, R. P. and D. Swartzendruber. 1962. Flow-associated reduction in 
the hydraulic conductivity of quartz sand. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc, 26:6-10. 

9. Hunter, R. J. and A. E. Alexander. 1963. Surface properties and flow 
behavior of kaolinite. Parts I, II, and III. Jour. Colloid Sci. 18:820-862. 

10. Ives, K. J, 1964. Progress in filtration. Jour. AWWA 56:1225-1232. 

11. Jorden, R. M. 1963. Electrophoretic studies of filtration. Jour, AWWA 

12. van Olphen, H. 1963. An Introduction to Clay Colloid Cliemi.stry. Inter- 
science Publishers, New York. 

Agricultural Applications of Remote Multispectral Sensing 



What would be the rewards to humanity if man could measure and 
characterize, from remote distances, the ground cover within counties, 
states, or even nations ? Through the use of aircraft or even spacecraft 
equipped with remote sensing devices, one wonders if the day is ap- 
proaching when man may realize the capability of measuring crop 
acreages and estimating potential yields, of mapping climax vegetation 
on a regional basis, or of using these new developments in aerospace 
technology for effectively combating floods, insects, weeds, and diseases. 
Can this new technology be used effectively in the plans to provide food 
for the world's exploding populations? Although no system with this 
capability is yet operable, the limited amount of research information we 
now have leads one to believe that remote sensing will play a very 
important role in agricultural development and technology in the future. 

Remote Multispectral Sensing 

Remote Multispectral Sensing may be defined as "the sensing, from 
a remote location, of electromagnetic radiation — either reflected or 
emitted — in many discrete, usually relatively narrow spectral bands 
between 0.3/t and 15/x wavelength, and also in the radar bands from 
0.86 to 3.0 cm." These narrow bands of radiation may be sensed and 
recorded using a variety of devices, such as photographic films and 
selected filters, or electromechanical scanners with various detector 
elements which are then coupled to electronic tape recorders. 

To develop the concept of how this system works, consider the rela- 
tively simple case of a photograph. The photograph is capable of record- 
ing relative amounts of reflected energy because of variations in the 
number of silver halide crystals in the photographic emulsion which are 
activated upon exposure to light. If one photographs a pair of objects, 
one of which has a high reflectivity and the other a low reflectivity, tht 
former will appear as a relatively light toned (or high response) area 
on the resulting photographic print, whereas the latter will produce a 
relatively dark tone or low response on the print. In such a case it is 
a simple matter to differentiate one object from the other. In many 
cases, however, two objects will have a similar response on a photo- 
graph and cannot be differentiated. It is sometimes possible in such 
situations to use different film-filter combinations which will allow 
objects to be differentiated through the use of two photographs, whereas 
they could not be difl'erentiated on a single photo of a given wave- 
length band. This is, of course, dependent upon the two objects having 

1. Journal Paper No. 29G6, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment 
Station ; Contribution by Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and 
Department of Agronomy. 

2. Research Associate and Instriictor in Department of Botany and Plant 
Pathology and Assistant Professor in Department of Agronomy, respectively, 
at Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. 


Soil Science 


a different reflectance in different portions of the electromagnetic spec* 
trum. If the characteristics of two objects of interest are such that 
they reflect or emit radiation in an identical manner in all portions of 
the spectrum, such objects cannot be differentiated no matter how many 
film-filter combinations are examined. 

To illustrate these comments, suppose one uses photographs obtained 
in two different portions of the spectrum. Using only two levels of 
classification of reflectance (either high response or low response), one 
could positively differentiate up to four different objects, as follows: 

Photo #1 

Photo #2 

Object A 
" B 

" C 
" D 

Reflectance or Tonal Response 



Objects A and B cannot be differentiated on the basis of a difference 
in response when using only Photo #1. However, when using Photo #2 
(the emulsion of which has been sensitized in a different portion of the 
spectrum), objects A and B can be differentiated, but objects B and C can- 
not be differentiated. Thus, it can be easily seen that only through the use 
of both photos that all four objects can be differentiated. As more levels 
of response are used and as more different wavelength bands of photos 
or other spectrally responsive media are used, the number of objects 
which could be differentiated increases enormously. The use of 16 levels 
of response in each of 18 wavelength bands allows a possibility of 16^8 
unique combinations of spectral response. 

trie r 


Figure 1. The variations in spectral response of harvested and unhar- 
vested alfalfa as shown in four different wavelength bands. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the manner in which the tonal response 
can sometimes be entirely different from one wavelength band to the 
next in a natural, agricultural situation. 

1 July 1965 
1230 hours 

Corn ' ^'<^ 
-nted li| May) ^^^ 


I ^''&^^^M^' :' 5 

Corn ^ 

^ • ' 'inted h May) 





- »7u 

♦ 7 ~ -9\^ 

The spectral response of oats compared to two dates of planting 
for corn using" a panchromatic and an infrared photograph. 

Figure 1 shows a field of alfalfa, photographed simultaneously with 
four wavelength bands of imagery. The upper half of the alfalfa field 
had been harvested. In the .41-.47^ wavelength band (in the blue por- 
tion of the visible spectrum), one can distinguish the harvested from 
the unharvested portions of the field, but in the .48-. 56^ wavelength band 
(green portion of the spectrum), one sees no difference between the two 
areas. In the .62-. 68^ portion of the visible spectrum (red wavelengths), 
one sees a distinct difference, the harvested area having a higher re- 
sponse than the unharvested area. In the infrared (.85-.89/x) wavelength 
band shown, the relative response is just the reverse of that in the 
.62-. 68^ band. In this portion of the spectrum, healthy green vegetation 
is highly reflective of incident light, thereby causing the unharvested 
portion of the field to have a much higher response than the harvested 

Figure 2 shows a panchromatic and an infrared photo of three 
fields; one oat field, one com field planted on May 4 and a corn field 
planted on May 14. In the panchromatic photo (.4-.7^ or visible wave- 
length band), these fields look identical. However, on the aerographic 
infrared photo (.7-.9^(, wavelength), the fields are each distinctly differ- 
ent. This is due to the relative amounts of vegetative cover and exposed 
soil being viewed — the more healthy, green vegetation present, the 
higher is the relative response. 

The difference in reflectance of healthy green vegetation between the 
visible and infrared portion of the spectrum is illustrated in Figure 3. 

Soil Science 


Chlorophyll and other leaf pigments absorb incoming light in the blue 
and red portions of the visible spectrum, but do not absorb in the green; 
hence the increased reflectance of a green leaf at .55^ which is the green 
portion of the visible spectrum. However, Figure 3 shows a maximum 
reflectance anywhere in the visible wavelengths (.4-.7^) of only 14%, 
whereas, in the infrared wavelength (starting at about .7^0 the reflec- 



^ — . .■''"^ /"" ^^' ^""-— 

/ ■ ■ -v. ^'^ \ / 



/ \ ^'■■' ^°'--'^' Chalmers Silty Clay Loaa (Dry) 

1 ^^\ Com Leaf, 29 July 1966 


y^ \ /^ 




/■'' \ / \ 


/ 1 / 1 

\ / \ 




\ / ^ \ /^^X 


1 / \ / \ 



y^ \ / \ 

/ Vl 

\ / \ 

' A. J 




Wavelength (in microns) 

F'igure 3. Spectral reflectance of a g-reen corn leaf compared to Chalmers 
silty clay loam soil, as obtained on a Beckman DK-2 spectrophotometer. 

tance climbs more than 45% in the region from 0.8^ to 1.25^/. The 
marked decrease in reflectance at 1.44^ and 1.94^x is due to strong water 
absorption at these wavelengths. 

The capability now exists to sense reflected or emitted electromag- 
netic energy in many discrete wavelength bands, using multispectral 
optical-mechanical scanners. This equipment can be used in aircraft 
and possibly satellites, and will allow the energy reflected or emitted 
from a relatively small area of the earth's surface to be recorded on an 
electromagnetic tape. Two of the primary advantages of this type of 
sensor system over photographic sensors is that the data can be analyzed 
1) very rapidly and 2) in large quanties through the use of computers. 
One other major advantage is the capability to sense reflected and 
emitted energy in wavelengths far outside the spectral regions in which 
any photographic emulsion is sensitive. 

Through the use of such remote sensor systems, providing they 
have been properly calibrated, one can integrate the energy in a given 
wavelength band which is received from a relatively small portion of 
the earth's surface. (The size of the area covered is dependent upon 
the optical characteristics of the system being used, as well as the alti- 
tude from which one is obtaining such data.) By sensing the reflected 


Indiana Academy of Science 

or emitted energy from a given area in each of many discrete wave- 
length bands, one can obtain a "multispectral response pattern," similar 



a '" 

« 8 

3 6 








16 17 


Individual Wavelength Bands 

P^igure 4. An illustration of a niultispectral response sig-natvire which can 
be obtained through the use of eighteen wavelength bands of imagery. The 
current computer system allows a single wavelength band to have up to 16 
levels of response. Data from a combination of 18 wavelength bands can 
therefore yield up to 16is unique niultispectral response signatures. 

to that shown in Figure 4. Such a pattern is a coarse approximation 
of the reflectance curve shown in Figure 3. This ''pattern" represents 
a combination of signals received from a given target (an object, land 
area, etc.) on a given date. It is hoped that by studying many such 
patterns for each crop and soil condition of interest, one may establish 
a characteristic, consistent, and predictable pattern, capable of quanti- 
tative expression and of known statistical reliability. Such a pattern 
would be called a "niultispectral response signature." A niultispectral 
response signature can thus be defined as ''a particular set of reflectance 
and emittance properties of a target (an object or area of interest) 
which enables such a target to be distinguished and identified from a 
remote location, with an acceptable degree of statistical reliability." 

Figure 5 illustrates the type of comparison that one might make 
between two target areas, using multi spectral imagery. This graph 
shows the relative response observed in a field of soybeans and in a field 
of bare soil, on July 29, 1964. In some wavelength bands, the response 
of the soybeans is much like that of the bare soil, whereas in some bands 
(notably the .71-.79n and .85-.89/(, wavelength bands), the soybeans have 

a much higher response because the green vegetation is much more 
reflective than the soil in these wavelengths. However, in the thermal 
infrared wavelengths (3.0-4.1^, 4.5-5.5^x, and 8.2-14^) the soil is emitting 
much more energy than the crop canopy, which is being efl'ectively cooled 
by evapotranspiration. For these reasons, the bare soil has a higher 
response on the graph than do the soybeans. 

Soil Science 



Soybeans ^ 
Bare Soil t/^ 

29 July 196/t 
1530 hours 

(Range of Tonal 1 
Indicated by Da 

ontrast on Photograph 
hed Lines) 

• o 

"I r 


I I 
I I 
I I 

^ I fe 

I 0. 

1 I 

I I 

J L. 

I I 
! I 

« L_J 


I # I 

I I ! 



I I 
-J I 



#! ! ! 


I I 

01 ^]0 

-1 r 




L_J L_J 

























Wavelength Band in Microns 

Figure 5. A multispectral response comparison between soybeans and bare 
soil, in relation to the total tonal contrast of individual wavelength bands 
of imagery. 

By studying large quantities of remote multispectral sensing data, 
obtained at different times of the year and under a variety of crop and 
soil conditions, it is hoped that a reliable data bank of multispectral 
response signatures will be developed for many different crop and soil 
conditions. Such a data bank will probably have several subsets of 
signatures for each crop and soil condition according to geographical 
locations. In time, it is believed that an unknown target area or condi- 
tion could be correctly identified with a reasonable degree of statistical 
reliability, using automatic pattern recognition techniques. 

Pattern Recognition 

The key to developing such a capability for identification of unknown 
situations using remote multispectral sensing techniques lies in a rapid 
method of handling and processing large amounts of quantitative data. 
Methods currently being studied involve the processing of scanner data 
obtained on electronic analog tapes, calibrating this data and reducing 
it to digital multispectral response patterns for each target of interest. 
One then applies pattern recognition techniques to the unknown multi- 
spectral response patterns for each target area and automatically classi- 
fies the unknown pattern. There are many pattern recognition techniques 
and many ways which these can be applied to the data obtained. 

To illustrate the fundamentals of pattern recognition, let vts take 
an example in which we wish to decide whether the multispectral re- 
sponse pattern of an unknown field should be classified as a field of oats, 
wheat, or alfalfa. One must first have information on the multispectral 
response patterns of a number of fields known to be corn, wheat, and 
alfalfa. Figure 6 illustrates a hypothetical portrayal of the response 

392 Indiana Academy of Science 





□ Wheat 





i ^o 



A A 


Oat a 



^ Alfalfa 

Relative Response in Wavelength Band #7 

Fig-ure 6. Hypothetical example of relative response of oats, wheat, and 
alfalfa in each of two wavelength bands of imagery. An unknown field 
which must be correctly categorized by the pattern recognition device is 
represented by the letter "U". 

in only two wavelength bands for ten fields each of oats, wheat, and 
alfalfa. In this representation, one sees that in one wavelength band 
of imagery (response along the ordinate), the oats and alfalfa have 
approximately the same response and could not be separated on the 
basis of that one wavelength band of imagery only. The second wave- 
length band of imagery does allow these two crop types to be separated 
because of a marked difference in response. An unknown field which 
needs to be classified is represented by the dot and the letter U. 

It is seen that the unknown field does not obviously fall into any 
of these known categories. The pattern recognition technique involves 
a decision as to which category the unknown data best fits. One such 
method would be the "minimum distance to the means criterion" in which 
the mean of each known class would be computed and decision boundaries 
would then be drawn to separate the classes of known objects. The 
unknown object would then be classified into whichever category the 
point fell. The "minimum distance to the nearest member of a class" 
would be another technique. It must be remembered that the decision 
would not be based on a comparison of data in only two wavelength 
bands as shown here, but rather on a combination of data from eighteen 
wavelength bands. 

"Statistical pattern recognition" is another technique which can be 
used. In this case, for each field of interest, a set of likelihood ratios 
can be computed which express the relative probability that a point in 
question belongs to one category of interest rather than any others. 
Figure 7 illustrates the application of such a technique to some actual 
remote sensing data, using just six wavelength bands of imagery. 

Soil Science 


ccc Com 
S38 Soybeans 
XXX Soil 

.7-.9 1.5-1.7 2.0-2.6 3.0-4.1 i*.5-5.5 8-14 
Wavelength Band (in microns) 

Figure 7. The distribution of the relative response within individual 
wavelength bands for corn, soybeans, alfalfa and bare soil. (Taken from 
flight data obtained at 1055 hours on 27 August 1964.) 

In this case, a limited number of agricultural fields were sampled 
and 500 bits of data was generated for each of the three cover types 
of interest, using the assumptions of uniform distribution of response 
within a given wavelength band, and independence between wavelength 
bands. One sees that in this data, there is no clear-cut difference in 
response in any individual wavelength band between the corn and 
alfalfa. If you were to examine multispectral imagery of these crop 
types, there would be crop areas in every wavelength band of imagery 
examined where the response of the alfalfa is identical to that of the 
corn. By comparing combinations of several wavelength bands of 
imagery, however, one can arrive at a statistical decision as to the 
likelihood of a given piece of data falling into any one of the categories 
of interest. This is dependent upon having previously examined data 
in all categories of interest. The following results were obtained when 
this statistical pattern recognition test was carried out: 


Results of statistical pattern recognition using multispectral 
scanner data obtained on 27 August 1964 

Classification of Samples 

Sample Types 




Bare Soil 









Bare Soil 

(91% correct recognition) 

394 Indiana Academy of Science 

Due to the lack of calibration of the sensors and the limited amounts 
of data used to generate the 500 samples of each sample type used in 
this example, the above results should be considered as somewhat ques- 
tionable 2}er se. They do serve to indicate the potential of pattern 
recognition techniques, and allow one to see the importance of such 
techniques in rapidly classifying an unknown piece of data. Such a 
method for rapidly processing and analyzing data from large land areas 
will hopefully lead to a capability for mapping crop types, for projecting 
crop condition surveys, and for many other types of surveys and cen- 
suses. Such sui'vey capabilities would have broad spread applications, 
not only to agriculture, but also to forestry, ecology, geology, hydrology, 
geography, oceanography, and other disciplines. 

Uses and Economics 

If these remote multispectral sensing techniques and other tech- 
niques still to be adapted can be developed to the capability of identify- 
ing and characterizing ground cover, what are some of the potential 
uses ? What can this capability contribute to agriculture ? 

Potential uses might be divided into two categories. The first 
would be those applications in highly productive and mechanized agri- 
cultural countries. The second would be extensive survey-type operations 
in many countries whose development of the natural resources, including 
agricultural lands, is still at a relatively low level. 

Let's consider a few specific potential uses in the first category. 
In the United States approximately $40 million is spent annually in 
agricultural census and statistical data-gathering services. Remote multi- 
spectral sensing techniques certainly would not replace these very effec- 
tive services, but could rapidly provide valuable supplementary in- 

If in fact these techniques can be developed, it is reasonable to 
assume that remote multispectral sensing devices can be used to monitor 
the movements of cattle herds on our extensive Western ranges. By 
early detection of drought areas or diagnosis of overgrazing problems in 
early stages, it might be possible to increase the carrying capacity of 
our range lands through improved range management practices. Of the 
107 million cattle in the U. S. approximately 35 million are on the 
range. An improvement of 10% in carrying capacity through the appli- 
cation of remote sensing techniques could mean an increase of 3^2 
million calves per year, or an economic benefit of $350 million annually 
at the present price of $100 per weaning calf. 

The annual cost of weeds to American agriculture is estimated to 
be $3.8 billion. Detection by remote sensing of regional areas of heavy 
infestation could provide more complete information for the planning 
and execution of weed control programs. These techniques could be used 
to estimate the rates of spread of new weed infestations. If remote 
sensing could assist in obtaining a 5% reduction in weed losses, the 
annual economic benefit to American agriculture would be $190 million. 
A reduction of 10% in weed losses would provide a saving of $390 
million over present losses. 

Similar savings or economic benefits could be realized if these tech- 
niques could also be applied to reduce losses from insect and disease 

Soil Science 395 

infestations and to provide information on watershed conditions, water 
movement, and potential flood conditions. 

On the international scene, in the second category mentioned above, 
remote sensing techniques might come to play a key role in interaational 
agricultural development. The use of these capabilities could provide 
vast amounts of data on the natural resources of a country — data which 
are essential for development planning and which are almost impossible 
to obtain with the use of present techniques. 

Since 1950 large sums of capital have been invested by private 
foundations, international agencies, and national governments for the 
purpose of developing the natural resources of countries on every con- 
tinent. A key to the planning of any regional or national development 
project is an inventory of resources. It is here that remote multispectral 
sensing may potentially play a leading role — that of rapidly providing 
more complete and accurate data concerning the land, vegetation, water, 
mineral, and meteorological resources of a country. The use of RMS 
techniques might provide a giant step forward in the planning stages 
for international agricultural development. 


Chairman: Russell Mumford, Purdue University 
J. Hill Hamon, Indiana State University, was elected chairman for 1967 

New distribution records for Sorex longirostris and Citellus tridecem- 
lineatus in Indiana. Russell E. Mumford, Purdue University. — Since 
1962, Sorex longirostris (southeastern shrew) has been collected for the 
first time in the following' counties: Boone, Dubois, Martin, Parke, 
Pike, Vermillion, Vigo, Washington. The thirteen-lined ground squirrel 
{Citellus tridecemlineatus) has been observed at a new locality (Edin- 
burg) in Johnson County and for the first time in Bartholomew County. 
An unconfirmed sighting from Decatur County may be valid. 

Intra-mammary pressures in response to graded levels of intra- 
venous oxytocin. E. H. Row, P. V. Malven, D. L. Hill and J. L. 
Albright, Purdue University. — Intra-mammary pressures w^ere measured 
both before and after several machine milkings in four Holstein cows 
producing 25-30 lbs. of milk per day. All cows were injected prior to 
and following milking with graded levels of intravenous oxytocin via 
a polyethylene cannula placed into the external jugular vein. 

Intra-mammary pressure was determined by inserting a metal can- 
nula into the right front teat cistern. The cannula was connected to a 
closed system containing a fluid trap and a mechanical pressure gauge. 
The pressure gauge had been previously calibrated with a mercury 

Intra-mammary pressures measured before milking and prior to 
any oxytocin administration varied from 14 to 25 mm. Hg. Massage of 
the other teats or threshold injections of oxytocin markedly elevated 
the pressure (30-59 mm. Hg). The minimum dosage of injected oxytocin 
which caused an appreciable increase in pressure was 15 mU. The time 
between the injection and the pressure increase varied from 30 to 90 

Using conventional milking machine procedures, the intra-mammary 
pressures 10-15 minutes after milking varied greatly between animals. 
A range of zero to 18 mm. Hg. was observed. Our attempts to deter- 
mine the threshold dosage of oxytocin were inconclusive for several 
reasons. The magnitude of the pressure increase following a threshold 
dosage was considerably less than that observed prior to milking. Con- 
sequently, small pressure fluctuations caused by movement of the ani- 
mal's rear legs could not be clearly distinguished from responses to 
oxytocin. (This research was financed in part from funds provided by 
a Purdue Faculty Research Foundation David Ross Grant.) 

Some Aspects of Mating and Egg Development in Betta splendens, 
the Siamese Fighting Fish. Patrick F. Oliver, Ball State University. — 
This study was conducted to observe the courtship, mating and egg 
development in Betta splendeiis, the Siamese Fighting Fish. 


398 Indiana Academy of Science 

Due to their uniqueness, the courtship and mating- have been ob- 
served many times; however, little work has been done with the develop- 
ment of the fertilized egg-. 

In this study, eggs were observed and photographed at two hour 
intervals from the time of fertilization until hatching. Some material 
was sectioned and stained for more detailed analysis. 

The Betta eggs exhibit meroblastic discoidal cleavage as is found in 
most teleost eggs. The most noteworthy factor is the great rapidity of 
development. Hatching takes place within 42-48 hours after fertilization. 

Inhibition of Fertility with an anticonvulsant (Elipten) in female 
rats. W. J. EVERSOLE and D. J. Thompson, Indiana State University. — 
Since evidence from many sources indicates that central nervous system 
depressant drugs affect reproductive physiology, a series of studies on 
the effects of elipten (anticonvulsant) on ovulation and fertility were 
initiated in 1964 and are now continuing. In these particular experi- 
ments on fertility in female rats, injections were made daily using 
varying doses of elipten. Appropriate controls were injected with saline 
solution. Animals were injected for two weeks prior to mating and for 
two weeks during cohabitation of males and females. In one series of 
experiments vaginal smears were studied throughout the injection period 
and vaginas were checked for sperm and copulation plugs. Treatment 
resulted in erratic and mixed vaginal smears and few, if any, of the 
animals exhibited evidence of normal cycles or smears typical of the 
estrus period; less than 20% of the females exhibited copulation plugs. 
Most all control females ran regular cycles and more than 90% of them 
exhibited typical estrus smears and copulation plugs. Most of the con- 
trol females became pregnant and delivered normal litters. In the treated 
groups, even at the lowest dosage of 25 mg/Kg/day, less than 30% of 
the females became pregnant and delivered young. Litter size was 
usually reduced in treated mothers but delivered young appeared normal 
in appearance. Detailed data will be presented and possible sites of 
drug action will be discussed. 

Effects of Amino-glutethimide on the Ovulatory Process in the Al- 
bino Rat. D. J. Thompson and W. J. Eversole, Indiana State University. 
— Female albino rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of the 
anti-convulsant amino-glutethimide (Elipten) for a period of fourteen 
days in an effort to determine the effects of the drug on the ovulatory 
mechanism. Dose levels ranged from 25 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Controls 
received 0.2 ml. saline per 100 gm body weight. The animals showed no 
adverse side effects to the drug and exhibited a higher percentage weight 
gain than controls. Histologic examination of ovaries from treated ani- 
mals revealed an increase in size and number of vesicular follicles and 
a decrease in number of corpora lutea as compared to controls. 

Other female rats were subjected to 14 hours light and 10 hours 
dark per day in order to standardize their "critical period" (the time of 
neurohumoral stimulation of LH release). Animals showing at least two 
previous four day estrous cycles were given a single 100 mg/kg intra- 
peritoneal injection of amino-glutethimide 2 to 3 hours before the ''cri- 
tical period" on the day of proestrus. Absence of tubal ova the follow- 

Zoology 399 

ing day indicated that ovulation had been completey blocked. It is 
suggested that the drug exerted its effects on the ovulatory mechanism 
by blocking the release of LH-RF from the hypothalmus or other areas 
of the brain. 

Beta-alanine utilization in ebony and non-ebony Drosophila melano- 
gaster. M. E. JACOBS, Goshen College. — Into the hemocoel of ebony and 
non-ebony newly formed female pupae and adults of Drosophila melano- 
gaster was injected 3 x 10^5 ml of water containing 1500 cpm of first 
or second carbon-14 labeled beta-alanine. At the end of each hour for 
six hours and at the end of 24 hours, some flies were microautoradio- 
grammed and others were dissected and the C-14 count of the internal 
organs and cuticles determined. The counts of the internal organs 
gradually dropped during this period. Ebony showed highest internal 
organ counts, while heterozygotes were intermediate. The 1-C and 2-C 
water soluble materials of the internal organs were beta-alanine. Ap- 
preciable amounts of 2-C were bound to the internal organs, especially 
the ovaries and eggs, and resisted water and ether extraction. Ebony 
bound the highest percentages. Non-ebony homozygotes incorporated 
most beta-alanine in the cuticles, heterozygotes were intermediate, and 
ebony failed in this incorporation. 

A Preliminary Study of the Gastrotricha of Northern Indiana 

George H. Pfaltzgraff, Manchester College 

Gostrotrichs are microscopic, aquatic animals, similar in size and 
habitat to rotifers. The class Gastrotricha is divided into two orders. 
The marine order is hermaphroditic, while the fresh-water order is 
composed of females reproducing parthenogenetically. The fresh-water 
gastrotrichs are characterized by ventral ciliation; a body that is easily- 
divided into head, neck, and trunk regions; spines, scales, or a cuticular 
covering; and furca, which are two posterior extensions of the body. 

The writer intensively sampled lakes and ponds in LaPorte and 
Wabash counties with occasional collections in Elkhart, Fulton, Kosci- 
usko, and LaGrange counties. The samples were examined after they 
were collected and periodically for several months. It is not expected 
that the species found represent the entire fauna of Northern Indiana. 
Brunson (1,2) found fourteen species in Michigan and Robbins (5) found 
eight other species in Illinois which were not seen in this study. Some 
of these twenty-two species might be expected to occur in Indiana. The 
results of this study indicate that there is a large number of gastrotrich 
species in Northern Indiana. The following species were identified with 
the aid of Brunson (3), Remane (4), Robbins (5), and Voigt (6). Those 
species not fitting the descriptions are given alphabetical identifications. 

Genus Lcpidodermella Blake 1933 
Scales that are not keeled; spines absent; furca short. 

1. Lepidodermella squamatum (Dujardin) 1841 

Scales in alteraating rows; head five-lobed with two pairs of ciliary 
tufts; anterior and posterior tactile bristles present; phai-ynx weakly 
double bulbed; length, 110-170/<. Distribution: Elkhart county, Kosciusko 
county, LaPorte county, Wabash county. 

2. Lepidodermella trilobum Brunson 1950 

Scales small and indistinct; head three-lobed with one pair of ciliary 
tufs; cuticle of anterior part of the head thickened to form a cephalic 
shield; length, 170/x. Distribution: Wabash county. 

Genus Ichthydium Ehrenberg 1830 

No spines or scales; body covering smooth except for cuticular 
grooves or tactile bristles; furca short. 

3. Ichthydium auriUtvi Brunson 1950 

Cuticle smooth; head three-lobed with lateral flap-like lobes; cephalic 
shield present; length 140 ^i. Distribution: Fulton county, LaGrange 
county, Wabash county. 

4. Ichthydium sulcatum Stokes 1887 

Cuticle transversely grooved; head five-lobed; length 180 ^t. Dis- 
tribution: Wabash county. 


Zoology 401 

5. Ichthydium sp. A 

Cuticle transversly grooved; head indistinctly five-lobed; anterior 
and posterior tactile bristles present; pharynx weakly triple bulbed; 
length, 162 ^. Distribution: LaPorte county. 

6. Ichthydium sp. B 

Cuticle smooth; head indistinctly five-lobed; anterior and posterior 
tactile bristles present; length 120 ji. Distribution: Wabash county. 

7. Ichthydiwm sp. C 

Cuticle crosshatched ; head rounded with distinct cephalic shield; 
post oral groove present; eight tactile bristles at bases of furca; length, 
216 ji. Distribution: Wabash county. 

Genus Chaetonotiis Ehrenberg 1830 
Spines or spines and scales; furca short. 

8. Chaetonotus acanthophorus Stokes 1887 

Spines short (3 ^) on the head and neck increasing abruptly in 
length to 20 /x on the trunk; head five-lobed with two pairs of ciliary 
tufts; length, 90-110 m- Distribution: Elkhart county, Fulton county, 
Kosciusko county, LaPorte county, Wabash county. 

9. Chaetonotus bisaccr Greuter 1919 

Spines in a transverse circlet around the middle of the tiiink (differs 
from the European species in that the trunk spines are equally bifurcate 
at the distal end with a web between the Y-shaped barbs) ; pharynx pear- 
shaped; several spines and bristles anterior to the furca; length 167 jx- 
Distribution: Wabash county. 

10. Chaetonotus gastroeyaneus Brunson 1950 

Spines bifurcate, bent, with a three pronged base; head irregularly 
lobed and blunt with two ciliary tufts; cephalic shield present; the gut 
colored deep blue; length, 365-453 /i. Distribution: LaPorte county. 

11. Chaetonotus tachyneusticus Brunson 1948 

Spines short on the head increasing gradually to 20 /x at the base 
of the furca; head five-lobed; length 285 ji. Distribution: Wabash county. 

12. Chaetonotus sp. A 

Spines short anteriorly increasing gradually toward the posterior 
with spines absent anterior to the furca; head five-lobed; cephalic shield 
small; base of the furca wide and rectangular; length, 115 /x- Distribu- 
tion: LaPorte county. 

13. Chaetonotus sp. B 

Spines short (4 jx) on the head increasing gradually to long spines 
(24 ^) at the furca; each spine embedded in a raised portion of the 
cuticle; head five-lobed; cephalic shield present; length, 260-295 ^. Dis- 
tribution: Wabash county. 

402 Indiana Academy of Science 

14. Chaetonotus sp. C 

Spines short (5 p) on the head and neck, increasing abruptly (12 p) 
posterior to the union of the pharynx and gut, increasing gradually to 
long spines (16 /x) on the trunk, and decreasing to short spines (5 ji) 
above the furca; four tactile bristles at the base of the furca; head five- 
lobed; length 143-220 ji. Distribution: Elkhart county, Kosciusko county, 
Wabash county. 

15. Chaetonotus sp. D. 

Spines short (23 jx) on the head and neck; spines long (36 fx) on 
the trunk; head irregularly five-lobed with two pairs of ciliary tufts; 
pharynx double bulbed; cephalic shield present; length, 286 /x. Distribu- 
tion: LaPorte county. 

16. Chaetonotus sp. E 

Spines short on the head and neck with longer, unequally bifurcate 
spines on the trunk; head five-lobed; length, 107-127 /x- Distribution: 
LaPorte county, Wabash county. 

17. Chaetonotus sp. F 

Spines short over the entire body; head five-lobed; posterior tactile 
bristles present; length, 110-190yx. Distribution: LaPorte county, Wabash 

18. Chaetonotus sp. G 

Spines short (5 ji) over the entire body; head indistinctly three- 
lobed; cephalic shield and post oral groove present; posterior tactile 
bristles present; length, 170 }x. Distribution: LaPorte county. 

19. Chaetonotus sp. H 

Spines limited to the trunk; scales on the dorsal surface; head five- 
lobed; length, 116 /x- Distribution: Wabash county. 

20. Chaetonotus sp. I 

Spines in one lateral row; anterior spines short increasing to long 
posterior spines (20 /x); head weakly five-lobed; pharynx double bulbed; 
base of furca spread apart; length 110-135 }_i. Distribution: LaGrange 
county, Kosciusko county. 

21. Chaetonotus sp. J 

Spines with elaborate winged and pouchlike scales; large mouth 
with hooks; little neck constriction; anterior and posterior tactile bristles 
present; one pair short barbs anterior to and inside the furca; one tactile 
bristle between the furca; length, 300-315 jx. Distribution: LaPorte 

Genus Polymerurus Remane 1927 

Furca long and segmented 

22. Polymerurus callosus Brunson 1950 

Furca long and segmented with the terminal segment the longest; 
cuticle smooth with small pointed excrescences; beaded oral ring; ce- 

Zoology 403 

phalic shield and post oral groove present; length, 316 ^i. Distribution: 
Wabash county. 

23. Polymerurus nodicaudus var. comatus Greuter 1917 

Spines over the entire body increasing gradually in size to 16 ^,; 
cephalic shield present; gut dark; minute barbs around the rings seg- 
menting the furca; length 350-450 ^. Distribution: LaGrange county, 
LaPorte county. 

24. Polymerurus sp. A 

Spines limited to the trunk with one row of long spines down the 
center of the dorsal side; length, 380 ^<,. Distribution: LaPorte county. 

25. Polymerurus sp. B 

Cuticle arranged in transverse grooves with small spines (10 /j.) 
originating from the crests of the ridges over the entire body; head 
three-lobed with lateral lobelike flaps; cephalic shield and post oral 
groove present; length, 330-334 pr, distribution: Wabash county. 

26. Polymerurus sp. C 

Scales over the entire body; scales teardrop shaped thickened ante- 
riorly and keeled posteriorly; furca segmented to the distal end; head 
with two lateral flap-like lobes; cephalic shield and post oral groove 
present; two pairs of ciliary tufts; one pair of tactile bristles on the 
head, one pair on the neck anterior to the gut, and one pair anterior 
to the furca; length, 330-360 /t. Distribution: LaPorte county. 

Genus Dasydyfes Gosse 1887 
Furca absent; no other posterior protrubances except tactile bristles, 

27. Dasydytes goniathrix Gosse 1851 

Spines long (76 /x), unequally bifurcate at the bend toward the ex- 
treme distal end of the anterior spines; spines arranged in bundles lying- 
in two lateral rows; dies at temperatures above 15°C; length, 160-170 ji. 
Distribution: Wabash county, 

28. Dasydytes sp. A 

Seven lateral spines which do not cross posteriorly; head weakly 
five-lobed; two posterior bristles each embedded in a cuticular collar; 
length, 130-160 /^. Distribution: Wabash county. 

29. Dasydytes sp. B 

Spines long and trailing, crossing posteriorly; spines do not cross 
over the trunk; posterior bristles absent; length, 110 fx. Distribution: 
Wabash county. 

30. Dasydytes sp, C 

Spines long (160 jx) and doubly bifurcate; head rounded; pharynx 
pear-shaped; circular bodies present in the anterior part of the trunk 
between the two groups of spines; length, 170 /i. Distribution: Wabash 

404 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Brunson, R. B. 1947. Gastrotricha of North America. II. Four new species 
of Ichthydium from Michigan. Trans. Mich. Aca. Sci. Arts and Let. 

2. . 1950. An introduction to the taxonomy of the Gastrotricha 

with a study of eigliteen species from Michigan. Trans. Amer. Micros. 
Soc. 69:325-352. 

. 1959. Gastrotricha. In: Edmundson, W. T., editor, Fresh- 

water biolog-y, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New Yorlc. 

Remane, A. 1931. Gastrotricha und Kinorhyncha. In: Bronns Klassen und 
Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Band 4, Abt. 2, Buch 1, Tie! 2, Leipzig. 

Robbins, Clyde E. 1963. Studies on the taxonomy and distribution of the 
Gastrotricha of Illinois. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Illinois. 

Voigt, M. 1959. Gastrotricha. In: Brohmer, P., P. Ehrmann, and B. Ulmer. 
Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas. Band 1, Lief. 4a. Leipzig. 

Alcohol dehydrogenases in the pupae of Drosophila melanogaster^ 

Thomas A. Cole and John B. Snodgrass, Wabash College 


A study of protein differences in organisms of different develop- 
mental stages is a proper part of an analysis of differentiation. Such 
studies have been done on a number of species (9) including Drosophila 
(1). The analysis of pupal proteins of Drosophila melanogaster by poly- 
acrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the major proteins do not 
vary greatly (1). Studies of enzymatic differences v^^ith respect to 
development have been done on many species (6); this report describes 
a study of alcohol dehydrogenases in the pupae of Drosophila melano- 
gaster. Several enzymes or enzyme systems have been studied in Droso- 
phila; these include acid and alkaline phosphatase, ATPase, esterase, 
xanthine dehydrogenase, oc -amylase, aminopeptidase, glucose-6-phosphate 
dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and octanol dehydrogenase (10). 
Alcohol dehydrogenases have been found to vary among and in strains 
of D. melanogaster (3, 4, 10). 

Methods and Materials 
Rearing and Aging of Pupae 

The stock used in all experiments was Oregon R-C (obtained from 
E. B. Lewis). An egg producing population was maintained at 25 ± 
0.5° C in a Incite cage (40" x 50" x 55") and fed daily on 10 cm diameter 
plastic petri plates of agar-oatmeal-molasses medium topped with a 
thick suspension of active yeast. In order to stimulate the laying of 
stored eggs, the feeder plates were changed two hours before egg collec- 
lections were begun. Fresh plates were inserted then into the cage and 
allowed to remain for two hours. These plates were incubated at 25 °C 
until some individuals reach the prepupal stage. The larvae and pre- 
pupae were washed onto a kitchen strainer and suspended in tap water. 
Those individuals, if any, which floated were discarded. Collections were 
then made by the flotation method which is based on the time of bubble 
formation; those individuals, which have formed a bubble in pupal case 
maturation, float. The flotation procedure was repeated at hourly inter- 
vals and the floating individuals were removed to paper towels. They 
were incubated at 25 °C until the desired age had been reached and 
then were stored at — 65 °C. 

Sample preparation 

Individual pupae were put in a drop of homogenization medium in 
a spot plate depression and thoroughly homogenized with a glass stirring 
rod. The homogenization medium was 0.25 M sucrose-0.025 M KCl-0.005 
M Tris, pH 7.8. 

1. Supported by research grant GM-11.SG0, United States Public Health 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Electrophoresis and staining 

The method of electrophoresis was that of Ornstein (7) as modified 
by Davis (2). A 0.2 ml aliquot of the large pore sample gel was added 
to the homogenized pupa and transferred to a rubber grommet. The 
tube was inserted and the sample gel photopolymerized. The spacer gel 
and the running gel were successively photopolymerized and thermo- 
polymerized, respectively. Electrophoresis was carried out at 4°C for 
about forty-five minutes with a constant current of five milliamperes 
per tube. The voltage across eight tubes rose from 220 to 400 volts 
during the course of the run. The gels were removed from the tubes by 
hydrostatic pressure from a rubber bulb after rimming the ends with 
a dissection needle. The gels were immersed in about 6 ml of substrate 
solution which contained the following per milliliter: 0.5 mg phenazine 
methosulfate (Sigma), 0.175 mg NAD (Sigma), 0.25 mg Nitro Blue Tetra- 
zolium, 0.17 mg Trihydroxymethylaminomethane (Sigma) and 6.0 micro- 
liters of n-propanol. The pH of the substrate solution was 8.3. The gels 
were incubated at 37°C for 45-60 minutes and then stored in 7.5% acetic 


The pupae gave eight types of staining patterns which are shown in 
Figure 1. Bands 5, 6, 7 and 8 are considerably fainter than bands 1, 2, 
3 and 4; thus, there appear to be two "regions" of alcohol dehydrogenase 







1 la 2 3 4 


56 7 Bands 8 


mm 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 







Figure 1. 

activity in the gels. In addition to the eight types shown, seven other 
types were detected in low frequency (one or two cases). These types 
are modifications of types I and II: 

Zoology 407 

Type I with band 2 missing- 
Type I with bands 2 and 4 missing- 
Type I with bands 2 and 5 missing 
Type II with band 1 missing 
Type II with band 4 missing 
Type II with bands 2 and 3 missing: 


These results show that the alcohol dehydrogenase system in the 
Oreg-on R-C strain is complex. This strain gives many more phenotypes 
than reported by others who have studied individual flies (3, 4, 10). This 
enzyme is clearly unsuited for study during development unless a homo- 
zygous strain is established. A differentiation of the bands might be 
attempted with a study of substrate specificites. The genetics of the 
alcohol dehydrogenase system could be studied by selective, pairwise 
matings. These results are similar to those of Scandalios (8) who studied 
the genetic variation of alcohol dehydrogenase in maize; the results with 
maize indicate that two regions or zones are present. It is not known 
if the two zones are due to two genetic systems. Johnson and coworkers 
(5) have analyzed polymorphisms among isozymic loci in Drosophila 
populations from American and western Samoa. The results reported 
here support those of Johnson and coworkers in indicating that Droso- 
phila strains are more polymorphic at the level of genetic loci than 
formerly thought. 

Finally, this work supports that of Ursprung and Leone (10) in 
that the alcohol dehydrogenases are polymorphic, but appear to be even 
more complex when analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 

Literature Cited 

1. CoLK, Thomas A., and Byron W. Kemper. 1966. An Analysis of Pupal 
Proteins of Drosophila vielanogaster by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Science. 75:308-310. 

2. Davis, Baruch J. 1964. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. Annals New 
York Acad. Sciences. 131:404-427. 

3. Grell, E. H., K. B. Jacobson and J. B. Murphy. 1965. Alcohol Dehydro- 
genase in Drosophila melanogaster : Isozymes and Genetic Variants. Science 

4. Johnson, R. M., and C. Dknniston. 1964. Genetic Variation of Alcohol 
Dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanocj aster. Nature 204:906-907. 

5. Johnson, P. M., Carmen G. Kanapi, R. H. Richardson, M. R. Wheeler and 
W. S. Stone. 1966. An Analysis of Polymorphisms among- Isozyme Loci 
in Dark and Light Drosophila ananassae Strains from American and West- 
ern Samoa. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences. 56:119-125. 

6. MooG, Florence. 1965. Enzyme Development in Relation to Functional 
Differentiation. In: Rudolph Weber (ed.), Biochemistry of Animal De- 
velopment, Vol. 1. New York. Academic Press. 307-365. 

7. Ornstein, Leonard. 1964. Disc Electrophoresis. Annals New York Acad. 
Sciences. 121:321-349. 

8. Scandalios, John G. 1966. Genetic Variation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in 
Maize. Genetics. 54:359-360. 

9. Solomon, J. B. 196 5. Development of Nonenzymatic Proteins in Relation 
to Functional Differentiation. In: Rudolph Weber (ed.), Biochemistry of 
Animal Development, Vol. 1. New York. Academic Press. 367-440. 

10. Ursprung, H. and J. Leone. 1965. Alcohol Dehydrogenases: A Poly- 
morphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Jour. Exper. Zoology. 160:147-154. 

A Comparative Study of Plethodon glutinosus and Plethodon 
jordani (melaventris) with Respect to External Form 

Albert E. Reynolds, DePauw University 

The slimy salamander, Plethodon glutinosus, occurs not only in 
Indiana, but also throughout most of the eastern portion of the United 
States. Similar but different salamanders, characteristically from higher 
altitudes and of much more restricted ranges in the Southeast, first 
became known in 1901 when Blatchley (4) described a black-bodied and 
red-cheeked form from the Great Smoky Mountains and named it 
Plethodon jordani in honor of David Starr Jordan. Over the succeeding 
quarter century other populations which became known included: P. 
shermani in 1906, black with red legs, from the Nanthala Mountains 
of North Carolina; P. metcalfi in 1912, black and unspotted, occupying a 
large part of the Southern Blue Ridge Province; P. clemsonae in 1927, 
and known only from the type locality, Jocassee Valley in Northwestern 
Oconee County, South Carolina (5, 7, 13). Regarding P. metcalfi, Bailey 
(1) noted differences in size and color which he suggested might be 
correlated with altitude. However, in a more extensive distributional 
study, Grobman (8) found these differences to be of a geographical 
character; he retained the term metcalfi for the northern smaller-bodied 
and lighter-colored segment of the originally described metcalfi, and sep- 
arated the southern segment of larger and darker forms, lumping them 
with P. clemsonae to the south. Shortly thereafter Pope and Hairston 
(14) re-separated this southern segment of forms as P. shermani mela- 
ventris and identified a new population as P. shermani rabunensis. Prac- 
tically simultaneously, Harriston and Pope (12) reviewed the entire com- 
plex, reporting evidences of intergradation justifying the recognition of 
metcalfi, melaventris, clemsonae, rabunensis, and shermani as all being 
subspecies of F. shermani. Two years later Hairston (10) reported evi- 
dences of intergradation between jordani and m^etcalfi and also described 
a new population; as a result of these findings the whole complex of 
salamanders became the "jordani complex" consisting of Plethodon 
jordani exhibiting seven subspecies: jordani, onetcalfi, melaventris, 7'abun- 
ensis, clemsonae, shermayvi, and teyahalee (6). The most recent event 
in the taxonomic vicissitudes of these salamander populations occurred 
a dozen years later; in a review of the Genus Plethodon, Highton (13) 
declined to recognize any of the subspecies, and treated the complex as 
one single but highly variable species, Plethodon jordani. 

That a close relationship must exist between the members of the 
jordani complex and the much more widely-ranging Pletthodon glutino- 
sus has been recognized by all workers cited above, beginning with 
Blatchley. In the southern Appalachians P. glutinosus overlapped the 
jordani salamanders geographically but generally not altitudinally (9, 
11). One member of the complex, shermani, was originally described as 
black-bodied with red spots of pigment on the legs and with no mention 
of spots elsewhere. Bailey (1) reported on some specimens which also 
exhibited lateral spotting of the body with white. Bishop found and 


Zoology 409 

described ten such sherinani with lateral body white, and on this basis 
made shermani a subspecies of P. glutinosus (2, 3). This view of the 
relationship was rejected by Grobman (8), Hairston and Pope (12) and 
Hairston (10). All, however, indicated a need for more information, a 
view shared by High ton (13). 

Although it has not been by any means the sole criterion used, skin 
pigment has figured very prominently in all of the studies cited above. 
It would be no exaggeration to suggest that kind, distribution, and in- 
tensity of skin pigment has had more influence in determining taxonomic 
status of the populations concerned than any other single externally- 
visible aspect of body organization. The studies reported herein were 
undertaken for the purpose of investigating certain non-pigmentational 
characteristics and any implications such may have for the still-unde- 
cided degree to which P. glutinosus and P. jordani may be interrelated. 


The information on which this paper is based has been accumulated 
during the period 1956-1966 inclusive, mostly during the summers, but 
with considerable variation as to length of time spent and intensity of 
effort expended in different years. During this period some time has 
been spent in the Southern Appalachians in each of nine summers, and 
on each such occasion the Highlands Biological Station at Highlands, 
North Carolina, was the base of operations. During the summers of 
1956, 1957, and 1963 the work was aided by National Science Foundation 
grants administered by the Highlands Biological Station. 

Procedurally, collecting activity was interspersed with the taking 
of observations in order that records be on animals that were fresh, 
vigorous, and not too long away from the field. In a few exceptional 
cases some observational delay did occur, and Indiana specimens were 
observed in North Carolina or North Carolina specimens were observed 
in Indiana, the transport being accomplished with the live animals on 
ice in a car refrigerator. When observed, each animal was assigned its 
individual number, and considerable observational attention was devoted 
to it. Observations were recorded on Data Sheets which provided for 
approximately 24 measurements and numerous other descriptive entries, 
including pigmentation, in detail. All data were obtained from animals 
in the living state, the observations being made on specimens under 
chloretone (chlorobutanol) anesthesia as light as was compatible with 
immobilization. Care was exercised to keep the animal in the un- 
stretched, undistorted, natural position. Examinations were made with 
the unaided eye and also under binocular stereoscopic magnification. 
Measurements were made with a micrometer caliper, aided in certain 
instancs by draftsmens' dividers. Weights were taken on balances sensi- 
tive to at least 0.01 gm. 

For the jordani complex, the population chosen for study was Pleth- 
odon jordani 7nelaventris, a term retained here for specificity of desig- 
nation, while duly recognizing High ton's (13) recent revision. The range 
of this population was originally given as "From Swannanoa, Buncombe 
County, North Carolina, southward to Greenville County, South Carolina, 
and westward to Highlands, Macon County, North Carolina"; the type 

410 Indiana Academy of Science 

locality was Highlands, Noi-th Carolina (Pope and Hairston, 14). Of the 
specimens collected for this study, 94 came from various locations in the 
type locality. Highlands, North Carolina; other specimens from Macon 
County, N. C, included: Ammons Camp — 5, Blue Valley — 4, Brier Patch 
—6, Cullowhee Gap— 10, Bull Pen Road— 7, Whiteside Cove— 4, Horse 
Cove — 3, Walkingstick Road — 5, Cliffside Recreation Area — 22, Browns 
at Scaly— 1, Singletons— 1, Skittles Creek Trail— 1, Ellicott Rock Trail— 
1, a total of 70. Salamanders collected from other locations included: 

(1) from Jackson County, N. C: Granite City — 17, Route 107 and 
Whitewater River — 1, Upper Whitewater Falls — 1, for a total of 19; 

(2) from Transylvania County, N.C.: Frying Pan Gap — 3, Bearwallow 
Creek — 4, Thompson River — 1, Upper Whitewater Falls — 1, for a total 
of 9; (3) from Oconee County, South Carolina: Wallhala Fish Hatchery 
— ^12, Stumphouse Tunnel Road — 1, for a total of 13. The entire sample 
of the P. j. melaventris population encompassed 205 animals. 

The Plethodon glutinosus sample included 26 specimens from central 
Indiana, 23 from the Greencastle Area in Putnam County, 1 from the 
Shades State Park Area of Parke County, and 2 from the Morgan- 
Monroe State Forest in Morgan County. Southeastern specimens in- 
cluded 21 animals from Macon County, N. C, as follows: Brier Patch 
— 2, Horse Cove — 1, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory — 2, Cliffside Recre- 
ation Area — 4, Highlands — 3, Mulberry Road — 7, Cullowhee Gap — 2. 
Georgia specimens included 1 animal from Brasstown Bald in Towns 
County, plus 67 from Rabun County as follows: Black Rock — 1, Satolah 
— 1, Patterson Gap Road — 7, Warwoman Dell — 58. From South Carolina, 
3 specimens from Jocassee Valley in Oconee County were included. The 
total sample of P. glutinosus embraced 117 specimens. 

The head length of the specimens was measured from the tip of 
the snout to the gular fold, and trunk length was measured from the 
gular fold to the anterior angle of the vent. Tail length was from the 
latter landmark to the tip of the tail. Head width was measured at two 
levels: (1) at a lateral bulge right behind the eyes, where the head was 
usually widest, and (2) at a less pronounced bulge just anterior to the 
gular fold level. Neck width was measured immediately posterior to 
the gular fold. Maximal trunk width was measured at the widest part 
of the body as determined by inspection. The axilla to groin distance 
was measured from the posterior edge of the front leg to the anterior 
edge of the hind leg, in each case at the junction of the limb with the 

Since tails are apparently quite expendable aspects of salamander 
anatomy, the snout-vent (S-V) length was taken as a standard basis of 
comparison. In both samples, all specimens were arranged in sequence 
and ascending order by S-V length and then divided into step-interval 
classes for statistical consideration; for the most part, a frequency 
distribution by 3 mm step-intervals in S-V length was used. 


For detailed consideration, results presented here will for the most 
part relate to the four step-interval classes which include the largest 
members, except two specimens, of the P. j. melaventris sample. It 



would be expected that whatever pecularities characterize melaventris 
would find fullest expression in the most mature, and presumably best- 
developed, specimens. Since the comparisons are made by groups or 
step-interval classes, the values included in the accompanying- tables are 
mean values. For reference purposes, for each statistic, an item number 
is placed above each column in the tables; the mean values in the tables, 
except indices, are in millimeter units. 

1. Body Length Relationships in Absolute Values. 

Table 1 is concerned with absolute values of body length relation- 
ships. Since the specimens were deliberately classified in 3 mm step- 
interval classes by S-V length in each of the four classes. Item 1 merely 
reflects the average S-V length in each. Comparatively, it is of interest 
to note that 22 melaventris and only 7 glutinosus fell into the class of 
shorter S-V length, while only 5 melaventris to 11 ghitivosus occurred 
in the larger of the four classes, a relationship that could imply that 
glutinosus tends to be a larger animal than melaventris. Furthermore, 
in Item 5, within each class, glutinosus exhibited consistently a slightly 


Comparison of P. j. vielaveiitris and P. glntiiwsvs in four step-interval classes 
with respect to certain length relationships. All values are means ; the number 
of cases used in calculating each mean value is entered under the entry in 
the N line. 






Class by 







S-V Length 






GO-62.9 mm 
























G3-65.9 mm 

























G6-68.9 mm 
























69-71.9 mm 
























Abbreviations : 


-length, snout to vent 


— species 


.—P. j. «i 


—P. glutinosus 


Indiana Academy of Science 

greater total length. In Item 2, melaventris exhibited a mean head 
length slightly greater than glutinosus, and did so consistently al- 
though the magnitude of the difference is very small. Consistency was 
also exhibited in Item 3 where mean trunk length of glutinosus was 
greater in all four classes, although again the differences are small. 
In respect to Item 4, mean tail length in the two smaller classes (by 
S-V length) is greater in glutinosus, in the two larger classes, greater 
in melaventy^is. 

A similar lack of consistency is evident in Table 3, Item 14, where 
the axilla-groin measurement of glutinosus is greater in the two middle- 
sized classes, greater in melaventris in the smallest and largest class. 
Again, in Item 16, the snout-to-axilla distance of melaventris is greater 
in the two shorter and the longest classes but greater in glutinosus in 
the 66-68.9 mm class. 

2. Longitudinal Body Proportions. 

To indicate proportions, or part-to-part body relationships irrespec- 
tive of size in absolute units, individual indices were calculated for 


Mean values of certain indices involving body proportion in P. j. 7ncla- 
ventris and P. glutinosus. 






Index : 

Index : 

Index : 

Index : 

Index : 

Class by 






S-V Length 







60-62.9 mm 
























63-65.9 mm 
























66-68.9 mm 
























69-71.9 mm 
























Abbreviations not previously identified : 
HdLgth — head length 
TrLgth — trunk length 
TaLgth — tail length 
ToLgth — total length 
MxHdWd — maximal head width 



each animal, and the values entered in the tables are means of these 
individual index values. In the case of Item 6, Table 2, the greater the 
relative head length, the higher is the value of the index; in all four 
classes melaventris exhibits consistently a very slightly higher propor- 
tion of head than does glutinosus. In Item 7, the reciprocal is true, the 
trunk occucvina: more of the S-V len^rth in plutinosus than in mela- 

Items 8 and 9, Table 2, show that in both salamanders the tail is 
typically longer than the ''body" (S-V length). Comparatively, the four 
classes do not, in Item 8, evince a consistent pattern, three showing 
greater relative tail length in glutinosus, one class a greater relative 
tail length in melaveyitris, although the differences are small. The 
comparative relationships in relative S-V length in Item 9 show the 
exact converse. 

The part of the body measured as "tiimk" includes a region between 
the gular fold and the front legs which could be termed a "neck." In 
order to take this into account and to investigate longitudinal propor- 
tions further the snout-to-axilla (S-A) measurements are given in Table 
3. Reference to Item 16 shows an inconsistent picture, inelaventris 
having the slightly longer absolute snout-to-axilla measurement in 


Mean values of certain measurements and body proportion indices in 
P. j. melaventi'is and P. glutinosus. 







Index : 

Index : 


Class by 




S-V Length 


MxTrWd MxTrWd MxTrWd 




60-62.9 mm 




























63-65.9 mm 




























66-68. 9 mm 




























69-71.9 mm 




























Abbreviations not previously identified 
A-G — length, axilla to groin 
MxTrWd — maximal trunk width 
S-A — length, snout to axilla 


Indiana Academy of Science 

three classes, glutinosus having it in one class. An identical comparative 
relationship in terms of proportions is exhibited by the mean index 
values in Item 17, Table 4. 

Farther back along the body axis, the absolute extent of the axilla- 
to-groin distance (A-G) is given in Table 3, along with an index of 
this same measurement is a proportion of the S-V length. In Item 14 
the mean absolute A-G measure is greater for melaventris in the short- 
est and longest classes, greater for ghitinosus in the tv^^o middle-sized 
classes. As a proportion of the S-V length, however, Item 15 reveals 
glutinosus to have the greater relative A-G length in all but the class 
of shortest salamanders. 

3. Shape Relations: Slenderness vs. Stockiness. 

In Table 3, Item 13 records the mean trunk widths as measured at 
the widest part of the trunk between axilla and groin. In three classes, 
melaventris exceeds glutiyiosus in mean greatest trunk width, in one 
class (66-68.9 mm S-V) the opposite relation holds. 

Two indices were calculated concerning the relative slenderness or 
stockiness of the salamander trunk. In Items 11 and 12 of Table 3, the 


Additional measurements and indices in P. j. melaventris and P. gluti- 
nosus in four step-interval classes. 









Index : 

Index : 

by S-V 






gm/mm MxHdWd NeckWd PoHdWd NeckWd 






















































0.03 5 4 

































0.04 41. 




8.4 6 











































Abbreviations not previously identified : 
PoHdWd — posterior head width 
NeckWd — neck width 
]3iff — difference between posterior head 
width and neck width 

Zoology 415 

numerical magnitude of the index is directly proportional to the degree 
of body slenderness, a low value being indicative of stockiness. In 
Item 11, axilla-groin distance divided by maximal trunk width yielded 
mean index values indicating glutinosus to be slightly more slender in 
the two shorter and the longest classes, with melaventris very slightly 
the more slender in the 66-68.9 mm class. In Item 12, a longer portion 
of the body was used by including the neck, and the index was calcu- 
lated by dividing the snout-vent length by maximal trunk width, but 
the comparative results remain unaltered and essentially as in Item 11. 

4. Head Shape and Proportions. 

In Table 4, Items 19 and 21 show that in both glutinosus and 'mela- 
ventris the maximal head width (just behind the eyes) is consistently 
greater than head width more posteriorly, just in front of the gTilar 
fold level. At both locations, (jlutinosus shows the greater mean absolute 
value in the 66-68.9 mm class, while melaventris has the larger value in 
the other three classes. The index in Table 2, Item 10, is so calculated 
that relatives head slenderness is directly proportional to increasing 
numerical index value. Comparison of the Item 10 mean values in the 
four classes show that the melaventris head is consistently the more 
slender, a relationship consonant with the slightly gTeater absolute head 
length mentioned above in connection with Item 2 of Table 1. Reference 
to Item 22 of Table 4 will show glutinosus to have the wider neck in 
mean absolute value in the 66-68.9 mm class, melaventris to have the 
wider neck in the other three classes. Item 23 gives the mean absolute 
difference between posterior head width and neck width; melaventris 
exhibits a greater difference in the two smaller classes, glutinosus a 
greater difference in the two classes containing the larger salamanders. 
To investigate further distinctness of head in relation to the neck, an 
index was calculated wherein index value was directly proportional to 
the head-neck difference in width; the mean values recorded in Item 20, 
Table 4, shows the melaventris head to be the more distinct from the 
neck in all except the class of largest salamanders. 

5. General Body Size and Weight Relations. 

The occasional failure to take and record an animal weight, and 
the prevalence of incomplete tails militated to constrict the weight data 
available. However, the index in Item 18, Table 4 was calculated by 
dividing weight in grams by total length in millimeters to yield an index 
of grams of weight per millimeter of total body length. No consistent 
pattem emerged; in two of the classes glntinosus exhibited the greater 
mean value, in two melaventris did. 

In considering the organism as a whole in terms of size relation- 
ships, the entire series of 205 specimens of P. j. melaventris, when ar- 
ranged into 3 mm step-interval classes by S-V length, fell into 19 such 
classes. The larger specimens were classified in the four classes pre- 
sented in Tables 1-4 plus one additional class, the limits of which were 
72-74.9 mm, and which accommodated only two specimens. The smallest 
melaventris had an S-V length of 19.0 mm, the larg-est, 73.6 mm. The 
glutinosus series, when similarly classified, occupied a span of 20 similar 
step-intervals. The shortest glutinosus had an S-V length of 26.9 mm, 


Indiana Academy of Science 

and one class, 39-41.9 mm, contained only one specimen, while another 
class, 42-44.9 mm, was devoid of representation in the series. Toward 
the larger end of the scale, however, the glutinosus series required no 
less than three additional step-interval classes to accommodate a total 
of 15 specimens which had no counterparts at all in the melaventris 
series; the largest glutinosus was 83.9 mm in S-V length, over 10 mm 
longer than the largest melaventris. 

Because it revealed the characteristics of the population samples to 
better advantage, both series were re-classified on the basis of a 2 mm 
step-interval by S-V length, and the results are graphically presented 
in Figures 1 and 2. Thus classified the melaventris sample occupied a 

I I I I I 
73 79 83 

Figure 1. Distribution of 205 specimens of P. j. melaventris classified by 
snout-vent lengtli measured in millimeters. Frequency of cases plotted on 
vertical axis, class centers for S-V length plotted by 2 mm step-intervals 
on horizontal axis; limits of smallest class are 18-19.9 mm, of the largest 
class, 72-73.9 mm, other classes in accordance therewith. 

Figure 2. Distribution of 117 specimens of P. (/Zffiiuosws classified by snout- 
vent length measured in millimeters. Frequency of cases plotted on verti- 
cal axis, class centers for S-V length plotted by 2 mm step-intervals on 
horizontal axis; limits of smallest class are 26-27.9 mm, of the largest class, 
82-83.9 mm, other classes in accordance therewith. 

Zoology 417 

span of 28, glutiyiosus a span of 33, step-interval classes. Comparison of 
these two figures will accentuate the above-mentioned relationships: the 
ghitinosus sample exhibited fewer of the animals in the shorter cate- 
gories, significantly more cases in the longer ones; the glutinosus sample 
required five step-intervals into which fell 23 specimens for which the 
melaventris sample afforded no equivalents in S-V length. 


In the results just presented, part-by-part comparisons were made 
between 59 mature specimens of P. j. melaveyityis and 44 mature speci- 
mens of P. glutinosus, with both population samples arranged into step- 
interval classes such that the direct comparisons were of animals that 
could differ in size no more than 3.0 mm in snout-vent length. There 
were eight anatomical relationships of quantity in which no consistent 
difference, no tendency to a distinctive and uniform pattern for each 
sample, could be discerned: tail length (Item 4), axilla-to-groin length 
(Item 14), snout-to-axilla length (Item 16), trunk width (Item 13), 
maximal head width (Item 19), posterior head width (Item 21), neck 
width (Item 22), and width difference between head and neck (Item 23). 
With respect to these aspects of external organismic form, it could be 
otherwise stated that the two samples exhibited variation of such magni- 
tude that there was considerable overlapping in the numerical values of 
these eight measurements. In addition, there occurred eight propor- 
tionate relationships which evinced a similar lack of species patterniza- 
tion: relative tail length (Item 8), relative S-V length (Item 9), S-A 
length as a proportion of S-V length (Item 17), A-G length as a pro- 
portion of S-V length (Item 15), maximal trunk width as a proportion 
of A-G length (Item 11), maximal trunk width as a proportion of S-V 
length (Item 12), relative distinctness of head from neck (Item 20), 
and weight per millimeter of body total length (Item 18). Exploration 
of body proportions by the use of these indices afforded an opportunity 
for there to be reflected, if such existed, differences in organization such 
as: relative trunk slenderness or stockiness, relative amount of the body 
axis occupied by the neck, relative position of limbs along the body 
axis, and mass-length relationships. The actual results, however, build 
up to sixteen the quantitative external anatomical relationships in which 
the samples of ghitinosus and melaventris show overlapping variation. 
Alternatively expressed, these sixteen aspects of structure would tend 
to in